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Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)

Westminster was a parliamentary constituency in the Parliament of England to 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain 1707–1800 and the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801. It returned two members to 1885 and one thereafter.

Westminster
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Westminster1868.png
Westminster in London 1868-85
Westminster1885.png
Westminster in London 1885-1918
1545–1918
Number of memberstwo to 1885, then one
Replaced byWestminster Abbey (abolished 1950)
Westminster St George's (also known as Westminster, St George's Hanover Square) (received Knightsbridge exclave)
Created fromMiddlesex
During its existence contributed to new seat(s) of:Strand (abolished 1918)
St George's, Hanover Square (abolished 1950)

The constituency was first known to have been represented in Parliament in 1545 and continued to exist until the redistribution of seats in 1918. The constituency's most famous former representatives are John Stuart Mill and Charles James Fox. The most analogous contemporary constituency is Cities of London and Westminster.

Contents

Boundaries and boundary changesEdit

The constituency was formed in 1545 from part of the county constituency of Middlesex and returned two members of parliament until 1885.

The City of Westminster is a district of Inner London. Its southern boundary is on the north bank of the River Thames. It is today combined with Marylebone to the north. It is west of the diminutive City of London, fixed with four MPs in 1298, and the north part of Lambeth, created a broad constituency in 1832. It is south-west of Holborn and St. Pancras which in 1832 were both placed in a wider seat named Finsbury and to the east of Kensington and Chelsea which were dealt with similarly in a seat named Chelsea.

In the 1885 redistribution of seats the constituency (virtually identical to the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster which was created in 1900) was divided into three single-member seats. The south-eastern part, including the traditional heart of Westminster and such important centres of power as the Houses of Parliament and the seat of government in Whitehall, continued to be a constituency called Westminster. By official definition the areas retained were "the Westminster district and Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter"; a seat named Strand was created in the north-east and a seat, St George's, Hanover Square, in the west.

In the 1918 redistribution the three seats were cut to two: Westminster St George's in the west and Westminster Abbey in the east, the latter wholly containing and slightly larger than the 1885–1918 Westminster seat (except for its Knightsbridge exclave which lay some way off in the west).

HistoryEdit

This was a prestigious constituency, because it represented the centre of British government and had such a large electorate that it was independent of the control of a patron.

Before the Reform Act 1832 the right to vote was held by the male inhabitants paying Scot and Lot (a kind of local property tax). This was an extensive franchise, by the standards of that era. Westminster had the largest electorate of any borough in the Kingdom. Only the largest county constituency of Yorkshire had more voters. Sedgwick estimated the electorate at about 8,000 in the first half of the eighteenth century. Namier and Brooke estimated that there were about 12,000 voters later in the century. The large size of the electorate made contested elections immensely expensive.

In the sixteenth century the Church officials associated with Westminster Abbey had a large influence in the area, but as the community became bigger that became less important. The Court (or His Majesty's Treasury) had some legitimate influence (by the standards of the age), because of the royal residences and government offices in the borough. The use of public funds to bribe the electorate was not unknown, during close elections (see the comments about the cost of the 1780 and 1784 contests below). Local landowners who were prepared to stir up ill-will by threatening to evict or raise the rents of tenants voting the wrong way, could also affect the result.

Unlawful means were sometimes used to make sure that the right candidates were elected. In 1722 the election of two Tories was declared void because of rioting which prevented some Whigs voting. In 1741 a Whig returning officer called upon the assistance of some troops to close the poll before the Tory candidates could catch up to the Whig votes.

The House of Commons declared the 1741 election void with the ringing resolution that "the presence of a regular body of armed soldiers at an election of members to sit in Parliament, is a high infringement of the liberties of the subject, a manifest violation of the freedom of election and an open defiance of the laws and constitution of this kingdom".

By the eighteenth century it was normal for the members to be Irish peers, the sons of peers or baronets, as it was thought appropriate for them to be of high social standing so as to be worthy to represent the seat.

