The Zamzam Well (Arabic: بئر زمزم, romanizedBiʾru Zamzam Arabic pronunciation: [biʔru zam.zam]) is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is located 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaʿba,[2] the holiest place in Islam.

Zamzam Well
Native name
Arabic: بئر زمزم
بئر زمزم الأثري.jpg
Mouth-piece of the Zamzam Well from the Exhibition of the Two Holy Mosques Architecture Museum[1]
LocationMasjid al-Haram, Mecca
Coordinates21°25′19.2″N 39°49′33.6″E / 21.422000°N 39.826000°E / 21.422000; 39.826000Coordinates: 21°25′19.2″N 39°49′33.6″E / 21.422000°N 39.826000°E / 21.422000; 39.826000
Areaabout 30 m (98 ft) deep and 1.08 to 2.66 m (3 ft 7 in to 8 ft 9 in) in diameter
FoundedTraditionally c. 2400 BCE re-established in 6th century CE
Governing bodyGovernment of Saudi Arabia
Zamzam Well is located in Saudi Arabia
Zamzam Well
Location of Zamzam Well in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

According to Islamic narratives, the well is a miraculously generated source of water, which opened up thousands of years ago when the son of Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismaʿil (Ishmael), was left with his mother Hajar (Hagar) in the desert. It is claimed to have dried up during the settlement of the Jurhum in the area and to have been rediscovered in the 6th century by ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, grandfather of Muhammad. Millions of pilgrims visit the well each year while performing the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages in order to drink its water.

EtymologyEdit

The origin of the name is uncertain.[3] According to Chabbi the noun Arabic: زمزم, romanizedZamzam is an onomatopoeia.

She associates the noun with the adjectives Arabic: زمزم, romanizedzamzam and Arabic: زمازم, romanizedzumāzim which are onomatopoeic denoting a dull sound stemming from either a distant roll (of thunder) or a guttural sound emitted with a closed mouth by animals or people, however meaning either 'an abundant supply of water' or 'a source of water which does not dry up' if applied to Arabic: ماء, romanizedmāʾ, lit.'water'. She states that this latter meaning of an unintelligible guttural sound encompasses a layer of meaning associated with the sacred and mystical, in addition to the basic notion of the sound possibly being related to the concept of an abundant flow of water.

Early Islamic sources use the terms Arabic: زمزم, romanizedzamzama and Arabic: زمازم, romanizedzamāzima to refer to the religious rites of Zoroastrianism and the Zoroastrians. The terms are onomatopoeic and derive from what Arabs perceived to be an indistinct, droning sound of the recitation of Avestan prayers and scriptures by Magi.[a]

Mediaeval Arabic writers like al-Masʿūdī generally claim the well is named on the account of Arabic: زمزم, romanizedzamzama, lit.'prayers recited by Zoroastrians'. They argue that based on their "kinship with Abraham" Zoroastrians regularly made pilgrimages to Mecca to pray over the well. A later account by al-ʿAynī claims that the well is named after Arabic: زمازم, romanizedzamāzima supposedly meaning "bridles" which had been donated to the well by and named after Sasan, the Zoroastrian progenitor of the Sasanian Empire.

Other mediaeval Arabic sources connect the name to the Angel Gabriel being the source of the murmuring being captured by this onomatopoeia.[5]

Hughes additionally identifies a tradition of deriving the name from an exclamation supposedly made by Hajar either being Arabic: زم، زم!, romanizedzamm, zamm!, lit.'fill, fill!' or supposedly Egyptian meaning "Stop, stop!".[b][3][6]

Traditional accountsEdit

Traditional OriginsEdit

 
An imperial pilgrim's water flask from Ottoman Turkey, used to collect water from the Zamzam Well, bearing the Sultan's tughra

Islamic tradition states that the Zamzam Well was opened up in some form by God to assist Hajar, the second wife of Ibrahim and mother of Ismaʿil. In Islamic narratives Ibrahim, commanded by God, led Hajar and Ismaʿil to the area of present-day Mecca, there he left them alone in the desert. The two are narrated to have been suffering severely from thirst. In some versions of the story Hajar walks back and forth between the two hills of Safa and Marwah in search of water.[c] The story of the appearance of the well either involves the infant Isma'il scraping the ground with his feet and water springing out or God sending Gabriel (Jibra'il) who consequently opens up the well using a variety of methods depending on the narration.[8][5][9] The wealth of mystic discourses discussing the history of the well is from the Abbasid era and largely extra-Quranic, as the well is not referred to directly by the Quran.[10]

