Whitby is a town in Durham Region. Whitby is located in Southern Ontario east of Ajax and west of Oshawa, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, and is home to the headquarters of Durham Region. It had a population of 128,377 at the 2016 census. It is approximately 20 km (12 mi) east of Scarborough, and it is known as a commuter suburb in the eastern part of the Greater Toronto Area. While the southern portion of Whitby is predominantly urban and an economic hub, the northern part of the municipality is more rural and includes the communities of Ashburn, Brooklin, Myrtle, and Myrtle Station.
|Town of Whitby|
Brock Street in Whitby
Durham's Business Centre
Whitby within Durham Region
|• Mayor||Don Mitchell |
|• Regional Councillor|
|• MP||Ryan Turnbull (LPC)|
|• MPP||Lorne Coe (PC)|
|• Land||146.53 km2 (56.58 sq mi)|
|Elevation||91 m (299 ft)|
|• Total||128,377 (Ranked 41st)|
|• Density||876.1/km2 (2,269/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (Eastern (EDT))|
When the township was originally surveyed in 1792, the surveyor, from the northern part of England, named the townships east of Toronto after towns in northeastern England: York, Scarborough, Pickering, Whitby and Darlington. The original name of "Whitby" is Danish, dating from about 867 AD when the Danes invaded Britain. It is a contraction of "Whitteby", meaning "White Village". The allusion may be to the white lighthouse on the pier at Whitby, Yorkshire, and also at Whitby, Ontario.' Although settlement dates back to 1800, it was not until 1836 that a downtown business centre was established by Whitby's founder Peter Perry.
Whitby's chief asset was its fine natural harbour on Lake Ontario, from which grain from the farmland to the north was first shipped in 1833. In the 1840s, a road was built from Whitby Harbour to Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay, to bring trade and settlement through the harbour to and from the rich hinterland to the north. The Town of Whitby was chosen as the seat of government for the newly formed County of Ontario in 1852, and incorporated in 1855. The remainder of Whitby Township remained a separate municipality, although the eastern half surrounding Oshawa was incorporated as the new Township of East Whitby in 1857. In the 1870s, a railway, the "Port Whitby and Port Perry Railway", was constructed from Whitby harbour to Port Perry, and later extended to Lindsay as the "Whitby, Port Perry and Lindsay Railway".
Whitby is also the site of Trafalgar Castle School, a private girls' school founded in 1874. The building, constructed as an Elizabethan-style castle in 1859–62 as a private residence for the Sheriff of Ontario County, is a significant architectural landmark and Whitby's only provincial historic site marked with a plaque. The school celebrated its 125th anniversary in 1999.
During the Second World War, Whitby was the location of Camp X, a secret spy training facility established by Sir William Stephenson, the "Man Called Intrepid". Although the buildings have since been demolished, a monument was unveiled on the site of Camp X in 1984 by Ontario's Lieutenant Governor John Black Aird. Following the War, Soviet dissenter Igor Gouzenko was taken to the facility with his wife to live in secretive protective custody after fleeing Ottawa, Ontario.
In 1968, the Town of Whitby and Township of Whitby amalgamated to form the current municipality. Planning for the construction of a town hall intended to centralize municipal staff working in satellite offices began in 1970 under mayor Des Newman. Construction began on the Raymond Moriyama designed building in 1975; it was opened by Mayor Jim Gartshore on January 8, 1977.
Municipal boundaries were not changed during the 1974 formation of Durham Region and remain to this day. Today, Whitby is the seat of government in Durham Region. It is commonly considered part of the Greater Toronto Area, although statistically it belongs to the greater Oshawa Metropolitan Area. They are both in the eastern part of the Golden Horseshoe region.