The Treasury spent the enormous sums of more than £8,000 in 1780 and £9,000 in 1784, in unsuccessful attempts to defeat the opposition Whig leader Charles James Fox. So expensive were these contests that for the next general election in 1790, the government and opposition leaders reached a formal agreement for each to have one member returned unopposed. However, in the event a second Whig candidate did appear, but the Tory (the famous Admiral Lord Hood) and Fox were re-elected without too much difficulty.

The last MP for this constituency, William Burdett-Coutts, was connected with a family prominent in City of Westminster politics since the eighteenth century. He himself was born in the United States in 1851, his grandparents on both sides having been British subjects. After he married Baroness Burdett-Coutts in 1881 he changed his surname from Bartlett to Burdett-Coutts. He represented the area from 1885 until 1918 and continued to sit for the Abbey division until his death in 1921.

Lists of Members of ParliamentEdit

The English civil year started on 25 March until 1752 (Scotland having changed to 1 January in 1600). The years used in this article have been converted to the new style where necessary. Old style dates would be a year earlier than the new style for days between 1 January and 24 March. No attempt has been made to compensate for the eleven days which did not occur in September 1752 in both England and Scotland as well as other British controlled territories (when the day after 2 September was 14 September), so as to bring the British Empire fully in line with the Gregorian calendar.

Members of Parliament 1545–1660Edit

Some of the members elected during this period have been identified. The year first given is for the initial meeting of the Parliament, with the month added where there was more than one Parliament in the year. If a second year is given this is a date of dissolution. Early Parliaments sometimes only existed for a few days or weeks, so dissolutions in the same year as the first meeting are not recorded in this list If a specific date of election is known this is recorded in italic brackets. The Roman numerals in brackets, following some names, are those used to distinguish different politicians of the same name in 'The House of Commons' 1509–1558 and 1558–1603.

Year First member Second member
1545–1547 Robert Smallwood John Russell (II)
1547–1552 (Sir) George Blagge, died
and repl.Jan 1552 by
Robert Nowell
John Rede (I)
1553 (Mar) (Sir) Robert Southwell Arthur Stourton
1553 (Oct) (Sir) Robert Southwell William Gyes
1554 (April) William Gyes Richard Hodges
1554 (Nov)-1555 William Jennings William Gyes
1555 Arthur Stourton Richard Hodges
1558 Nicholas Newdigate John Best
1559 (elected 7 January 1559) Richard Hodges John Best
1563–1567 (elected 1562/3) Robert Nowell William Bowyer (II)
1571 Sir William Cordell William Staunton
1572–1583 Thomas Wilbraham, died
and repl. 1576 by
John Osborne
John Dodington
1584–1585 Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1586–1587 Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1589 (elected 20 December 1588) Thomas Knyvett Peter Osborne
1593 Richard Cecil Thomas Cole
1597–1598 (elected 27 September 1597) Thomas Knyvett Thomas Cole died
and repl. January 1598 by
Anthony Mildmay
1601 (elected 26 September 1601) Thomas Knyvett William Cooke (II)
1604 Sir Thomas Knyvett Sir Walter Cope
1614 Sir Humphrey May Edmund Doubleday
1621 Sir Edward Villiers Edmund Doubleday
(died before taking his seat and replaced by
William Mann)
1624 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1625 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1626 Sir Robert Pye Peter Heywood
1628 Joseph Bradshaw Thomas Morice
Apr 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Nov 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Glynne disabled 7 September 1647 but restored 7 June 1648
Glynne and Bell both possibly secluded in Pride's Purge
Westminster unrepresented in the Rump and Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Latham Thomas Falconbridge
1656 Colonel Edward Grosvenor Edward Cary
1659 Edward Grosvenor Richard Sherwyn

