Yaman (raga)

Yaman (also known as kalyaan, Iman, Aiman,'Eman', 'Kalyani' in Carnatic classical music) is a heptatonic (Sampurna) Indian classical raga of Kalyan Thaat.

Yaman
ThaatKalyan
TypeSampurna
Time of dayEarly night, 6–9
Season1
ArohanaNi Re Ga Ma(teevr Ma i.e. Ma#) Pa Dha Ni Sa'(upper octave)
AvarohanaSa' Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa
Pakadni-Re-Ga-/Re-Ga/ni-Re-Sa/Pa-Ma#-Ga-Re/ni-Re-Sa' (Ma is teevr)
VadiGa
SamavadiNi
Equivalent
SimilarYaman Kalyan

Its signature phrase (Pakar) is ni-Re-Ga-/Re-Ga/ni-Re-Sa/Pa-Ma#-Ga-Re/ni-Re-Sa' (Ma is teevra).

Tonal movements of the notes mostly reflect zigzag motion with gap of one or several notes usually that prefer reverse order very often like DNS' mDN GmD RGm N,GR or MDNS' GmDN RGmD N,RGm D,N,GR etc . Ideally yaman should not use PR combination but can use P~R showing colour of m or G while gliding from P to R, for PR is one of the specific identification of raag kalyaan.

DescriptionEdit

Yaman emerged from the parent musical scale of Kalyan. Considered to be one of the most fundamental and basic ragas in Hindustani tradition, it is thus often one of the first ragas taught to students.

MechanicsEdit

Yaman's Jati is a Sampurna raga (ideally, yaman is audav sampoorna raag because of the structure- N,RGmDNR'S' NDPmGRS) and in some cases Shadav; the ascending Aaroha scale and the descending style of the avroha includes all seven notes in the octave (When it is audav, the Aroha goes like N,RGmDNS', where the fifth note is omitted; Pa but the Avaroha is the same complete octave). All the scale notes (called swaras) in the raga are Shuddha, the exception being Teevra Madhyam or prati madhyamam (sharp fourth). The notes of the raga are considered analogous to the western Lydian mode, which was the predominant scale used in classical antiquity, before being usurped by those of the pre-Modern era.

None of the three great treatises of music, accept the existence of tivra ma,

Not to be mistaken, Raag Yaman is slightly different from Raag Yaman Kalyan. Both have almost the same base, but they are sung differently. The Aroha and Avaroha of Yaman Kalyan goes like this: SRGmPDNS' S'NDPm GMGRN, RS[clarification needed]

Vadi and samavadiEdit

Vadi is ga, Samvadi is ni.

Pakad or chalanEdit

It is wrong to say that Kalyan has no specific phrases or particular features, many musicians avoid Sa and Pa in ascend or treat them very weakly in yaman. One often applies N0 R G M+ D N S' in ascent and S' N D M+ G R S in descend[1]).
Sa is avoided in beginning the ascend such as N0 R G M+ P D N S'

ni-Re-Ga-/Re-Ga/ni-Re-Sa/Pa-Ma#-Ga-Re/ni-Re-Sa' (Ma is teevra)