According to Islamic tradition, Ibrahim rebuilt a shrine called Arabic: بيت ٱللَّٰه, romanizedBaytu 'l-llah, lit.'House of God' near the site of the well. A building supposedly first constructed by Adam, which Muslim tradition regards as the origin of the Kaʿba.[d] The well is meant to have dried up (possibly as punishment) during the settlement of the tribe of the Jurhum, who initially are meant to have migrated to the area from Yemen. In some narrations focused on the objects deposited in Zamzam the well simply dries up, then prior to the Jurhum being forced to leave Mecca because of God expelling them for their misdeeds their leader buries sacred objects from the Kaʿba in the location of Zamzam. In others, focused on the well itself, the objects are placed in Zamzam itself, with the well ultimately being buried by the leader of the Jurhum.[9][11]

Traditional rediscoveryEdit

According to traditional Muslim accounts, ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, grandfather of Muhammad, is responsible for the rediscovery of the well. He supposedly had a divine precognition about the well at some point in his life. A common narrative relayed by Ibn Ishaq via Ibn Hisham involves four dreams, the first three concern mysterious objects called Arabic: طيبة, romanizedṬayba Arabic: برة, romanizedBarra and Arabic: المضنونة, romanizedal-Maḍnūna he is meant to dig for, the fourth then names Zamzam. Other accounts omit the third dream naming Arabic: المضنونة, romanizedal-Maḍnūna.[e] Following ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib's precognitions to dig, he is claimed to have found a number of artefacts: golden gazelle figurines, armour, and several specimina of a type of sword called Arabic: السيف القلعى, romanizedas-Sayf al-Qalaʿī, lit.'Qalaʿī sword'. Ibn Saʿd relays two separate traditions regarding the discovery of a well by ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, one involving Zamzam's discovery and water disputes among the Quraysh, the other involving the series of dreams and said artefacts but neither water nor the name Zamzam.[12][11]

Hawting's analysis argues that the oral traditions surrounding the Arabic: بئر الكعبة, romanizedBiʾru 'l-Kaʿba, lit.'Well of the Kaʿba', a dry well inside the Kaʿba reputed to have been used as the treasury of the Kaʿba and as a place for religious offerings in pre-Islamic Mecca and Zamzam merged at some point with stories concerning the former being adapted to feature the latter.[13]

Subsequent historyEdit

Commentators of the Abbasid-era mystic discourses surrounding the well, like al-Masʿūdī expanded on these extra-Quranic accounts. They further connect the site to Zoroastrianism via what they interpret to be Zoroastrian religious artefacts uncovered by ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib in combination with their etymological analyses. Ultimately arguing that due to the well's history supposedly being related to (what they perceive to have been) the true religion of the peoples of Iran, the Islamisation of Iran is to be understood and framed as a rediscovery.[11]

The management of the Zamzam Well had been a hereditary position in the hands of the Abbasids since they seized control over Mecca using their caliphate. Buildings called the Arabic: بيت الشراب‎, romanizedBaytu 'š-Šarrāb, lit.'House of Drinking', variously referred to also as the Arabic: قبات الشراب, romanizedDomes of Drinking, lit.'Qubbātu 'š-Šarāb', were structures used to store jars of Zamzam water away from the heat. One of which is claimed to have been initially built on orders from and named after Abbas, founder of the Abbasid Dynasty himself.[f][14] In the years 775-778 CE the second Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, sponsored extensive construction projects in the Masjid al-Haram, which included paving the area around Zamzam with Marble.[15] Beginning in the years 833-855 CE, during the rule of al-Muʿtasim, a civil servant called ʿUmar ibn Faraǧ ar-Ruḫḫaǧī began a series of construction projects related to the well, all marked by their intricate use of mosaics. He ended up constructing a dome covering the well and demolishing a previous structure surrounding it.[g] Additionally a dome connecting the new dome over the well and the House of Drinking was constructed. Ar-Ruḫḫaǧī had the House of Drinking demolished in 843-844 CE, during the rule of al-Wathiq, and went on to have three small domes surrounding the dome covering Zamzam built in its stead.[16][15]