Members of Parliament 1660–1918Edit

Election First Member First Party Second Member Second Party
1660 Gilbert Gerard Non-partisan Thomas Clarges Non-partisan
1661 Philip Warwick Non-partisan Richard Everard Non-partisan
Feb. 1679 Stephen Fox Non-partisan William Pulteney Non-partisan
Sep. 1679 Francis Wythens Non-partisan
1680 William Waller Non-partisan
Mar. 1685 Charles Bonython Tory Michael Arnold Tory
Nov. 1685 Parliament prorogued
1689 William Pulteney Whig Philip Howard Whig
1690 Walter Clarges Tory
1691 Stephen Fox Non-partisan
1695 Charles Montagu Non-partisan
1698 James Vernon Non-partisan
Jan. 1701 Thomas Crosse Tory
Dec. 1701 Henry Colt Non-partisan
1702 Walter Clarges Tory Thomas Crosse Tory
1702 Henry Boyle Non-partisan Henry Colt Non-partisan
1708 Thomas Medlycott Non-partisan
1710 Thomas Crosse Tory
1715 Edward Wortley Montagu Whig
Mar. 1722 Archibald Hutcheson Tory John Cotton Tory
Dec. 1722 Charles Montagu Whig George Carpenter Whig
1727 Charles Cavendish Whig William Clayton Whig
1734 Charles Wager Whig
1741 John Perceval Tory Charles Edwin Tory
1747 Granville Leveson-Gower Whig Peter Warren Whig
1752 Seat vacant
1753 Edward Cornwallis Whig
1754 John Crosse Non-partisan
1761 William Pulteney Non-partisan
1762 Edwin Sandys Non-partisan
1763 Hugh Percy Non-partisan
1770 Robert Bernard Non-partisan
1774 Thomas Pelham-Clinton Non-partisan
1776 Charles Stanhope Non-partisan
1779 George Capel-Coningsby Non-partisan
1780 George Brydges Rodney Whig[1] Charles James Fox Whig[1]
1782 Cecil Wray Whig[1]
1784 Samuel Hood Tory[1]
1788 John Townshend Whig[1]
1790 Samuel Hood Tory[1]
1796 Alan Gardner Tory[1]
Oct. 1806 Hugh Percy Whig[1]
Nov. 1806 Samuel Hood Tory[1] Richard Brinsley Sheridan Whig[1]
1807 Francis Burdett Whig Thomas Cochrane Whig
Jul. 1818 Samuel Romilly Whig[1]
Nov. 1818 Seat vacant
1819 George Lamb Tory[1]
1820 John Hobhouse Whig[1]
1833 De Lacy Evans Radical[2][3][4][5]
May. 1837 Conservative[1][2]
Jul. 1837 John Temple Leader Radical[1][5][6]
1841 Henry John Rous Conservative[1][2]
1846 De Lacy Evans Radical[1][3][4][5]
1847 Charles Lushington Whig[4]
1852 John Shelley Whig[3]
1859 Liberal[2] Liberal[2]
1865 Robert Grosvenor Liberal[2] John Stuart Mill Liberal[2]
1868 William Henry Smith Conservative[2]
1874 Charles Russell Conservative[2]
1882 Algernon Percy Conservative[2]
1885 William Burdett-Coutts Conservative[2] Seat reduced to one member
1918 Seat abolished

Fictional Member of ParliamentEdit

Westminster was the constituency of fraudulent businessman Augustus Melmotte, who gained election as a Conservative, in Anthony Trollope's satirical novel, The Way We Live Now (published 1875).

ElectionsEdit

General notesEdit

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one or two candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected.

In by-elections and all elections after 1885, to fill a single seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In two-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by two. To the extent that electors did not use both their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote. Change figures at by-elections are from the preceding general election or the last intervening by-election. Change figures at general elections are from the last general election.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as Non Partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the nineteenth century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the eighteenth century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late seventeenth century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the eighteenth century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results for elections before 1790 were taken from the History of Parliament Trust publications on the House of Commons. The results from 1790 until the 1832 general election are based on Stooks Smith and from 1832 onwards on Craig. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information to the other sources this is indicated in a note.

