.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br). A local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are also accepted.
|TLD type||Country code top-level domain|
|Sponsor||Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil|
|Intended use||Entities connected with Brazil|
|Actual use||Very popular in Brazil (Largest Portuguese language Web presence)|
|Registered domains||3,993,426 (October 28, 2017)|
|Registration restrictions||Varying restrictions based on which second-level name registration is within. In all cases the registrant must have either a CPF or CNPJ, documents usually granted only to Brazilian residents or recognized companies|
|Structure||Registrations are at third level beneath various categories and they were allowed at the second level for institutions of third level education until 2000; a wide variety of second-level categories exist, but .com.br is still much more popular than others|
With the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, site.art.br is in the art (music, folklore etc.) category, and site.org.br is in the non-governmental organization category. Institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD .edu.br, although some use .com.br and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the .com.br domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The .jus.br (Judiciary), and .b.br (banks) domains have mandatory DNSSEC use.
Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989 by Jon Postel, initially the domain was operated manually by Registro.br and administered by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Originally, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under .br.
At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET ("Because It's Time NETwork"), the HEPnet ("High Energy Physics Network") and the UUCP ("Unix-to-Unix Copy Program"). As such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the .br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics.
In 1995 the Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil "Internet Management Committee of Brazil" (CGI.br) was created with an objective to coordinate the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and the registration of .br domain names. There were 851 domains registered with the Brazilian DNS (Domain Name System") by the beginning of 1996, thereafter experiencing rapid growth with the mass arrival of companies, Internet providers and media onto the Internet. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software.
In 2005, CGI.br created his own executive arm, the Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR' "The Center for Information and Coordination of Dot BR" (NIC.br), which currently serves in both administrative and operational capacity for the registry.
In 2017, accounts associated with DNS records of Brazilian banks were hacked. Kaspersky's researchers pointed out to a vulnerability in NIC.br's website and suggested its infrastructure had been compromised. NIC's director at the time, Frederico Neves, denied that NIC.br was "hacked", although NIC admitted the vulnerability.
To register any domains under .br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Registro.br. Entities legally established in Brazil as a company ("pessoa jurídica") or a physical person ("profissional liberal" and "pessoas físicas") that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a power-of-attorney legally established in Brazil can also do it by following specific rules.
The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters (à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü and ç) is accepted since 2005. However, these are not really used, as they didn't have any promotion and consequently almost nobody in Brazil knows about it.
Syntactic rules for .br domainsEdit
- Minimum of 2 and maximum of 26 characters, not including the category. For example, in the field XXXX.COM.BR, this limitation relates to the XXXX.
- Valid characters are [A-Z, 0-9], the hyphen, and the following accented characters: à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ç.
- Domains cannot contain only numbers.
- To maintain the integrity of the registry, Registro.br sets up an equivalence mapping to compare domain names with and without accented characters. The mapping is done by converting accented characters and the cedilla for their non-accented versions and "c", respectively, and discards hyphens. A new domain will only be allowed to be registered when there is no equivalent to a pre-existing domain, or when the applicant is the same entity that owns the domain equivalent.
- Note: Specifically for the domain .NOM.BR, it is necessary to choose two names, i.e.: NAME1.NAME2.NOM.BR.
- ADM.BR - Administrators
- ADV.BR - Lawyers
- AGR.BR - Agriculture-related companies and/or websites
- AM.BR - AM radio companies, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
- ARQ.BR - Architecture
- ART.BR - Art: music, folklore, etc.
- ATO.BR - Actors
- B.BR - Exclusively for banking environment use (online banking, etc.).
- BIO.BR - Biologists
- BLOG.BR - Blogs
- BMD.BR - Biomedics
- CIM.BR - Realtors
- CNG.BR - Scenographers
- CNT.BR - Accountants
- COM.BR - Commercial websites in general and individuals.
- COOP.BR - Cooperatives
- ECN.BR - Economy
- EDU.BR - Higher education institutions
- ENG.BR - Engineers
- ESP.BR - Sports
- ETC.BR - Entities that do not fit in other categories
- ETI.BR - I.T. Specialists
- FAR.BR - Pharmacies and drugstores
- FLOG.BR - Photoblogs
- FM.BR - FM radio companies, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
- FND.BR - Phonoaudiologists
- FOT.BR - Photographers
- FST.BR - Physiotherapists
- G12.BR - K12 education institutions
- GGF.BR - Geographers
- GOV.BR - Government entities
- IMB.BR - Real estate
- IND.BR - Industries
- INF.BR - Media and information
- JOR.BR - Journalists
- JUS.BR - Brazilian Judiciary Branch of the State.
- LEG.BR - Brazilian Legislative Branch of the State.
- LEL.BR - Auctioneers
- MAT.BR - Mathematicians and Statisticians
- MED.BR - Physicians
- MIL.BR - Brazilian Armed Forces
- MUS.BR - Musicians
- NET.BR - Commercial websites in general and individuals.
- NOM.BR - People
- NOT.BR - Notaries
- NTR.BR - Nutritionists
- ODO.BR - Dentists
- ORG.BR - Non-profit non-governmental entities
- PPG.BR - Publicity specialists and Marketeers
- PRO.BR - Teachers
- PSC.BR - Psychologists
- PSI.BR - Online service providers
- QSL.BR - Radio amateurs
- RADIO.BR - Entities that wish to broadcast radio
- REC.BR - Recreational activities, entertainment, leisure, games, etc.
- SLG.BR - Sociologists
- SRV.BR - Services providers
- TAXI.BR - Taxis
- TEO.BR - Theologians
- TMP.BR - Temporary events, such as fairs and exhibitions
- TRD.BR - Translators
- TUR.BR - Tourism
- TV.BR - Sound and image broadcasters, licensed by the Brazilian Communications Ministry
- VET.BR - Veterinarians
- VLOG.BR - Videologs
- WIKI.BR - Wikis
- ZLG.BR - Zoologists
However the restriction were dropped in 2013 and there are a significant number of second level domain names currently registered.
- As of February 18, 2010, Google showed 530.000.000 pages for site: .br, 95.100.000 for site: .pt (Portugal) and 553.000 for site: .ao (Angola). Portuguese pages in the .com domain were 283.000.000.
- IANA - Informações sobre a delegação do .br
- NIC.br - CGI.br comemora os 20 anos do ".br"
- CGI.br - Comunicado ao Público
- Andy Greenberg (4 April 2017). "How Hackers Hijacked a Bank's Entire Online Operation". Wired.
Kaspersky believes the attackers compromised NIC.br (...) Kaspersky points to a January blog post from NIC.br that admitted to a vulnerability in its website (...) [Frederico Neves] denied that NIC.br had been “hacked.” But he conceded that accounts may have been altered
- Registro.br - Tips and Rules
- "Registro.br". Registro.br. Retrieved 2013-09-17.