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Whitby borders Ajax to the west, Pickering to the northwest, the Township of Scugog to the north, and Oshawa to the east. Since at least the mid-1990s, the development of subdivisions to accommodate population growth has proceeded in a mostly northward direction.
|Visible minorities and Aboriginal population|
|Canada 2016 Census||Population||% of Total Population|
|Visible minority group
|Mixed visible minority||1,860||1.5|
|Other visible minority||1,170||0.9|
|Total visible minority population||32,090||25.5|
|Total Aboriginal population||1,995||1.6|
|Visible minorities and Aboriginal population|
|Canada 2006 Census||Population||% of Total Population|
|Visible minority group
|Mixed visible minority||1,025||0.9|
|Other visible minority||800||0.7|
|Total visible minority population||18,730||17|
|Total Aboriginal population||1,175||1.1|
Like much of Durham Region, demographics in Whitby are characterized mainly by rapid population growth. The 2006 census population of the town is 111,184 inhabitants, compared with the 2001 Statistics Canada total of 87,413. This represents population growth of over 27.2% in five years. The number of inhabitants has more than doubled since 1986, when Whitby had a census population of 45,819 people.
According to the 2006 Census, approximately 17.0% of Whitby's population is classified as visible minority, with Black (6.1%), South Asian (3.3%) and Chinese (1.9%) populations forming the largest individual groups. 2011 Census data show that English is the mother tongue of 83.7% of the residents of Whitby, while native speakers of French make up 1.7% of the population. Of immigrant languages, only Italian is the mother tongue of more than 1% of the population (1.4%).
The median household income in 2015 for Whitby was $103,809.
The Town's Council includes the Mayor, four Regional Councillors and four Town Councillors elected on the basis of one per ward. They sit on both the Town and Durham Regional Councils, as does the mayor. The members elected as of the 2018 municipal election are:
Mayor: Don Mitchell
- Elizabeth Roy
- Chris Leahy
- Steve Yamada
- Rhonda Mulcahy
- North Ward 1: Steve Lee
- West Ward 2: Deidre Newman
- Centre Ward 3: JoAnne Alexander
- East Ward 4: Maleeha Shahid
Regional Chair: John Henry 
Whitby is policed by the Durham Regional Police's Central West Division. There is also a detachment of the Ontario Provincial Police located in Town, mainly to patrol area provincial highways within Durham Region. Whitby Fire & Emergency Services provides firefighting services from five fire stations and ambulance/emergency medical services are provided by Durham Region EMS at the Whitby Paramedic Station (also as EMS Headquarters).
Many residents commute to work in other Greater Toronto Area communities. Whitby itself is home to a steel mill operated by Gerdau Ameristeel, a retail support centre operated by Sobeys, and a major Liquor Control Board of Ontario warehouse. Other companies present in Whitby include pharmaceutical manufacturer Patheon, Lear Corporation, Automodular Assemblies, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, and several others.
Public education in Whitby is provided via the Durham District School Board, which also has its headquarters in Whitby. There are twenty-four elementary schools and five secondary schools: Anderson Collegiate Vocational Institute, Brooklin High School, Donald A Wilson Secondary School, Henry Street High School and Sinclair Secondary School.
The Durham Catholic District School Board oversees public Catholic education in Durham Region. There are twelve Catholic elementary schools and two secondary schools; Father Leo J. Austin Catholic Secondary School and All Saints Catholic Secondary School.
Full French language education is provided by the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir. There is one elementary school in Whitby, École élémentaire catholique Jean-Paul II (JK-grade 6), as well as a high-school, École secondaire catholique St-Charles Garnier (grades 7-12) which services all of Durham region.
As noted above, Whitby is home to Trafalgar Castle School, an independent school for women that offers grades 5 through 12 in a university preparatory programme. Built in 1859 by the flamboyant Sheriff of Ontario County, Nelson Gilbert "Iron" Reynolds, Trafalgar Castle remains a unique Canadian treasure. The school had opened its doors in 1874 and was called "Ontario Ladies' College" until the late 70s, after which it changed its name to "Trafalgar Castle".
There are also a number of Montessori schools offering programmes for early elementary grades.
Although Whitby is one of the 100 largest cities/towns in Canada, it lacks a full-service hospital. The town was served by the Whitby General Hospital until 1998, when Durham hospitals were amalgamated by the Lakeridge Health Corporation, Under the amalgamated system, the hospital became Lakeridge Health Whitby and is a specialized health centre, with the closest full-service hospitals being Lakeridge Health Oshawa, Markham Stouffville Hospital in Markham and the Rouge Valley Health System, Ajax and Pickering campus in Ajax.