In the year 930 CE a branch of Ismaʿilism called the Qarmatians launched an attack on Mecca. They had previously attacked many caravans of the Abbasid Caliphate, including those of pilgrims travelling to the city. They would conquer the black stone and move it to the capital of their own Caliphate in Bahrayn for 22 years. They were briefly led in 931 by a Persian Caliph, al-Isfahani, whom they believed to be God incarnate who unsuccessfully attempted to convert the Qarmatian state to Zoroastrianism. They destroyed the dome covering Zamzam. It is relayed by historians such as Qutb ad-Dīn [de] that in the aftermath of their attack on the city, the Well Zamzam, as well as all other wells in the city were filled with corpses of pilgrims.[17][18][19]

 
The domed building covering Zamzam which was destroyed in 1803 CE (D) and Zamzamis in front of the Domes of Drinking (P) c. 1718 CE

Following the Abbasid relinquishment of the management of the well a quasi-guild called Zamzamis emerged and remained in place at least until the end of the 19th century. While theoretically anyone could go to the well and fill a vessel they brought at the well, in practice a group of specialised men ended up being responsible for distributing the well's water. They did so by storing two kinds of filled jugs, some on wooden podiums with metal cups attached others hidden in the shade. They performed this service in theory without demanding payment. In 19th century practice however a pilgrim would be assigned a Zamzami upon his arrival and obliged to pay him $1 for a jug to bear his name. This jug would then be kept by the Zamzami for the pilgrim. Payment was de facto expected for the services of the Zamzami. These included bringing the pilgrim water throughout his pilgrimage and pouring it over his body for purposes of ritual cleaning (wudu) among others. To nudge the pilgrim into donating adequately the Zamzami would show the pilgrim the bad state of the prayer mats he laid out in the Masjid for the pilgrims and his need for donations. The more generous the pilgrim's donations were, the more expansive the Zamzamis services became. With services such as procuring bottled Zamzam water to be taken home after the pilgrimage and bringing jugs right to the pilgrim's abode in Mecca being reserved for the most generous. To be allowed into the trade of being a Zamzami a costly license from the Grand Sharif was required. During the reign of Awn ar-Rafiq as Grand Sharif for example such a license cost £50.[20][21]

 
Building covering Zamzam (3) in 1888 CE

In the 15th century the Mamluk Sultan Qaitbay invested into improving the well's water quality, as well as funding the construction of a new dome covering the well.[22] In 1489 CE, during the reign of Mamluk Sultan Malik an-Nāṣir, reconstruction of the Dome of Abbas, ie one of the two Domes of Drinking, occurred. There had been structures bearing this name and function again at least since 1183 CE.[14] The new structure featured a large painted gate made from yellow stone, a large fountain in its middle, three iron windows, and two metal fountains for pilgrims to drink from all housed under a large dome.[23] Following the Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate and their assumption of power in Mecca, Suleiman the Magnificent funded many construction and renovation works in the city. One of these began in 1540 CE with the destruction of the roof covering the well, which had remained intact since Qaitbay's rule. While construction was disrupted by a flood, completion of the new roof occurred in January 1542 CE.[22] In 1621 CE the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I had an iron cage constructed around the well.[24] In 1660 CE Ottoman authorities constructed a new building over Zamzam.[25] Following their conquest of Mecca in 1803, during the reign of Selim III, the Wahhabis, led by Abdulaziz bin Muhammad Al Saud, destroyed the dome covering the well.[26] In 1964 CE the last building covering the well of Zamzam, which had been rebuilt by Ottoman authorities following the destruction of the building housing Zamzam by the first Saudi State, was demolished by authorities of the third Saudi State. In its place the opening of the well was moved to a basement, 2.5 m deep, to free up space above ground for pilgrims.[27]