Dates of Westminster general and by-elections 1660–1918Edit

  • -2 Apr 1660 GE
  • -- Apr 1661 GE
  • 27 Feb 1679 GE
  • 19 Sep 1679 GE
  • 15 Nov 1680 BE
  • 10 Feb 1681 GE
  • 23 Mar 1685 GE
  • 21 Jan 1689 GE
  • 13 Mar 1690 GE
  • -9 Nov 1691 BE
  • 29 Oct 1695 GE
  • 22 Jul 1698 GE
  • 21 Jan 1701 GE
  • -9 Dec 1701 GE
  • -6 Aug 1702 GE
  • 30 May 1705 GE
  • -7 Jul 1708 GE
  • -9 Oct 1710 GE
  • -- --- 1713 GE
  • 24 Jan 1715 GE
  • 27 Mar 1722 GE (1)
  • -3 Dec 1722 BE
  • 15 Aug 1727 GE
  • 22 Apr 1734 GE
  • -8 May 1741 GE (1)
  • 31 Dec 1741 BE
  • -1 Jul 1747 GE
  • 15 May 1750 BE
  • 16 Jan 1753 BE
  • 20 Apr 1754 GE
  • 25 Mar 1761 GE
  • 27 Apr 1762 BE
  • 15 Mar 1763 BE
  • 16 Mar 1768 GE
  • 30 Apr 1770 BE
  • 26 Oct 1774 GE
  • 17 Dec 1776 BE
  • 20 Apr 1779 BE
  • 10 Oct 1780 GE
  • -3 Apr 1782 BE
  • 12 Jun 1782 BE
  • -7 Apr 1783 BE
  • 17 May 1784 GE
  • -4 Aug 1788 BE
  • -2 Jul 1790 GE
  • 13 Jun 1796 GE
  • 15 Jul 1802 GE
  • 13 Feb 1806 BE
  • -7 Oct 1806 BE
  • 19 Nov 1806 GE
  • 23 May 1807 GE
  • -8 Oct 1812 GE
  • -5 Jul 1814 (2)
  • 16 Jul 1814 BE
  • -4 Jul 1818 GE
  • -3 Mar 1819 BE
  • 25 Mar 1820 GE
  • -- --- 1826 GE
  • -- --- 1830 GE
  • -- --- 1831 GE
  • -- Feb 1832 BE
  • -- --- 1832 GE
  • -4 Apr 1833 BE
  • 11 May 1833 BE
  • -- --- 1835 GE
  • 12 May 1837 BE
  • 27 Jul 1837 GE
  • -1 Jul 1841 GE
  • 19 Feb 1846 BE
  • 30 Jul 1847 GE
  • -9 Jul 1852 GE
  • -- --- 1857 GE
  • -- --- 1859 GE
  • 12 Jul 1865 GE
  • 18 Nov 1868 GE
  • -7 Feb 1874 GE
  • 11 Aug 1877 BE
  • -- --- 1880 GE
  • 10 Feb 1882 BE
  • 29 Jun 1885 BE
  • 26 Nov 1885 GE
  • -- --- 1886 GE
  • -- --- 1892 GE
  • -- --- 1895 GE
  • -- --- 1900 GE
  • -- --- 1906 GE
  • -- Jan 1910 GE
  • -- Dec 1910 GE

Notes:

  • (1) Election declared void
  • (2) Date of expulsion from the House of Lord Cochrane

Election results (Parliament of England) 1660–1690Edit

General Election 2 April 1660: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Gilbert Gerard Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan Thomas Clarges Unopposed N/A N/A
General election c. April 1661: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Philip Warwick Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Richard Everard Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Thomas Clarges Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Thomas Elliot Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1661): Vote totals unavailable
General Election 27 February 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Stephen Fox Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan William Waller Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (February 1679): Vote totals unavailable
General Election 19 September 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Francis Wythens Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan William Waller Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan John Cutler Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (September 1679): Vote totals unavailable
  • On petition Wythens was unseated and William Waller seated on 15 November 1680
General election 10 February 1681: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan William Waller Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Richard Tufton Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1681): Vote totals unavailable
General election 23 March 1685: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Charles Bonython Elected N/A N/A
Tory Michael Arnold Elected N/A N/A
Whig Gilbert Gerard Defeated N/A N/A
Whig William Dolbern Defeated N/A N/A
General election 21 January 1689: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Whig Philip Howard Elected N/A N/A
Tory Roger Langley Defeated N/A N/A
Tory Charles Bonython Defeated N/A N/A
Radical Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
Tory Walter Clarges Defeated N/A N/A
Radical James Dewey Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1689): Vote totals unavailable. Matthews and Dewey are described by Henning as radical candidates, but should not be confused with the followers of John Wilkes in the late eighteenth century or the radicals of the nineteenth century.