Organization and relationshipsEdit

There is some discussion whether Yaman and Kalyan really just are different names for the same raga, or that these are actually 2 ragas. Joep Bor says "Kalyan (today usually referred to as Yaman)",[2] Kaufmann[3] says that Yaman and Kalyan are just different names, but insists that rāga Yaman-Kalyan is different as natural Ma is occasionally inserted between two Ga, like Ga Ma Ga Re Sa, while in all other instances tivra Ma (Ma+ is used as in Kalyan). S. Bagchee[4] agrees with Kaufmann. As Bor, Kaufmann and Bagchee are not practising, professional and traditional musicians and artistes with training from qualified musicians for several hundred (+practising) hours and knowing a few dozens of bandishes/ compositions of north Indian Hindustani classical music in raag yaman, thus their opinions and observations needs to be accepted with a pinch of salt. A sensible analysis of large data of the raag, honesty and truthful introspection lead any sane musicians to think, that the name of the raags Yaman and Kalyan are different so their tonal movements shall be different for Kalyan is more akin to shuddha Kalyan not Yaman in any case. The influence of Kalyani of Carnatic and almost blind following of Pt. Bhatkhande as well as unquestionable trust and faith to guru (music teachers) caused this confusion. People erratically believe that if natural Ma is occasionally added in a concluding figure leading to Sa, the raga is known as Yaman-Kalyan.[2] Practically, yaman has a raganga very much different from Kalyan raganga resembling colours of Shuddha Kalyan. The use of shuddha ma must be restricted as a Vivadi swara (limited use) or grace note for Yaman Kalyan otherwise there is a chance of it becoming Yamani, Yamani Bilawal, Jaimini Kalyan. Moreover, neither of Kalyan or Yaman has Shuddha Ma in its main body thus use of shuddha Ma does not create Yaman Kalyan. Ideally there is no raga at all in Indian music that is recognized as any type of Kalyan because of shuddha Ma, thus raga Yaman Kalyan becomes a misnomer or pure lie because of Shuddha Ma in the tonal structure of raga Yaman.
Kalyan is mixed with several ragas that has either of Kalyan ang or Yaman ang:

  • Adbhut Kalyan
  • Anandi Kalyan
  • Bhog Kalyan
  • Bhoop Kalyan
  • Bilas khani Kalyan
  • Chandra Kalyan
  • Chhaya Kalyan
  • Deepak Kalyan
  • Gaud Kalyan
  • Gorakh Kalyan
  • Hameer Kalyan
  • Hem Kalyan
  • Hindol Kalyan
  • Husseini Kalyan
  • Jaimini Kalyan
  • Jait Kalyan
  • Kamod Kalyan
  • Kedar Kalyan
  • Kesari Kalyan
  • Khem Kalyan
  • Kohri Kalyan
  • Laxmi Kalyan
  • Maru Kalyan
  • Miyaan ki Kalyan
  • Nand Kalyan
  • Nat Kalyan
  • Panch Kalyan
  • Poorva Kalyan
  • Puriya Kalyan
  • Pyaar Kalyan
  • Raam Kalyan
  • Raini Kalyan
  • Ravi Kalyan
  • Saraswati Kalyan
  • Shankar Kalyan
  • Shankaraa Kalyan
  • Shiv Kalyan
  • Shree Kalyan
  • Shuddha Kalyan
  • Shyam Kalyan
  • Sohni Kalyan
  • Yaman Kalyan

Yaman raga mixing in other ragas:

  • Kalavati Yaman
  • Yaman Bhopali
  • Yamani
  • Yamani Basant
  • Yamani Bilawal
  • Yamani Hindol
  • Yaman Chhaya

Thaat: Kalyan is type raga of Kalyan thaat. In thaat Kalyan, all notes are shuddha (natural) except teevra (sharp) Ma.

BehaviourEdit

Yaman is regarded[by whom?] one of the grandest and most fundamental[peacock term] ragas in Hindustani music. It is one of the first ragas taught to students but it also has great scope for improvisation. Raag elaboration can focus more on mandra and madhya saptak, thus the key note chosen for yaman is preferred to be a higher tone.

Samay (time)Edit

Ragas in the Kalyan thaat, including Yaman, should be performed during the first quarter of the night.

RasaEdit

Kalyan is described by Meshakarna(1570) as "lord in white garments and pearl necklace on a splendid lion-throne, under a royal umbrella, fanned with whisk, chewing betel"[2]

This raga promotes romanticism, It sounds romantic, we can see in bollywood many romantic songs are based on this raga.

A song text is:[2]

Hey friend, without my lover
I don't find peace
At any moment of the day;
Since my lover went away
I spend my nights counting the stars

Historical informationEdit

Yaman or Kalyan is an ancient Indian (Bharatiya) raag which was renamed by Ameer Khusro (1253–1325) from Kalyan to Yaman, Yaman raag originates from the Kalyaan Thaat which makes it aasreya raag of Kalyaan Thaat. These attempts were to take the Bhartiya legacy to the name of persia as an example Bhartiya numerals are known as arabic numerals.