Technical informationEdit

The well of Zamzam was excavated by hand, and is about 30 m (100 ft) deep and 1.08 to 2.66 m (3 ft 7 in to 8 ft 9 in) in diameter. It taps groundwater from the wadi alluvium and some from the bedrock. Historically water from the well was drawn via ropes and buckets, but since 1964 the well's opening itself is in a basement room inaccessible to the public, where it can be seen behind glass panels. Two electric pumps, operating alternately, move the water 5 km southwards at a pace of between 11 to 18.5 litres per second to the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Zamzam Water Project in Kudai. The center opened in September of 2010 CE costing 700 million Saudi Riyal to construct and is operated by the National Water Company of Saudi Arabia. In this location treatment using filters and ultraviolet light, storage, and distribution takes place. Once treated the water is stored in one of two reservoirs, the first at the plant's location in Kudai can hold 10,000 cubic meters of water, the other the King Abdulaziz Sabeel Reservoir in Medina has a larger capacity of 16,000 cubic meters. The Kudai location is connected via pipes to drinking fountains in the Masjid al-Haram. The Medina location supplies the Prophet’s Mosque. Aside from the system of pipes the water is distributed using tanker trucks for unbottled water, transporting 150,000 litres at normal times and up to 400,000 litres during pilgrimage seasons per day to the Medina location. The water is available through the before-mentioned drinking fountains, a fountain meant for pilgrims filling larger containers not intended for immediate consumption, and sterilised containers placed by authorities throughout the holy sites in Mecca and Medina. These latter containers come in several variants, chilled and unchilled, as well as being either stationary or worn as a backpack by employees of the complexes with disposable plastic cups provided in any case. Small filtered water bottles are also distributed free of charge at the holy sites. The water distributed this way in the Masjid al-Haram totals ca. 700,000 litres per day outside of pilgrimage seasons and 2,000,000 litres per day during said seasons. Distribution outside the Islamic holy sites within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occurs with the water being bottled in 10-litre-containers which are sold directly at a warehouse at the site of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Zamzam Water Project or via hypermarkets and super stores throughout the state, in 2018 the number of 10-litre-containers distributed per day was 1.5 million.[27][28][29] In 2010 the annual limit on how much water can be extracted from the well was stated as c. 500,000 cubic meters (500,000,000 litres per year), though due to annual variations in rainfall patterns there exists a lot of deviation with regards to how much water can be extracted without lowering the well's water level too drastically each year.[2]

Hydrogeologically, the well is in the Wadi Ibrahim (Valley of Abraham). The upper half of the well is in the sandy alluvium of the valley, lined with stone masonry except for the top metre (3 ft) which has a concrete "collar". The lower half is in the bedrock. Between the alluvium and the bedrock is a 12-metre (1 ft 8 in) section of permeable weathered rock, lined with stone, and it is this section that provides the main water entry into the well. Water in the well comes from absorbed rainfall in the Wadi Ibrahim, as well as run-off from the local hills. Since the area has become more and more settled, water from absorbed rainfall on the Wadi Ibrahim has decreased.

The Saudi Geological Survey has a "Zamzam Studies and Research Centre" which analyses the technical properties of the well in detail. Water levels were monitored by hydrograph, which in more recent times has changed to a digital monitoring system that tracks the water level, electric conductivity, pH, Eh, and temperature. All of this information is made continuously available via the Internet. Other wells throughout the valley have also been established, some with digital recorders, to monitor the response of the local aquifer system.[2]

Zamzam water is colourless and odorless, but has a distinctive taste, with a pH of 7.9–8, and so is slightly alkaline.[30]

Mineral concentration
as reported by researchers at King Saud University[31]
mineral concentration
mg/L oz/cu in
Sodium 133 7.7×10−5
Calcium 96 5.5×10−5
Magnesium 38.88 2.247×10−5
Potassium 43.3 2.50×10−5
Bicarbonate 195.4 0.0001129
Chloride 163.3 9.44×10−5
Fluoride 0.72 4.2×10−7
Nitrate 124.8 7.21×10−5
Sulfate 124.0 7.17×10−5
Total dissolved solids 835 0.000483

Safety of Zamzam waterEdit

The Zamzam Well is tested on a daily basis, in a process involving the taking of three samples from the well, and that these samples are examined in the King Abdullah Zamzam Water Distribution Center in Mecca, which is equipped with advanced facilities.[32]

