|Predecessor||Google Self-Driving Car Project|
|Founded||January 17, 2009 (as the Google Self-Driving Car Project)|
December 13, 2016 (as Waymo)
In April 2017, Waymo started a limited trial of a self-driving taxi service in Phoenix, Arizona. On December 5, 2018 the service launched its first commercial self-driving car service called "Waymo One", where users in the Phoenix metropolitan area can use an app to request the service.
Google's development of self-driving technology began in January 17, 2009 at the company's secretive X lab run by co-founder Sergey Brin. The project was originally led by Sebastian Thrun, who is the former director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and co-inventor of Google Street View. Thrun's team at Stanford created the robotic vehicle Stanley, which won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge and its US$2 million prize from the United States Department of Defense. The team developing the system consisted of 15 engineers working for Google, including Chris Urmson, Dmitri Dolgov, Mike Montemerlo, and Anthony Levandowski who had worked on the DARPA Grand and Urban Challenges.
Starting in 2010, lawmakers in various states expressed concerns over how to regulate the emerging technology. Nevada passed a law in June 2011 concerning the operation of autonomous cars in Nevada, which went into effect on March 1, 2012. A Toyota Prius modified with Google's experimental driverless technology was licensed by the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) in May 2012. This was the first license issue in the United States for a self-driven car.
In late May 2014, Google revealed a new prototype of its driverless car, which had no steering wheel, gas pedal, or brake pedal, being 100% autonomous, and unveiled a fully functioning prototype in December of that year that they planned to test on San Francisco Bay Area roads beginning in 2015. Called the Firefly, the car was intended to serve as a platform for experimentation and learning, not mass production.
In 2015, Google provided "the world's first fully driverless ride on public roads" to a legally blind friend of principal engineer Nathaniel Fairfield. The ride was taken by Steve Mahan, former CEO of the Santa Clara Valley Blind Center, in Austin, Texas. It was the first driverless ride that was on a public road and was not accompanied by a test driver or police escort. The car had no steering wheel or floor pedals.
In December 2016, the unit was renamed Waymo, and made into its own separate division in Alphabet. The name Waymo is derived from its mission, "a new way forward in mobility". Waymo moved to further test its cars on public roads after becoming its own subsidiary.
In 2017, Waymo sued Uber for allegedly stealing trade secrets. A court filing in lawsuit revealed Google has spent over $1.1 billion on the project between 2009 and 2015, to be compared with the $1 billion acquisition of Cruise Automation by General Motors in March 2016, a similar investment by Ford in a joint venture with Argo AI in February 2017, or the $680 million for Otto's acquisition by Uber in August 2016. Waymo and Uber settled in February 2018, with Uber granting Waymo $245 million worth of Uber stock.
Waymo began testing autonomous minivans without a safety driver on public roads in Chandler, Arizona, in October 2017. The company announced in January 2018 that it would begin its ride-hailing services in the Phoenix, Arizona, area later in the year.
In 2017, Waymo unveiled new sensors and chips that are less expensive to manufacture, cameras that improve visibility, and wipers to clear the lidar system. Waymo manufactures a suite of self-driving hardware developed in-house. These sensors and hardware—enhanced vision system, improved radar, and laser-based lidar—reduce Waymo's dependence on suppliers. The in-house production system allows Waymo to efficiently integrate its technology to the hardware. In the beginning of the self-driving car program, the company spent $75,000 for each lidar system from Velodyne. As of 2017, that cost was down approximately 90 percent, due to Waymo designing its own version of lidar.
Waymo officials said the cars the company uses are built for full autonomy with sensors that give 360 degree views and lasers that detect objects up to 300 meters away. Short-range lasers detect and focus on objects near the vehicle, while radar is used to see around vehicles and track objects in motion. The interior of these cars include buttons for riders to control certain functions: "Help", "Lock", "Pull over", and "Start ride".