Famous compositions of raag yaman are:

  1. Mora jobana navelaraa bhayo hai gulaal-Ameer Khusro Aashaq rang
  2. Ari eri ali piya bina- Abdullah Khan
  3. Satsang so hari sang mile by Acharya Pandit Gokulotsavji Maharaj[5]
  4. Lage Tum Se Nain more shyam sundar by Acharya Pandit Gokulotsavji Maharaj[5]
  5. Piya ki najariya jadu bhari
  6. Sadaa shiv bhaj manaa nisdin
  7. Guru binaa kaise gun gaawe-Miyaa Achapal
  8. Keh sakhi kaiise kariye bhariye ji
  9. Langar turak ji na chhivo
  10. Kinaare kinaare kinaare kinaare dariyaa-Sukh rang
  11. Mori gagariya bharan na de
  12. Ari o mendi aakhadi
  13. Kajaraa kaise daaroon- Amir Khan Sur rang
  14. Aao Aao Aao Balma- Ghulam Mustafa Khan
  15. Aiso sughar sundaravaa balamuvaa- Amir Khan Sur rang
  16. Man Har Lino Piya Pyare- Ghulam Sadiq Khan
  17. Sumaran toraa too karim rahim rahmaan-Nyaamat Khan Sadaa rang
  18. Aaj bajaai shaam muraliyaa
  19. Tori najariyaa laage pyaari- Dinkar Kaikini Din rang
  20. Kesar ghor ke anga lagaaoon
  21. Mai vaari vaari jaaungi preetam pyaare- Vilayat Husain Khan Praan piyaa
  22. Sumaran karoon mai toraa
  23. Salona re baalam moraa
  24. Diyaraa mai vaarungi dhiyaa ke
  25. Banare balaiyaa leungi
  26. Palakhan se mag jhaaroon re maai
  27. Sab gunijan iman gaat- VN Bhatkhande Chatur
  28. Jiyo karo kot baras lo
  29. Eri laal mile
  30. Moraa man har lino daiyaa-
  31. Sajan gal baain endi endi dole
  32. Mukut par vaari jaaunnaagar nandaa
  33. Aale nabi aulaade ali par vaar vaar jaau
  34. Sohela nand ke gaavo bajaao
  35. Charanan sukh chiranjiva -Taansen
  36. Kal nahi aaye mori aali- Bhaiya Ganpat raao Scindia Sughar piyaa
  37. Aawo aawo aawo balamaa- Ghulam Mustafa Khan Ras rang
  38. Ghat ghat me panchi boltaa- Kabir, singer Kishori Amonkar
  39. Ranjish hi sahi dil hi dukhaane ke liye aa-singer Mehdi Hasan
  40. sajani ri nis jaagat jaagat biti-Fayyaz Ahmed Gunrang
  41. Taran taaran tom tan derena- Ramkrishna Das Nad rang
  42. Daani tadeem tana derena
  43. Jiya le gayo ji moraa saanwariyaa
  44. Pratham tulaa vandito
  45. Jaa re badaraa bairi jaa
  46. Mana re tu kaahe na dheer dhare
  47. Nigaahe milaane ko ji chaahtaa hai
  48. Radhadhar madhu milinda
  49. Aansu bhari hai ye jiivan ki raahen
  50. Chandan saa badan chanchal chitavan
  51. Saarangaa teri yaad me
  52. Aapke anurodh pe
  53. Jab deep jale
  54. Re man sur me gaa
  55. Sukh daataa saban ke shankar-Balwantrai Bhatt bhaav rang

OriginsEdit

Important recordingsEdit

Film songsEdit

TamilEdit

Note that the following songs are composed in Kalyani, the equivalent of raga Yaman in Carnatic music.

