Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally, such games were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and artificial ice allow more flexibility. Playing areas and fields consist of either snow or ice.
Artificial ice can be used to provide ice rinks for ice skating, ice hockey, para ice hockey, ringette, broomball, bandy, rink bandy, rinkball, and spongee in a milder climate. The sport of speed skating uses a frozen circular track of ice, but in some facilities the track is combined in an enclosed area used for sports requiring an ice rink or the rink itself is used. Alternatively, ice cross downhill uses a track with various levels of elevation and a combination of bends. Long distance skating (a.k.a. "marathon skating") such as tour skating is only performed outdoors and uses the available natural ice from frozen lakes, ponds, and marshes. Tour skating at times includes speed skaters, though tour skates are more common.
Common team sports include ice hockey, ringette, broomball (on either an indoor ice rink, or an outdoor ice rink or field of snow), curling, rinkball, and bandy. Based on the number of participants, ice hockey is the world's most popular winter team sport, followed by bandy.
Snow and ice during the winter time has enabled sliding as a means of transportation, using sledges, skis and skates. This also led to different pastimes and sports being developed in the winter season as compared to other times of the year. Naturally, winter sports are more popular in countries with longer winter seasons.
While most winter sports are played outside, ice hockey, speed skating and to some extent bandy have moved indoors starting in the mid-20th century. Indoor ice rinks with artificial ice allow ice skating and hockey to be played in hot climates.
List of winter sportsEdit
Note: the Olympic rings next to a sport indicates that this particular sport is included in the Winter Olympic Games, as of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. The Paralympic logo indicates the same for a sport not in the Olympics but in the Winter Paralympic Games.
- Acroski (no longer part of the Winter Olympics)
- Alpine skiing
- Cross-country skiing
- Freestyle skiing
- Kite skiing
- Mogul skiing
- Newschool skiing
- Nordic combined
- Ski archery
- Ski jumping
- Ski mountaineering
- Ski orienteering
- Speed skiing
- Speed riding
- Telemark skiing
- Winter pentathlon
- Ski-BASE Jumping
Sports that use sleds going down ice tracks or pulled by something:
- Free style
- Hill climbing
- Ice hockey
- Ice sledge hockey
- Ice stock sport
- Military patrol
- Moscow broomball
- Para ice hockey
- Rink bandy
- Snow rugby
- Snow snake
- Snow volleyball
- Spongee a.k.a. Sponge hockey
- Synchronized skating
- Yukigassen (competitive snowball fight)
- Cold-weather biking
- Barrel jumping - (discipline of speed skating)
- Ice canoeing
- Ice climbing
- Ice cricket
- Ice cross downhill
- Ice racing
- Ice speedway
- Tour skating
- Snow drifting
- Snow golf (not to be confused with Crackgar, indigenous Kalash snow golf)
Some sports are competed in (or simply enjoyed) on a more casual basis, often by children:
Notable winter sporting eventsEdit
- Bandy World Cup
- Biathlon World Cup
- Bobsleigh World Cup
- FIS Alpine Ski World Cup
- FIS Cross-Country World Cup
- FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup
- FIS Nordic Combined World Cup
- FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
- FIS Snowboard World Cup
- Luge World Cup
- Short Track Speed Skating World Cup
- Skeleton World Cup (toboggan)
- Speed Skating World Cup
- World Cup in Ski Orienteering
- Ice Hockey World Championships
- Curling World Championships
- Bandy World Championships
- Biathlon World Championships
- Bobsleigh World Championships
- FIS Alpine World Ski Championships
- FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships
- FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (cross-country skiing, ski jumping, and nordic combined)
- FIS Snowboarding World Championships
- FIL World Luge Artificial Track Championships
- FIL World Luge Natural Track Championships
- FIS Ski Flying World Championships
- World Figure Skating Championships
- World Ringette Championships
- World Long Track Speed Skating Championships
- World Short Track Speed Skating Championships
- Skeleton World Championships (toboggan)
- World Ski Orienteering Championships
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You can make a strong case that the origins of modern winter sports lie here, starting in the 1860’s with hotelier Johannes Badrutt, who welcomed a steady stream of well-heeled British guests to his small Kulm Hotel.
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The launching of the Cook excursions in Britain (1841), the appearance of the first Baedekker guide (1843), the inauguration of a winter "season" in Saint Moritz (1864), the creation of Yellowstone (1877): these were the important markers of its growth path [mass tourism].
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