Waymo engineers have also created a program called Carcraft, a virtual world where Waymo can simulate driving conditions. The simulator is named after the video game World of Warcraft. With Carcraft, 25,000 virtual self-driving cars navigate through models of Austin, Texas, Mountain View, California, Phoenix, Arizona, and other cities. As of 2018[update], Waymo has driven more than 5 billion miles in the virtual world.
The Waymo project team has equipped various types of cars with the self-driving equipment, including the Toyota Prius, Audi TT, Fiat Chrysler Pacifica and Lexus RX450h. Google also developed their own custom vehicle, about 100 of which were assembled by Roush Enterprises with equipment from Bosch, ZF Lenksysteme, LG, and Continental.
In May 2016, Google and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced an order of 100 Chrysler Pacifica hybrid minivans to test the self-driving technology. Waymo ordered an additional 500 Pacifica hybrids in 2017 and in late May 2018, Alphabet announced plans to add up to 62,000 Pacifica Hybrid minivans to the fleet. In March 2018, Jaguar Land Rover announced that Waymo had ordered up to 20,000 of its planned electric I-Pace cars, at an estimated cost more than $1 billion. Jaguar is to deliver the first I-Pace prototype later in the year, and the cars are to become part of Waymo's ride-hailing service in 2020.
Waymo partners with Intel to use Intel technologies, such as processors, inside Waymo vehicles. Its deals with Avis and AutoNation are for vehicle maintenance. With Lyft, Waymo is partnering on pilot projects and product development.
As of 2018[update], Waymo had tested its system in six states and 25 cities across the U.S over a span of more than 9 years. Among the first places Google began testing its self-driving cars in 2009 was San Francisco Bay Area. Google's vehicles have traversed San Francisco's Lombard Street, famed for its steep hairpin turns, and through city traffic. The vehicles have driven over the Golden Gate Bridge and around Lake Tahoe. The system drives at the speed limit it has stored on its maps and maintains its distance from other vehicles using its system of sensors. It has since expanded its areas of testing.
In August 2012, the team announced that they had completed over 300,000 autonomous-driving miles (500,000 km) accident-free, typically having about a dozen cars on the road at any given time. Four U.S. states had passed laws permitting autonomous cars as of December 2013: Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan. A law proposed in Texas would establish criteria for allowing "autonomous motor vehicles".
In April 2014, the team announced that their vehicles had logged nearly 700,000 autonomous miles (1.1 million km). In June 2015, the team announced that their vehicles had driven over 1,000,000 mi (1,600,000 km), stating that this was "the equivalent of 75 years of typical U.S. adult driving", and that in the process they had encountered 200,000 stop signs, 600,000 traffic lights, and 180 million other vehicles. Google also announced its prototype vehicles were being road tested in Mountain View, California. During testing, the prototypes' speed did not exceed 25 mph (40 km/h) and had safety drivers aboard the entire time. As a consequence, one of the vehicles was stopped by police for impeding traffic flow.
In 2015, Google expanded its road-testing to Texas, where regulations did not prohibit cars without pedals and a steering wheel. Bills were introduced by interested parties to similarly change the legislation in California.
Google took its first driverless ride on public roads in October 2015, when Mahan took a 10-minute solo ride around Austin in a Google "pod car" with no steering wheel or pedals. In 2016, the company expanded its road testing to the dry Phoenix, Arizona, area and Kirkland, Washington, which has a wet climate. In May 2016, the company opened a 53,000 square foot self-driving technology development center in Novi, Michigan. As of June 2016[update], Google had test driven their fleet of vehicles, in autonomous mode, a total of 1,725,911 mi (2,777,585 km). In August 2016 alone, their cars traveled a "total of 170,000 miles; of those, 126,000 miles were driven autonomously (i.e., the car was fully in control)". Beginning of 2017, Waymo reported to California DMV a total of 636,868 miles covered by the fleet in autonomous mode, and the associated 124 disengagements, for the period from December 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.