Song Movie Composer Singer
"Sindhanai Sei Maname" Ambikapathy G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan
"Ennarumai Kadhalikku Vennilaave" Ellarum Innattu Mannar T. G. Lingappa
"Vennila Vaanil Varum" Mannippu S. M. Subbaiah Naidu T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
"Mannavan Vandhaanadi" Thiruvarutchelvar K. V. Mahadevan P. Susheela
"Naan Anuppuvadhu" Pesum Dheivam T. M. Soundararajan
"Kan Pona Pokile" Panam Padaithavan Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
"Naan Enna Soliviten" Bale Pandiya
"Athikkai Kai Kai" T. M. Soundararajan, P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela, Jamuna Rani
"Indha Mandrathil Odi Varum" Policekaran Magal P. B. Sreenivas, S. Janaki
"Kalaimangai Uruvam Kandu" Maganey Kel Sirkazhi Govindarajan, M. L. Vasanthakumari
"Mugathil Mugam Paarkalam" Thanga Padhumai T. M. Soundararajan, P. Leela
"Vetkamaai Irukudhadi" Paar Magaley Paar P. Leela, Soolamangalam Rajalakshmi
"Paar Magale Paar" T. M. Soundararajan, M. S. Viswanathan
"Maalai Soodum Mananaal" Nichaya Thaamboolam P. Susheela
"Isaikettal Puvi" Thavapudhalavan M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
"Madhurayil Parantha" Poova Thalaiya
"Kettadhum Koduppavane Krishna" Deiva Magan
"Chithirai Maadham" Raman Ethanai Ramanadi P. Susheela
"Kannan Vandhan" Ramu Seerkazhi Govindarajan, T. M. Soundararajan
"Azhagenum Ooviyam" Oorukku Uzhaippavan K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
"Varuvaan Vadivelan" Varuvan Vadivelan Vani Jairam
"Then Sindhuthey" Ponnukku Thanga Manasu G. K. Venkatesh S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
"Sundari Kannal Oru Seithi" Thalapathy Ilaiyaraaja
"Yamunai Aatrile" Mitali Banerjee Bhawmik
"Vellai Pura Onru" Puthukavithai K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
"Kannale Kadhal Kavithai" Athma
"Vaidhegi Raman" Pagal Nilavu S. Janaki
"Janani Janani" Thaai Mookaambikai Ilaiyaraaja
"Maname Avan Vazhum" Pagalil Pournami
"Nathiyil Aadum" Kaadhal Oviyam S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki, Deepan Chakravarthy
"Devan Thantha Veenai" Unnai Naan Santhithen S. P. Balasubrahmanyam (Solo Ver), (P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki) (Duet Ver)
"Oru Vanavil pole" Kaatrinile Varum Geetham P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki
"Manjal Veyil" Nandu Uma Ramanan
"Devan Kovil Deepam Ondru" Naan Paadum Paadal S. N. Surendar, S. Janaki
"Aararo Aararo" Anand Lata Mangeshkar
"Malaiyoram Mayile" Oruvar Vaazhum Aalayam Malaysia Vasudevan, K. S. Chitra
"Siru Koottile Ulla" Paandi Nattu Thangam K. S. Chitra, Mano
"Naan Embathu Nee Allava" Soora Samhaaram Arunmozhi, K. S. Chithra
"Odai Kuyil Oru" Thalattu Padava
"Amma Endruzhakatha" Mannan K. J. Yesudas
"Kalaivaniye" Sindhu Bhairavi
"Oru Maalai Chandiran" Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Minmini
"Kaatril Varum Geethame" Oru Naal Oru Kanavu Ilaiyaraaja, Hariharan, Shreya Ghoshal, Sadhana Sargam, Bhavatharini
"Nirpathuve Nadapathuve" Bharathi Harish Raghavendra
"Yaar Veetil Roja" Idaya Kovil S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
"Vanthal Mahalakshmi" Uyarndha Ullam
"Vizhigal Meeno" Raagangal Maaruvathillai
"Aazh Kadalil" Raagam Thedum Pallavi T. Rajendar
"Pasamalare" Neethibathi Gangai Amaran T. M. Soundararajan, P.Susheela
"Vaigai nathiyil oru Paravai" Natchathiram Shankar–Ganesh S. Janaki
"Yaradhu Sollamal Nenjalli" Nenjamellam Neeye Vani Jairam
"Om Ganapathiye Ganapathiye" Marumagal Chandrabose Vani Jairam & Chorus
"Putham Puthu Olai" Vedham Pudhithu Devendran K. S. Chithra
"Azhagu Nilave" Pavithra A. R. Rahman
"Varaga Nadhikaraiyoram" Sangamam Shankar Mahadevan
"Enthan Vaanil" Kadhal Virus S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha (Humming only)
"Kadhal Niagara" En Swasa Kaatre Palakkad Sreeram, Harini, Annupamaa
"Neethan En Desiya Geetham" Paarthale Paravasam P. Balram, K. S. Chitra
"Sakthi Kodu" Baba Karthik
"Methuvagathan" Kochadaiiyaan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sadhana Sargam
"Ey Maanburu Mangaiye" Guru Srinivas, Sujatha Mohan, A. R. Rahman
"Yaarumilla Thaniarangil" Kaaviya Thalaivan Swetha Mohan, Srinivas
"Kathal Ennum Keerthanam" En Aasai Rasathi Dr. Chandilyan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra
"Mudhan Mudhalil" Aahaa..! Deva Hariharan, K. S. Chitra
"Yen Nenjamoh" Santharpam Uma Ramanan
"Gokulathu kanna" Gokulathil Seethai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra, Deva
"Enthan Uyire Enthan Uyire" Unnaruge Naan Irundhal Krishnaraj, K. S. Chitra
"Katrin Mozhi" Mozhi Vidyasagar Balram, Sujatha Mohan
"Pudhu Malar Thottu" Poovellam Un Vasam Sriram Parthasarathy
"Naan Mozhi Arindhen" Kanden Kadhalai Suresh Wadkar
"Oru Theithi Paarthal" Coimbatore Mappillai Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam
"Yen Pennendru" Love Today Shiva Mohammed Aslam, Bombay Jayashri
"Kaadhal Aasai" Anjaan Yuvan Shankar Raja Yuvan Shankar Raja, Sooraj Santhosh
"Pogadhey Pogadhey" Deepavali Yuvan Shankar Raja
"Never let me go" Pyaar Prema Kaadhal Suranjan, Shweta Pandit
"Vizhigalin Aruginil" Azhagiya Theeye Ramesh Vinayakam
"Kannanai Thedi" Marupadiyum Oru Kadhal Srikanth Deva Shreya Ghoshal
"Mun Andhi" 7aum Arivu Harris Jayaraj Karthik, Megha
"Uyire En Uyire" Thotti Jaya Karthik, Bombay Jayashri, Anuradha Sriram
"Mellinamae Mellinamae" Shahjahan Mani Sharma Harish Raghavendra
"Ennena Seidhom Ingu" Mayakkam Enna G. V. Prakash Kumar
"Yen Aala Paakkaporaen" Kayal D. Imman Shreya Ghoshal, Ranjith
"Sara Sara Saara Kaathu" Vaagai Sooda Vaa Ghibran Chinmayi