The Zamzam well was recently renovated in 2018 by the Saudi authorities. The project involved sterilisation of the areas around the Zamzam well by removing the debris of concrete and steel used in the old cellar of the Grand Mosque.[33][34][35][36] During Ramadan, 100 samples are tested every day to ensure that the water is in good quality.[36]

Historical controversyEdit

Cholera epidemics and the Hajj had become an issue of debate since a 1866 CE International Sanitary Conference in Istanbul. The conference however identified British steam-ships transporting Indian Muslims to the Hajj as mainly responsible for the globalisation of cholera. The Ottoman state consequently instituted a quarantine system using the Red Sea to protect public health. Britain tried to undermine this system in the coming decades fearing public backlash in India and restrictions on its ability to engage in free trade.

The first controversy surrounding the safety of water from the Zamzam Well began in 1883 CE. In 1881 CE, James Zohrab, British Consul in Jeddah sent samples of Zamzam water to Edward Frankland, who published his findings in 1883 CE. Frankland claimed the water from the well to be six times more contaminated by animal waste than sewage in London. Arguing that due to human waste being simply buried in the ground in Mecca, the groundwater had become highly contaminated and a source of cholera. This situation, coupled with the city's visitors from all around the Muslim world, is meant to spread the disease effectively throughout it. He ultimately called for the closure of Zamzam as a public health measure to protect the people of Asia and Europe.

Frankland's report became the basis for a treatise presented to the Ottoman Board of Health by the Dutch emissary thereto. The treaty was received very negatively and interpreted to be anti-Islamic propaganda. Mehmed Şakir Bey, an epidemiologist, was so outraged that he consulted Bonkowsky Paşa, the Sultan's head chemist, and Ahmet Efendi, professor of chemistry at the Ottoman War College, for further scientific inquiry. Their testing revealed nothing dangerous about the water of Zamzam. By comparing their results to the results Frankland had published they began to publicly doubt the authenticity of his sample, as his sample was almost as saline as sea water. Additionally they explained that the water in Mecca's aqueducts and that from Zamzam came from entirely different sources, that pilgrims did not so much as bathe near the Masjid al-Haram, and that Zamzam could not be a cholera source because Mecca did not see annual cholera epidemics during Hajj.

Related to their doubts of the waters authenticity they began to speculate that Yusuf Kudzi, a British protected person and associate of Zohrab, had been the source of the water and had contaminated the water to embarrass the Muslim world. Kudzi was of Russian-Jewish ancestry, had been born in Jerusalem and had converted to Islam. The Ottoman establishment of that time had grown to doubt the authenticity of any Muslim cooperating with the British as possibly being a spy.

Britain's intellectuals ended up rejected Robert Koch's (presently widely accepted) findings about cholera being caused by bacteria and kept arguing that cholera must be caused by local causes and in a manner which cannot be mediated via quarantine. British scientists would continue publishing anti-Zamzam and anti-contagionist articles up to 1895 CE. Their anti-contagionist views would fall further and further away from scientific consensus in the following decades, while Ottoman authorities were in a constant process of improving water quality in Arabia.[37]

BBC allegation and responsesEdit

In May 2011 CE, a BBC London investigation alleged that water taken from taps connected to the Zamzam Well contained high levels of nitrate and arsenic at levels three times the legal limit in the UK, the same levels found in illegal water purchased in the UK.[38]

Saudi Arabian authorities' claimEdit

The Saudi authorities rejected the BBC's claim and said that the water is fit for human consumption. An official from the Saudi Arabian embassy in London stated: "...water from the Zamzam well is not contaminated and is fit for human consumption. Genuine Zamzam water does not contain arsenic."[39] The president of the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS), Zuhair Nawab, has stated that the Zamzam Well is tested on a daily basis, in a process involving the taking of three samples from the well.[32]

The BBC article concentrated on bottled water supplied by individuals rather than the Presidency of the Two Holy Mosques' Affairs, according to Fahd Turkistani, advisor to the General Authority of Meteorology and Environmental Protection. Turkistani stated that the Zamzam water pollution may have been caused by unsterilized containers used by illegal workers selling Zamzam water at Makkah gates.[32]