In November 2017, Waymo altered its Arizona testing by removing safety drivers in the driver position from their autonomous Chrysler Pacificas. The cars were geofenced within a 100 square miles surrounding Chandler, Arizona. Waymo's early rider program members were the first to take rides using the new technology.
Waymo began testing its level 4 autonomous cars in Arizona for several reasons: good weather, simple roads, and the state not requiring that self-driving cars have any special permissions. Users hail vehicles through a Waymo app and an onboard support system can connect them to a Waymo agent at any time. In 2017, Waymo began weather testing in Michigan. Also in 2017, Waymo unveiled its test facility, Castle, on 91 acres in Central Valley, California. Castle, a former air base, has served as the project's training course since 2012.
According to a Waymo report, as of March 2018 Waymo's self-driving technology had driven more than 5 million miles on public roads and more than 5 billion miles via simulation. Waymo's 25,000 virtual self-driving cars travel 8 million miles per day. By October 2018, Waymo had completed 10 million miles of driving on public roads and over 7 billion simulation miles.
In March 2018, Waymo announced its plans to build additional real-world self-driving experiments with the company's self-driving trucks delivering for sister company Google's data centers located in Atlanta, Georgia.
As of 12 September 2018[update], Waymo was waiting on permits to test the cars in California, hoping to test in Los Altos, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale. On 30 October 2018, the California Department of Motor Vehicles issued a permit for Waymo to operate fully driverless cars (i.e., cars without a human safety drivers). Waymo was the first company to receive such a permit, which allows day and night testing on public roads and highways, in California. In a blog post, Waymo announced that its fully driverless cars would be restricted to Mountain View, Sunnyvale, Los Altos, and Palo Alto — all communities close to parent company Alphabet's headquarters.
In June 2015, Google confirmed that there had been 12 collisions as of that time, eight of which involved being rear-ended by another driver at a stop sign or traffic light, two in which the vehicle was side-swiped by another driver, one of which involved another driver rolling through a stop sign, and one where a Google employee was manually driving the car. As of July 2015[update], Google's 23 self-driving cars have been involved in 14 minor collisions on public roads, but Google maintains that, in all cases other than the February 2016 incident, the vehicle itself was not at fault because the cars were either being manually driven or the driver of another vehicle was at fault. On February 14, 2016 while creeping forward to a stoplight, a Google self-driving car attempted to avoid sandbags blocking its path. During the maneuver it struck the side of a bus. Google addressed the crash, saying "In this case, we clearly bear some responsibility, because if our car hadn't moved there wouldn't have been a collision". Some incomplete video footage of the crash is available. Google characterized the crash as a misunderstanding and a learning experience. The company also stated "This type of misunderstanding happens between human drivers on the road every day".
Waymo and other companies are required by the California DMV to report the number of incidents during testing where the human driver took control for safety reasons. Some of these incidents were not reported by Google when simulations indicate the car would have coped on its own. There is some controversy concerning this distinction between driver-initiated disengagements that Google reports and those that it does not report.
Waymo operates in some of its testing markets, such as Chandler, Arizona, at level 4 autonomy with no one sitting behind the steering wheel, sharing roadways with other drivers and pedestrians. However, more testing is needed. Waymo's earlier testing has focused on areas without harsh weather, extreme density or complicated road systems, but it has moved on to test under new conditions. As a result, Waymo has begun testing in areas with harsher conditions, such as its winter testing in Michigan.
In 2014, a critic wrote in the MIT Technology Review that unmapped stopped lights would cause problems with Waymo's technology and the self-driving technology could not detect potholes. Additionally, the lidar technology cannot spot some potholes or discern when humans, such as a police officer, are signaling the car to stop, the critic wrote. Waymo has worked to improve how its technology responds in construction zones.
In 2012, Brin stated that Google Self-Driving cars would be available for the general public in 2017, and in 2014 this schedule was updated by project director Chris Urmson to indicate a possible release from 2017 to 2020.