Election results (Parliament of Great Britain) 1715–1800Edit

General election 24 January 1715: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Edward Wortley-Montagu Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory Thomas Crosse Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 27 March 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Archibald Hutcheson 4,024 32.7 N/A
Tory John Cotton 3,853 31.4 N/A
Whig William Lowndes 2,215 18.0 N/A
Whig Thomas Crosse 2,197 17.9 N/A
  • Robert Molesworth (W) was proposed but withdrew before the poll.
  • Election declared void 6 November 1722.
By-Election 3 December 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Montagu 4,835 30.9 +30.9
Whig George Carpenter 4,515 28.8 +28.8
Tory John Cotton 3,485 22.3 -9.1
Tory Thomas Clarges 2,827 18.1 +18.1
General election 15 August 1727: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Cavendish Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig William Clayton Unopposed N/A N/A
General election 22 April 1734: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wager Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig William Clayton Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Clayton created an Irish peer as 1st Baron Sundon 2 June 1735
General election 8 May 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wager 3,686 27.0 N/A
Whig William Clayton 3,533 25.8 N/A
Tory Edward Vernon 3,290 24.1 N/A
Tory Charles Edwin 3,161 23.1 N/A
  • Election declared void 22 December 1741.
By-Election 31 December 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory John Perceval Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory Charles Edwin Unopposed N/A N/A
General election 1 July 1747: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Granville Leveson-Gower 2,873 42.3 N/A
Whig Peter Warren 2,858 42.1 N/A
Tory Thomas Clarges 544 8.0 N/A
Tory Thomas Dyke 514 7.6 N/A
By-Election 15 May 1750: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Granville Leveson-Gower 4,811 50.8 +8.5
Tory George Vandeput [7] 4,654 49.2 +49.2
Majority 157 1.7 N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • After a scrutiny the member returned was unchanged and vote totals were amended to Trentham 4,103; Vandeput 3,933.
  • Death of Warren 29 July 1752
By-Election 16 January 1753: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Edward Cornwallis Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 20 April 1754: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Edward Cornwallis 3,385 48.1 N/A
Non Partisan John Crosse 3,184 45.2 N/A
Non Partisan James Oglethorpe 261 3.7 N/A
Non Partisan Charles Sackville 209 3.0 N/A
General election 25 March 1761: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Edward Cornwallis Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan William Pulteney Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 27 April 1762: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Edwin Sandys Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Pulteney 11 February 1763
By-Election 15 March 1763: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Hugh Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 16 March 1768: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Edwin Sandys Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan Hugh Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 30 April 1770: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Robert Bernard Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 26 October 1774: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Government/Northite Hugh Percy 4,994 33.8 N/A
Government/Northite Thomas Pelham-Clinton 4,774 32.3 N/A
Radical Hervey Redmond Morres 2,531 17.1 N/A
Radical Charles Stanhope 2,342 15.9 N/A
Non Partisan Humphrey Cotes 130 0.9 N/A
  • Succession of Percy to his mother's title, as 3rd Baron Percy on 5 December 1776
By-Election 17 December 1776: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Charles Stanhope Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 20 April 1779: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan George Capell-Coningsby Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Pelham-Clinton was known by the courtesy title of Earl of Lincoln, following the death of his brother in 1779
General election 10 October 1780: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig George Brydges Rodney 4,994 35.6 +35.6
Whig Charles James Fox 4,878 34.8 +34.8
Tory Thomas Pelham-Clinton 4,157 29.6 -2.7
By-Election 3 April 1782: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 12 June 1782: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Cecil Wray Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 7 April 1783: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 17 May 1784: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Samuel Hood 6,588 35.4 +35.4
Whig Charles James Fox 6,126 32.9 -1.9
Whig Cecil Wray 5,895 31.7 +31.7
  • Note (1784): Poll 40 days; 12,301 voted. After a scrutiny the members returned were unchanged and vote totals were amended to the figures as above. Original votes Hood 6,694; Fox 6,234; Wray 5,998. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Hood and Fox were declared elected 4 March 1785
  • Appointment of Hood as a Commissioner of the Admiralty 16 July 1788
By-Election 4 August 1788: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Townshend 6,392 53.4 +53.4
Tory Samuel Hood 5,569 46.6 +11.2
Majority 823 6.9 N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
  • Note (1788): Poll 15 days. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 2 July 1790: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox 3,516 41.8 +8.9
Tory Samuel Hood 3,217 38.2 +2.8
Whig John Horne Tooke 1,679 20.0 +20.0
  • Note (1790): Poll 15 days. Mr Tooke proposed himself. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 13 June 1796: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox 5,160 40.3 -1.5
Tory Alan Gardner 4,814 37.6 -0.6
Whig John Horne Tooke 2,819 22.0 +2.1