Council of British HajjisEdit

In the same month that the BBC report was released, the Council of British Hajjis later declared that drinking Zamzam water was safe, contradicting the BBC report. The council noted that the Government of Saudi Arabia does not allow the export of Zamzam water for resale. They also stated that it was unknown whether the water being sold in the UK was genuine and that people should not buy it and should report the sellers to the Trading Standards if they saw it for sale.[40]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ ZAMZAMA (A.), in early Arabic "the confused noise of distant thunder" (Lane, 1249b), but widely used in the sources for early Islamic history for the priests of the Magians reciting and intoning the Zoroastrian prayers and scriptures, producing (to the Arabs' ears) an indistinct, droning sound. Thus in al-Ṭabarī, i, 1042, we have the zamzama of the Herbadhs, in 2874 the muzamzim or adherent of Zoroastrianism, and in 2880 zamzama for the Zoroastrian rites and zamāzima for the Magians in general.[4]
  2. ^ George Sale speaks of this claim in an introductory essay to his translation of the Quran. He however states that it was most likely named after the "murmuring of its waters".
  3. ^ Some records state this to have occurred seven times. Muslim pilgrims during Hajj similarly walk seven-times between these two hills, an act ritual anámnēsis stemming from a belief in the traditional account of the well's appearance.[7]
  4. ^ Presently the well is located approximately 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba.[2]
  5. ^ Hawting's analysis indicates that the fourth dream naming Zamzam may be a late addition to this oral tradition.
  6. ^ The other having been called the Dome of the Jews.
  7. ^ Possibly having simply been a light wall made of stones according to some sources