In August 2013, news reports surfaced about Robo-Taxi, a proposed driverless vehicle taxicab service from Google. These reports re-appeared again in early 2014, following the granting of a patent to Google for an advertising fee funded transportation service which included autonomous vehicles as a method of transport. Google consultant Larry Burns says self-driving, taxi-like vehicles "should be viewed as a new form of public transportation".
In a December 2016 blog post, Waymo CEO John Krafcik stated: "We can see our technology being useful in personal vehicles, ridesharing, logistics, or solving last mile problems for public transport" but also that "Our next step as Waymo will be to let people use our vehicles to do everyday things like run errands, commute to work, or get safely home after a night on the town". Temporary use of vehicles is known as Transportation as a Service (TaaS).
In April 2017, Waymo launched an early rider program in Phoenix, Arizona, which signed up 400 users to try out a test edition of Waymo's transportation service. Over the next year, 400 riders used the Waymo service, providing feedback. In May 2018, Waymo announced that it plans to allow everyone in Phoenix to request a driverless ride before the end of year.
Waymo highlighted four specific business uses for its autonomous tech in 2017: Ridesharing, users can hail cars equipped with Waymo technology via transportation network company apps; trucking and logistics; urban last-mile solutions for public transportation; and passenger cars. Waymo is also considering licensing autonomous technology to vehicle manufacturers.
In 2018, Waymo launched a pilot program with Google to use autonomous trucks to move freight to its sister company's Atlanta-area data centers. Using the same sensors and software as Waymo's other autonomous fleet, Class 8 tractor trailers began testing Waymo's self-driving technology in California and Arizona in 2017.
Waymo LLC v. Uber Technologies, Inc. et al.Edit
In February 2017, Waymo sued Uber and its subsidiary self-driving trucking company, Otto, for allegedly stealing Waymo's trade secrets and infringing upon its patents. The company claimed that three ex-Google employees including Anthony Levandowski stole trade secrets and joined Uber. The infringement is related to Waymo's proprietary lidar technology, which could measure the distances between objects using laser and create their three dimensional representations. Google accused Uber of colluding with Levandowski to obtain information about it and other technologies in its driverless car project. The former Google engineer downloaded 9 gigabytes of data that included over a hundred trade secrets; eight of those were at stake during the trial.
The trial began on February 5, 2018, and was dismissed on February 9, as a settlement was announced with Uber giving Waymo the equivalent of $244 million in Uber equity and agreeing to ensure Uber does not infringe Waymo's intellectual property. Part of the agreement included a guarantee that "Waymo confidential information is not being incorporated in Uber Advanced Technologies Group hardware and software." Uber maintained that no trade secrets made their way to the ride-hailing company, in released statements after the settlement.
- "Waymo LLC: Company Profile - Bloomberg". Retrieved 2018-08-06.
- "Waymo launches its first commercial self-driving car service". Engadget. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Krafcik, John (17 January 2019). "Our #tenyearchallenge has been building the world's most experienced driver. Thanks to two visionary @Google characters for getting us started & to the @Waymo One riders in #Phoenix we're serving. HBD #Waymo pic.twitter.com/Ew4fdXjM7c". John Krafcik's official Twitter account. Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Google's self-driving-car project becomes a separate company: Waymo". The Associated Press. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- John Markoff (October 9, 2010). "Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- Sebastian Thrun (October 9, 2010). "What we're driving at". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- Hull, Dana (30 October 2017). "The PayPal Mafia of Self-Driving Cars Has Been at It a Decade". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "Nevada enacts law authorizing autonomous (driverless) vehicles". Green Car Congress. June 25, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- Mary Slosson (May 8, 2012). "Google gets first self-driven car license in Nevada". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- A First Drive. YouTube. 27 May 2014.
- Liz Gannes. "Google Introduces New Self Driving Car at the Code Conference - Re/code". Re/code.