Election results (Parliament of the United Kingdom)Edit

General election 15 July 1802: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox 2,671 39.3 -1.0
Tory Alan Gardner 2,431 35.8 -1.9
Radical John Graham 1,693 24.9 +24.9
By-Election 13 February 1806: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Fox 13 September 1806
By-Election 7 October 1806: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Hugh Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 19 November 1806: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Samuel Hood 5,478 37.2 +1.4
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 4,758 32.3 -7.0
Radical James Paull 4,481 30.5 +5.5
  • Note (1806): Poll 15 days; 10,277 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 23 May 1807: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett 5,134 37.0 +37.0
Whig Thomas Cochrane 3,708 26.8 +26.8
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 2,615 18.9 -13.5
Tory John Elliot 2,137 15.4 -21.8
Radical James Paull 269 1.9 -28.5
  • Note (1807): Poll 15 days; 8,622 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 8 October 1812: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Thomas Cochrane Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Expulsion of Cochrane from the House of Commons, after being convicted of conspiracy, 5 July 1814
By-Election 16 July 1814: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Thomas Cochrane Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 4 July 1818: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Samuel Romilly 5,339 34.3 N/A
Whig Francis Burdett 5,238 33.7 N/A
Tory Murray Maxwell 4,808 30.9 N/A
Radical Henry Hunt 84 0.5 N/A
Whig Douglas Kinnaird 65 0.4 N/A
Radical John Cartwright 23 0.2 N/A
  • Note (1818): Poll 15 days; 10,277 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Romilly 2 November 1818
By-Election 3 March 1819: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory George Lamb 4,465 53.38 +22.47
Whig John Hobhouse 3,861 46.2 +46.2
Radical John Cartwright 38 0.5 +0.3
Majority 604 7.2 N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
  • Note (1819): Poll 15 days. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 25 March 1820: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett 5,327 36.4 +2.7
Whig John Hobhouse 4,882 33.3 +33.3
Tory George Lamb 4,436 30.3 -0.6
  • Note (1820): Poll 15 days; 9,280 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 1826: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
General election 1830: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
General election 1831: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Burdett Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election February 1832: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 1832: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Burdett 3,248 43.1 N/A
Liberal John Hobhouse 3,214 42.6 N/A
Liberal De Lacy Evans 1,076 14.3 N/A
Turnout 11,576 38.5 N/A
  • Note (1832): 4,453 voted. Burdett and Hobhouse were classified as Whigs and Evans as a Radical. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Appointment of Hobhouse as Chief Secretary for Ireland
By-Election 4 April 1833: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1833 April): Hobhouse was classified as a Whig. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Resignation of Hobhouse after he left the Ministry in opposition to the House and Window taxes.
By-Election 11 May 1833: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal De Lacy Evans 2,027 44.1 +29.8
Liberal John Hobhouse 1,835 39.9 -2.8
Conservative Bickham Escott 738 16.0 +16.0
Majority 192 4.2 N/A
Turnout 11,576 39.7 +1.3
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1833 May): Evans was classified as a Radical, Hobhouse as a Whig and Escott as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 1835: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Burdett 2,747 40.0 -3.1
Liberal De Lacy Evans 2,588 37.7 +23.4
Conservative Thomas Cochrane 1,528 22.3 +22.3
Turnout 13,268 32.1 -6.4
  • Note (1835): 4,254 voted. Burdett was classified as a Whig, Evans as a Radical and Cochrane as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Resignation of Burdett to seek re-election on changing parties.
By-Election 12 May 1837: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Francis Burdett 3,567 53.9 +31.6
Liberal John Temple Leader 3,052 46.1 +46.1
Majority 515 7.8 N/A
Turnout 15,262 43.4 +11.3
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