Ontario Highway 401 runs through the south end of Whitby, with interchanges at Brock Street and Thickson Road. Ontario Highway 407 was opened in Whitby in 2016. The toll highway passes between Brooklin and the urban portion of the town. Ontario Highway 412, connecting the 401 with the 407, also opened to traffic in the same year. Another toll highway, 412 is a north–south route located just east of the Whitby-Ajax boundary.
The southern terminus of Highway 12 is also located in Whitby. It originally extended from Highway 401 northward as part of Brock Street, but this portion was downloaded to Durham Region in 1997. The southern terminus is now located just south of Brooklin at Highway 407. Finally, Highway 7 runs east–west between Brooklin and the City of Pickering. At Brooklin, the road changes to a north–south alignment and is multiplexed with Highway 12 to the northern boundary of the Town.
Four railways pass through Whitby. The Toronto-Montreal corridor main lines of the Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway both pass east–west through the south end of town. A second CP line running from Toronto to Havelock also passes through the northern part of Whitby. Via Rail trains travel through Whitby, but the nearest station is in Oshawa. Finally, GO Transit provides frequent service via its Lakeshore East line, which (in Whitby) runs parallel to the CN tracks. A GO Station is located in Town.
Local transit services are provided by the region-wide Durham Region Transit. Prior to the Regional service, the Town provided its own service. GO Transit buses also connect Whitby with Durham Region (including Port Perry and Beaverton to the north) and areas further afield.
Whitby Harbour, an important factor in the development of the Town, is now home to a 430-berth recreational marina.
Whitby is served by the Whitby This Week newspaper, part of the Metroland Media Group. Several other papers have been published in the town over the years, including the Whitby Free Press, which ran from 1971 to 1996. Other GTA media outlets also serve the area.
Whitby's most famous sporting team is the Whitby Dunlops, a celebrated ice hockey squad that captured the world championship in 1958 at Oslo, Norway. This team featured long-time president of the Boston Bruins, Harry Sinden and former mayor of Whitby, Bob Attersley. The Dunlops were revived in 2004 as part of the Eastern Ontario Senior Hockey League.
Lacrosse is also a prominent sport in Whitby. The Brooklin Redmen Senior A lacrosse club is one of the most successful in Canadian sporting history, while the Junior A Whitby Warriors have been awarded the Minto Cup four times since 1984.
Whitby is also home to the Iroquois Park Sports Centre, one of the largest minor sports centres in North America. The facility includes six icepads, a swimming pool named for local Olympian Anne Ottenbrite, six tennis courts, five ball diamonds, three batting cages, a skatepark, a soccer pitch, The Sports Garden Cafe restaurant and the Whitby Sports Hall of Fame. Whitby also developed the McKinney Sports complex which boasts three ice pads, two tennis courts and a skatepark, and Luther Vipond Arena in Brooklin, with one ice pad. These 3 sport complexes hold many sporting events.
- David Ayres, NHL hockey goalie and Zamboni driver.
- John Wilson Bengough, political cartoonist
- Kat Burns and Kyle Donnelly of the band Forest City Lovers
- Drake Caggiula, hockey player for the Chicago Blackhawks
- Caroline Nichols Churchill, American feminist, author, and editor
- Chuck Coles, singer/songwriter for the Organ Thieves, southern and soul-influenced experimental hard rock band
- A. J. Cook, actress
- Neil Crone, actor and writer for local newspaper, stars on kid's television show Really Me
- Dave Devall, weather reporter for CFTO-TV
- Jim Flaherty, late member of the House of Commons of Canada and Minister of Finance
- Adam Foote, NHL player for Colorado Avalanche, Stanley Cup winner, Olympic Gold Medallist and former member of Team Canada
- Hamar Greenwood, Chief Secretary for Ireland 1920–1922
- Zack Greer, plays for the Denver Outlaws in the MLL and the Colorado Mammoth of the NLL.