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Exhibition of the Two Holy Mosques' Architecture". Madain Project. Archived from the original on May 20, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "Zamzam Studies and Research Centre". Saudi Geological Survey (in Arabic). Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^ a b Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1885). Dictionary of Islam : Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. p. 701. ISBN 978-0-243-60987-1. OCLC 1152284802.
  4. ^ The encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. XI. H. A. R. Gibb, P. J. Bearman. Leiden: Brill. 2002. p. 442. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. OCLC 399624.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ a b Chabbi, Jacqueline (2002). The encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. XI. H. A. R. Gibb, P. J. Bearman. Leiden: Brill. pp. 440–441. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. OCLC 399624.
  6. ^ George, Sale (1734). The Koran : commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammad (1st ed.). London: F. Warne and Co. p. 118. OCLC 61585803.
  7. ^ "Miracles and Religion", Islam, Christianity and the Realms of the Miraculous, Edinburgh University Press, p. 22, November 16, 2018, doi:10.1515/9780748699070-003, ISBN 978-0-7486-9907-0, retrieved October 11, 2022
  8. ^ Mahmoud Isma'il Shil and 'Abdur-Rahman 'Abdul-Wahid. "Historic Places: The Well of Zamzam". Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
  9. ^ a b Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 43 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00110523. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 616125. S2CID 162654756.
  10. ^ Chabbi, Jacqueline (2002). The encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. XI. H. A. R. Gibb, P. J. Bearman. Leiden: Brill. p. 441. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. OCLC 399624.
  11. ^ a b c Chabbi, Jacqueline (2002). The encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. XI. H. A. R. Gibb, P. J. Bearman. Leiden: Brill. p. 442. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. OCLC 399624.
  12. ^ Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 43 (1): 44–47. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00110523. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 616125. S2CID 162654756.
  13. ^ Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 43 (1): 52–54. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00110523. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 616125. S2CID 162654756.
  14. ^ a b Porter, Venetia (2015). "Gifts, Souvenirs, and the Hajj". Hajj : global interactions through pilgrimage. Luitgard E. M. Mols, Marjo Buitelaar, Museum Volkenkunde. Leiden. p. 97. ISBN 978-90-8890-286-4. OCLC 904132495.
  15. ^ a b Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca : a Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-1-4008-8736-1. OCLC 978697983.
  16. ^ Leal, Bea (October 2, 2020). "The Abbasid Mosaic Tradition and the Great Mosque of Damascus". Muqarnas Online. 37 (1): 32–33. doi:10.1163/22118993-00371p03. ISSN 0732-2992. S2CID 230662012.
  17. ^ Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca : a Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-1-4008-8736-1. OCLC 978697983.
  18. ^ Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  19. ^ Schick, Rober (January 1, 2012), Cobb, Paul (ed.), "The Umayyads and ʿAbbāsids in Mujīr al-Dīn's Fifteenth-Century History of Jerusalem and Hebron |chapter=The Umayyads and ʿAbbāsids", The Lineaments of Islam, BRILL, pp. 209–232, doi:10.1163/9789004231948_011, ISBN 978-90-04-21885-7, retrieved October 11, 2022
  20. ^ Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca : a Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-1-4008-8736-1. OCLC 978697983.
  21. ^ Stratkötter, Rita (2021). "Ausgewählte Aspekte der Pilgerfahrt". Von Kairo nach Mekka (in German). Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. p. 109. ISBN 978-3-11-240097-5. OCLC 1286881241.
  22. ^ a b Burak, Guy (October 8, 2017). "Between Istanbul and Gujarat: Descriptions of Mecca in the Sixteenth-Century Indian Ocean". Muqarnas Online. 34 (1): 290, 311, 314. doi:10.1163/22118993_03401p012. ISSN 0732-2992.
  23. ^ Burak, Guy (October 8, 2017). "Between Istanbul and Gujarat: Descriptions of Mecca in the Sixteenth-Century Indian Ocean". Muqarnas Online. 34 (1): 303. doi:10.1163/22118993_03401p012. ISSN 0732-2992.
  24. ^ Bahadir, Dördüncü, Mehmet (2006). Mecca - Medina : the Yıldız albums of Sultan Abdülhamid II. The Light. p. 21. ISBN 1-59784-054-8. OCLC 836279213.
  25. ^ Peters, F. E. (1994). Mecca : a Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-1-4008-8736-1. OCLC 978697983.
  26. ^ Hathaway, Jane (2008). The Arab lands under Ottoman rule, 1516-1800. Karl K. Barbir. Harlow, England. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8. OCLC 175284089.
  27. ^ a b "How Saudi authorities overseeing the holy Zamzam well have moved with the times". Arab News. April 7, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  28. ^ General Presidency of the Holy Mosque and the Prophet's Mosque, Documentary Film "Zamzam Blessed Water", retrieved October 14, 2022
  29. ^ Writer, Staff; Gazette, Saudi. "King Abdullah Project in Makkah to resume Zamzam distribution from March 23". www.zawya.com. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  30. ^ Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Khan, Mujahid A. (October 12, 2011). "Water quality of bottled water in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A comparative study with Riyadh municipal and Zamzam water". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. Taylor & Francis. 46 (13): 1519–1528. doi:10.1080/10934529.2011.609109. PMID 21992118. S2CID 21396145.
  31. ^ Nour Al Zuhair, et al. A comparative study between the chemical composition of potable water and Zamzam water in Saudi Arabia. KSU Faculty Sites, Retrieved August 15, 2010
  32. ^ a b c "Kingdom rejects BBC claim of Zamzam water contamination". Arab News. May 8, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2022.
  33. ^ "Sacred Zamzam well to go under renovation". Dhaka Tribune. October 30, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  34. ^ "Zamzam project to be ready before Ramadan". Saudigazette. February 3, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  35. ^ "Zamzam well to be renovated before Ramadan". Arab News. October 30, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "100 samples of Zamzam water tested everyday". Saudigazette. May 19, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  37. ^ Low, Michael Christopher (2015). "Ottoman Infrastructures of the Saudi Hydro-State: The Technopolitics of Pilgrimage and Potable Water in the Hijaz". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 57 (4): 942–946. doi:10.1017/s0010417515000407. ISSN 0010-4175. S2CID 148128135.
  38. ^ Lynn, Guy (May 5, 2011). "Contaminated Zamzam holy water from Mecca sold in the UK". BBC News. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  39. ^ "'No arsenic in genuine holy water', Saudis say". BBC News. May 8, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  40. ^ "Zam Zam Water Is Safe, UK". Medical News Today (Press release). Council of British Hajjis (Pilgrims). May 13, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2015.

ReferencesEdit