  • Note (1837): Burdett was classified as a Tory and Leader as a Radical. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 27 July 1837: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Temple Leader 3,793 37.5 +37.5
Liberal De Lacy Evans 3,715 36.7 -1.0
Conservative George Murray 2,620 25.9 +3.6
Turnout 15,262 41.6 +9.6
  • Note (1837): 6,350 voted. Leader and Evans were classified as Radicals and Murray as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 1 July 1841: Westminster (2 seats)[2][1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry John Rous 3,338 34.5
Radical John Temple Leader 3,281 33.9
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,258 33.7
Majority 57 0.6 N/A
Turnout 6,596 47.9
Registered electors 13,767
Conservative gain from Radical Swing
Radical hold Swing
Template:Electyion box registered electors
By-election, 19 February 1846: Westminster[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,843 56.9 −10.7
Conservative Henry John Rous 2,906 43.1 +10.6
Majority 937 13.9 N/A
Turnout 6,749 45.6 −2.3
Radical gain from Conservative Swing −10.7
General election 30 July 1847: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,139 29.1 −38.5
Whig Charles Lushington 2,831 26.3 N/A
Whig Charles Cochrane 2,819 26.2 N/A
Conservative William Montagu 1,985 18.4 −16.1
Turnout 7,185 49.3 +1.4
Registered electors 14,572
Majority 308 2.9 N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
Majority 846 7.9 N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing N/A
  • Note (1847): 14,125 registered (Craig's figure above used for the turnout calculation); 7,185 voted. Evans was classified as a Radical, Lushington and Cochrane as Whigs and Rous as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General election 9 July 1852: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Shelley 4,199 32.2 −20.3
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,756 28.8 −0.3
Conservative William Montagu 3,373 25.9 +7.5
Radical William Coningham[3] 1,716 13.2 N/A
Turnout 6,522 (est) 43.8 (est) −5.5
Registered electors 14,883
Majority 443 3.4 −4.5
Whig hold Swing −10.0
Majority 383 2.9
Radical hold Swing −3.9
General election 1857: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical ' De Lacy Evans' Unopposed
Whig 'John Shelley' Unopposed
Registered electors 13,182
Radical hold
Whig hold
General election 1859: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal ' De Lacy Evans' Unopposed
Liberal ' John Shelley' Unopposed
Registered electors 13,801
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
General election 12 July 1865: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Grosvenor 4,534 35.2 N/A
Liberal John Stuart Mill 4,525 35.1 N/A
Conservative William Henry Smith 3,824 29.7 N/A
Majority 701 5.4 N/A
Turnout 8,354 (est) 66.6 (est) N/A
Registered electors 12,546
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General election 12 November 1868: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Henry Smith 7,648 37.3 +7.6
Liberal Robert Grosvenor 6,584 32.1 −3.1
Liberal John Stuart Mill 6,284 30.6 −4.5
Majority 1,064 5.2 N/A
Turnout 14,082 (est) 74.6 (est) +8.0
Registered electors 18,879
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.6
Liberal hold Swing −3.5
General election 7 February 1874: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Henry Smith 9,371 35.7 +17.0
Conservative Charles Russell 8,681 33.1 +14.4
Liberal Thomas Buxton 4,749 18.1 −14.0
Liberal William Codrington 3,435 13.1 −17.5
Majority 3,932 15.0 +9.8
Turnout 13,118 (est) 66.1 (est) −8.5
Registered electors 19,845
Conservative hold Swing +16.4
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +15.1
By-election, 11 August 1877: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative ' William Henry Smith' Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1880: Westminster (2 seats)[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Henry Smith 9,093 29.3 −6.4
Conservative Charles Russell 8,930 28.8 −4.3
Liberal John Morley 6,564 21.2 +3.1
Liberal Arthur Hobhouse 6,443 20.8 +7.7
Majority 2,366 7.6 −7.4
Turnout 15,515 (est) 73.6 (est) +7.5
Registered electors 21,081
Conservative hold Swing −4.8
Conservative hold Swing −6.0
  • Resignation of Russell
By-Election 10 February 1882: Westminster[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Algernon Percy Unopposed
Conservative hold
By-Election 29 June 1885: Westminster[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Henry Smith Unopposed
Conservative hold
  • Constituency reduced to one seat and boundaries changed in the redistribution of 1885