- "Google's 'goofy' new self-driving car a sign of things to come". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Lynch, Jim (13 June 2017). "Waymo retires Firefly test cars, focuses on Pacificas". The Detroit News. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- On the road with self-driving car user number one
- "Journey - Waymo".
- Say hello to Waymo
- Encalada, Debbie (December 14, 2016). "Google Confirms First Ever Driverless Self-Driving Car Ride". Complex Media.
- Etherington, Darrell; Kolodny, Lora. "Google's self-driving car unit becomes Waymo".
- Andrew J. Hawkins (7 November 2017). "Waymo is first to put fully self-driving cars on US roads without a safety driver". The Verge. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Mark Harris (15 Sep 2017). "Google Has Spent Over $1.1 Billion on Self-Driving Tech". IEEE spectrum.
- Wakabayashi, Daisuke (9 February 2018). "Uber and Waymo settle trade secrets suit over driveless cars". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Randazzo, Ryan (30 January 2018). "Waymo to start driverless ride sharing in Phoenix area this year". Arizona Republic. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Randall, Tom (2018-08-31). "Waymo's Self-Driving Cars Are Near: Meet the Teen Who Rides One Every Day". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
- Mark Bergen Alistair Barr (16 May 2017). "Waymo Tests Hardware to Ease Passenger Fears of Driverless Cars". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 June 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Gibbs, Samuel (7 November 2017). "Google sibling Waymo launches fully autonomous ride-hailing service". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Dallon Adams (26 April 2017). "Everything you need to know about Waymo's self-driving car project". Digital Trends. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Ron Amadeo (9 January 2017). "Google's Waymo invests in LIDAR technology, cuts costs by 90 percent". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- della Cava, Marco (31 October 2017). "Waymo shows off the secret facility where it trains self-driving cars". USA Today. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Madrigal, Alexis C. (23 August 2017). "Inside Waymo's Secret World for Training Self-Driving Cars". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Timothy J. Seppala (23 August 2017). "'Carcraft' is Waymo's virtual world for autonomous vehicle testing". Engadget. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Alan Ohnsman (2 March 2018). "Waymo Is Millions Of Miles Ahead In Robot Car Tests; Does It Need A Billion More?". Forbes. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Boudette, Neal E. (2 November 2017). "Waymo Enlists AutoNation to Maintain Driverless Test Fleet". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Jordan Novet (18 September 2017). "Google's self-driving cars have been using Intel chips this whole time". CNBC. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Bergen, Mark; Naughton, Keith (2 April 2018). "Waymo isn't going to slow down now". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- Damon Lavrinc (April 16, 2012). "Exclusive: Google Expands Its Autonomous Fleet With Hybrid Lexus RX450h". Wired. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Gibbs, Samuel (2017-11-07). "Google sibling Waymo launches fully autonomous ride-hailing service". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-03.
- "Crain's Detroit Business : Subscription Center". crainsdetroit.com.
- "Google in talks with OEMs, suppliers to build self-driving cars". Automotive News.
- Tommaso Ebhardt (3 May 2016). "Fiat, Google Plan Partnership on Self-Driving Minivans".