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaufmann(1968)
  2. ^ a b c d Bor 1997
  3. ^ Kaufmann 1968
  4. ^ Bagchee 1998
  5. ^ a b Mathur, Dr.Neeta (2011). Shashtriya Sangeet Ke Surya Acharya Pandit Dr Gokulotsavji Maharaj. New Delhi: Raadha Publication. pp. 104 105 106 107. ISBN 978-81-7487-765-9.

LiteratureEdit

Bor, Joep (1997), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records
Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nād, Understanding Rāga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publications Inc.).
Bhatt, Balvantray (1964–1974), Bhāvaranga, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas.
Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anūparāgavilāsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan.
Patwardhan, Vinayak Rao (1961–74), Rāga Vijñāna, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala.
Srivastava, Harichandra (1973–79), Rāga Paricaya, Allahabad: SangeetSadan Prakashan.
Telang, Gokulanand; Bhartendu, Banwari Lal (1962), Sangīta Rāga Aṣṭachāpa, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya.
Thakar, Vasant Vaman, Sangīta Rāga Darśana, Prayag: Gandharva Mahavidyalaya Mandal Prakashan.
Rao, B. Subba (1964–66), Raganidhi, Madras: Music Academy.
Bhatt, Jivanlal (1950), Sangeet Parichay, Delhi: Atmaram & Sons.

External linksEdit