Election results 1885–1918Edit

Decades:

Elections in the 1880sEdit

 
Beesly
General election 1885: Westminster[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,991 69.7 +11.6
Liberal Edward Spencer Beesly 1,736 30.3 −11.7
Majority 2,255 39.4 +31.8
Turnout 5,727 74.7 +1.1 (est)
Registered electors 7,670
Conservative hold Swing +11.7
General election 1886: Westminster[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890sEdit

 
Jones
General election 1892: Westminster[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,548 64.9 N/A
Liberal Leif Jones 1,916 35.1 N/A
Majority 1,632 29.8 N/A
Turnout 5,464 68.5 N/A
Registered electors 7,971
Conservative hold
General election 1895: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900sEdit

General election 1900: Westminster[9][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 2,715 86.1 N/A
Ind. Conservative H.H. Montague-Smith 439 13.9 N/A
Majority 2,276 72.2 N/A
Turnout 3,154 42.8 N/A
Registered electors 7,367
Conservative hold
General election 1906: Westminster[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,167 60.7 -25.4
Liberal Claud Hobart 2,054 39.3 N/A
Majority 1,113 21.4 -50.8
Turnout 5,221 69.3 +26.5
Registered electors 7,539
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1910sEdit

General election January 1910: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,917 69.1 +8.4
Liberal Claud Hobart 1,751 30.9 -8.4
Majority 2,166 38.2 +16.8
Turnout 7,284 77.8 +8.5
Conservative hold Swing +8.4
General election December 1910: Westminster[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,397 73.4 +4.3
Liberal Harry de Pass 1,228 26.6 -4.3
Majority 2,169 46.8 +8.6
Turnout 7,284 63.5 -14.3
Conservative hold Swing +4.3

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 213–216. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  3. ^ a b c d Baer, Marc (2012). "Stories: Whig, Radical and Tory Westminster 1780–1890". The Rise and Fall of Radical Westminster, 1780–1890 (1st ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 31, 152. ISBN 9781137035295. Retrieved 6 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b c Seaber, Luke (2017). Brant, Clare; Saunders, Max (eds.). Incognito Social Investigation in British Literature: Certainties in Degradation (eBook ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p. 3. ISBN 9783319509624. Retrieved 6 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ a b c "John Bull". 30 July 1837. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 24 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  6. ^ "County Chronicle, Surrey Herald and Weekly Advertiser for Kent". 1 August 1837. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 24 October 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  7. ^ Betham, William (1803). The Baronetage of England, Or the History of the English Baronets, &c. 3. p. 205. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  9. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  10. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916

BibliographyEdit

  • Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885–1972, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1972)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1974)
  • The House of Commons 1509–1558, by S.T. Bindoff (Secker & Warburg 1982)
  • The House of Commons 1558–1603, by P.W. Hasler (HMSO 1981)
  • The House of Commons 1660–1690, by Basil Duke Henning (Secker & Warburg 1983)
  • The House of Commons 1715–1754, by Romney Sedgwick (HMSO 1970)
  • The House of Commons 1754–1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The House of Commons 1790–1820, by R.G. Thorne (Secker & Warburg 1986)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844–50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832–1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 3)