- Andrew J. Hawkins (30 January 2018). "Waymo strikes a deal to buy 'thousands' more self-driving minivans from Fiat Chrysler". The Verge. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- della Cava, Marco. "Waymo will add up to 62,000 FCA minivans to self-driving fleet". USA TODAY. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- Higgins, Tim; Dawson, Chester (27 March 2018). "Waymo Orders Up to 20,000 Jaguar SUVs for Driverless Fleet". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Topham, Gwyn (2018-03-27). "Jaguar to supply 20,000 cars to Google's self-driving spin-off Waymo". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- "Waymo and Jaguar will build up to 20,000 self-driving electric SUVs". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- "Waymo teams up with Jaguar to intro a new, premium self-driving car – TechCrunch". techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- Tovey, Alan (2018-03-27). "Jaguar Land Rover lands £1.2bn deal to supply self-driving cars to Google's Waymo". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- "Intel is collaborating with Waymo on self-driving car technology". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
- Isaac, Mike (14 May 2017). "Lyft and Waymo Reach Deal to Collaborate on Self-Driving Cars". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "The Test Driven Google Car". April 30, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Darrell Etherington (12 January 2018). "Waymo's self-driving Chrysler Pacifica begins testing in San Francisco". TechCrunch. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Sheikh, Azzam. "Ultrasonic Sensors on Rear Wheels", national.co.uk, December 14, 2014
- Urmson, Chris (August 7, 2012). "Self-driving Car Logs More Miles". Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Muller, Joann. "With Driverless Cars, Once Again It Is California Leading The Way", Forbes.com, September 26, 2012
- "Legislative Session: 83(R) Bill: HB 2932", Texas Legislature Online, May 30, 2013
- Whittington, Mark. "Law Proposed in Texas to Require Licensed Driver in Self-Driving Vehicles", Yahoo! News, Fri, March 8, 2013
- The latest chapter for the self-driving car: mastering city street driving, googleblog
- Murphy, Mike. "Google's self-driving cars are now on the streets of California", Quartz, June 25, 2015
- Smith, Alexander; Hansen, Shelby (November 13, 2015). "Google Self-Driving Car Gets Pulled Over — For Going Too Slowly". NBCNews.com. NBC News. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
A Google self-driving car was pulled over by police because the vehicle was traveling too slowly, officials said. The officer in Mountain View, California, noticed traffic backing up behind the prototype vehicle, which was traveling 24 mph in a 35 mph zone, the force said.
- "California's Red Tape Slows Google's Self-Driving Roll". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Harris, Mark (25 March 2016). "California lawmaker pushes for driver-free robot car testing on public roads" – via The Guardian.
- Davies, Lex (7 November 2017). "Wymo has taken the human out of its self-driving cars". Wired. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- David Shepardson (7 April 2016). "Google expanding self-driving vehicle testing to Phoenix, Arizona". TechCrunch. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Krafcik, John (2017-10-27). "Michigan is Waymo's winter wonderland". Medium.com. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
- "Google Self-Driving Car Project Monthly Report - June 2016" (PDF). Google. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Google Self-Driving Car Project Monthly Report August 2016
- Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports 2016
- Darrell Etherington (7 November 2017). "Waymo now testing its self-driving cars on public roads with no one at the wheel". TechCrunch. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Team, Waymo (2018-10-10). "Where the next 10 million miles will take us". Waymo. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
- "Waymo's self-driving trucks will start delivering freight in Atlanta". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- Megan V. Winslow (September 12, 2018). "Awaiting approval of permits, Waymo holds forum in Los Altos Hills". Los Altos Town Crier. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Waymo gets the green light to test fully driverless cars in California". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
- Team, Waymo (2018-10-30). "A Green Light for Waymo's Driverless Testing in California". Medium. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
- "Google founder defends accident records of self-driving cars". Associated Press. Los Angeles Times. 2015-06-03. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
- Charlie Osborne. "Google's autonomous car injuries: Blame the human".
- Urmson, Chris. "The View from the Front Seat of the Google Self-Driving Car". Medium.
- JOHN MARKOFF (October 9, 2010). "Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- "Human Driver Crashes Google's Self Driving Car". businessinsider.com. August 5, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Davies, Alex. "Google's Self-Driving Car Caused Its First Crash".
- Serna, Joseph. "Passenger bus teaches Google robot car a lesson".
- Press, Associated (9 March 2016). "Google self-driving car caught on video colliding with bus" – via The Guardian.
- "For the first time, Google's self-driving car takes some blame for a crash".
- "The Google car crash was 'not a surprise', US transport secretary says". 14 March 2016.