- Jay Harrison, hockey player, currently an unrestricted free agent.
- Hello Beautiful, band
- May Irwin, businesswoman, pioneer film actress, singer and star of vaudeville, participant in first screen kiss in cinematic history in Thomas Edison's 1896 film The Kiss
- k-os, rapper, singer, songwriter and record producer
- John LaFontaine, member of the Saskatchewan Rush of the NLL
- Priscilla Lopes-Schliep, bronze medallist in the hurdles at the 2008 Olympics
- Andrew Martin, WWE wrestler, best known by his ring name, Test
- Leslie McFarlane, writer of the Hardy Boys novels
- Lori Melien, Olympic Bronze Medallist swimmer
- Aaron Milton (born 1992), Canadian football player
- Andrea Muizelaar, winner of Canada's Next Top Model
- James Neal, NHL hockey player for the Calgary Flames
- Joe Nieuwendyk, NHL hockey player, Stanley Cup winner, Olympic Gold Medallist and former member of Team Canada, Hockey Hall of Fame Inductee (2011)
- Anne Ottenbrite, Olympic Gold Medallist swimmer
- J. F. Paxton (1857–1936), Canadian ice hockey administrator
- Thomas Paxton, Ontario politician, businessman, sheriff
- Keith Primeau, former NHL player
- Wayne Primeau, former NHL player
- Protest The Hero, progressive metal band
- Gavin Prout, National Lacrosse League player with Colorado Mammoth
- Paul Ranger, NHL player for Tampa Bay Lightning and Toronto Maple Leafs
- Liam Reddox, hockey player
- Gary Roberts, former NHL player
- Sid Ryan, President of the Ontario Federation of Labour
- O. J. Santiago, NFL football player
- Tyler Seguin, ice hockey player for the Dallas Stars
- Kailen Sheridan, pro soccer player, Olympian, alternate goalkeeper of the Rio 2016 team
- J. Torres, comic book writer
- Kristina Vaculik, member of the London 2012 Olympic artistic gymnastics team, who helped Canada place fifth in the team finals
- Kelita Zupancic, Judoka and Olympian, member of the London 2012 Canadian Olympic Judo team also World Ranked No. 1 in 2013
- "Certified Results of Election" (PDF). Whitby.ca. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
- "Série " Perspective géographique ", Recensement de 2011 – Subdivision de recensement, Whitby, T - Ontario" (in French). Statistique Canada. 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- Winter, Brian (1999); Chronicles of a County Town: Whitby Past and Present. ISBN 0-9685745-0-5, p. 8
- "Igor Gouzenko". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
- Ferencz, Sarah (27 January 2017). "Whitby town hall celebrates 40 years". www.durhamregion.com. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2017-02-08). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Whitby, Town [Census subdivision], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
- "Community Profiles from the 2016 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 12.statcan.gc.ca.
- "Aboriginal Peoples - Data table". 12.statcan.ca.
- "Census Profile for Census Subdivision of Whitby (Town), Ontario". 12.statcan.ca.
- "Certified Results of Election" (PDF). whitby.ca. October 22, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- "Certificate of Election Results - Regional Chair" (PDF). whitby.ca. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- "Home". Trafalgar Castle School. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- "Home". Whitby Yacht Club. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- "Composite Portrait Souvenir of George W. Dryden, J.E. Farewell, John F. Paxton, Donald McKay, L.T. Barclay, His Honor Judge McCrimmon, G.Y. Smith, His Honor Judge McIntyre". Our Ontario. Whitby Public Library Archives. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Mackintosh, C. H. (1877). The Canadian Parliamentary Companion and Annual Register. Ottawa, Ontario: Citizen Printing and Publishing Company. p. 267 – via Canadiana.org.
- Ed McPherson 'The Whitby Yacht Club: 25 years in the making' Whitby, Ont. : Whitby Yacht Club, c1992.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Whitby, Ontario.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Whitby (Ontario).|
- Official website
- Historic Images of Whitby at Whitby Public Library and Archives Digital Collection
- Downloadable 1:50 000 topographical map of Whitby (map 30M15), by the Ministry of Natural Resources