- Steve Kovach (18 January 2017). "Google quietly stopped publishing monthly accident reports for its self driving cars". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Laris, Michael (23 October 2017). "Waymo gives federal officials a detailed safety report on self-driving vehicles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Harris, Mark (12 January 2016). "Google reports self-driving car mistakes: 272 failures and 13 near misses" – via The Guardian.
- Lee Gomes (August 28, 2014). "Hidden Obstacles for Google's Self-driving Car".
- Alex Castro (9 May 2018). "Inside Waymo's strategy to grow the best brains for self-driving cars". The Verge. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- Eric Jaffe (28 April 2014). "The first look at how Google's self-driving car handles city streets". CityLab. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- Donna Tam (September 25, 2012). "Google's Sergey Brin: You'll ride in robot cars within 5 years". cnet.com. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Liz Gannes (May 13, 2014). "Here's What It's Like to Go for a Ride in Google's Robot Car". recode.net. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Michelle Fitzsimmons (August 24, 2013). "Google may be crafting its own self-driving cars, tinkering with robo-taxis". techradar.com. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Billy Davies (January 24, 2014). "The future of urban transport: The self-driving car club". zodiacmedia.co.uk. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- B1 US patent 8630897 B1, Luis Ricardo Prada Gomez; Andrew Timothy Szybalski Sebastian Thrun & Philip Nemec et al., "Transportation-aware physical advertising conversions", published 2014-01-14, assigned to Google Inc
- Krafcik, John (13 December 2016). "Say hello to Waymo: what's next for Google's self-driving car project – Waymo".
- "Waymo's early rider program, one year in" (Press release).
- ExpovistaTV (2018-05-08), Google i/O 2018: Waymo's Self-Driving Cars Hit The Public Roads., retrieved 2018-05-10
- "Waymo's self-driving car service is launching in Phoenix later this year". VentureBeat. 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- Johana Bhuiyan (27 March 2018). "Alphabet will operate a fleet of 20,000 Jaguar cars for its driverless ride-hail service by 2022". Recode. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Andrew J. Hawkins (9 March 2018). "Waymo's self-driving trucks will start delivering freight in Atlanta". The Verge. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- Bergen, Mark; Spears, Lee (2018-08-24). "Waymo's Shanghai Subsidiary Gives Alphabet Another Route Back to China". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018-08-24.
- "Waymo LLC v. Uber Technologies, Inc; Ottomotto LLC; Otto Trucking LLC". Trade Secrets Institute. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
- "Waymo's Complaint Against Uber". The New York Times. 2017-02-23. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
- Larson, Selena. "Uber and Waymo settle trade secrets lawsuit". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- "Secrets or Knowledge? Uber-Waymo Trial Tests Silicon Valley Culture". The New York Times. 2018-01-30. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- "I'm not so sure Waymo's going to win against Uber". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Selena Larson (7 February 2018). "The tech at the center of the Waymo vs. Uber trade secrets case". CNN. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Farivar, Cyrus (5 February 2018). "Waymo: "We're bringing this case because Uber is cheating"". Ars Technica. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Farivar, Cyrus (9 February 2018). "Silicon Valley's most-watched trial ends as Waymo and Uber settle". Ars Technica. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Larson, 2018.
- Lien, Russ Mitchell, Tracey. "Uber reaches settlement with Waymo in dispute over trade secrets". latimes.com. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Grant, Christian (May 2007). "Episode Exe006: Sebastian Thrun, Director, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory". Executive Talks.
- Lin, Patrick (July 30, 2013). "The Ethics of Saving Lives with Autonomous Cars Are Far Murkier Than You Think". Wired. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Marcus, Gary (November 27, 2012). "Moral Machines". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Muller, Joann (May 27, 2013). "Silicon Valley vs. Detroit: The Battle for the Car of the Future". Forbes.
- Stock, Kyle (April 3, 2014). "The Problem with Self-Driving Cars". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Walker Smith, Bryant (November 1, 2012), Automated Vehicles Are Probably Legal in the United States, Stanford Law School, retrieved August 24, 2013