Marquess of Lansdowne

(Redirected from Viscount FitzMaurice)

Marquess of Lansdowne is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain created in 1784, and held by the head of the Petty-Fitzmaurice family. The first Marquess served as Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Marquessate of Lansdowne

Arms: 1st and 4th, Ermine, on a Bend Azure, a Magnetic Needle, pointing to the Polar Star Or (Petty); 2nd and 3rd, Argent, a Saltire Gules, and a Chief, Ermine (FitzMaurice). Crests: 1st, A Beehive beset with Bees volant proper (Petty). 2nd, A Centaur drawing a Bow and Arrow proper, the part below the waist Argent (FitzMaurice). Supporters: On either side, Pegasus Ermine, bridled crined winged and unguled Or, each charged on the shoulder with a Fleur-de-lis Azure.[1]
Creation date6 December 1784
Created byGeorge III
PeeragePeerage of Great Britain
First holderWilliam Petty Fitzmaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne
Present holderCharles Petty-Fitzmaurice, 9th Marquess of Lansdowne
Heir apparentSimon Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Kerry
Remainder to1st Marquess' heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titlesEarl of Kerry
Earl of Shelburne
Earl of Wycombe
Viscount Clanmaurice
Viscount Fitzmaurice
Viscount Calne and Calston
Baron of Kerry and Lixnaw
Baron Dunkeron
Baron Wycombe of Chipping Wycombe
Seat(s)Bowood House
Former seat(s)Lansdowne House
(By courage, not words)[2]

Origins edit

This branch of the Fitzmaurice family descends from John Fitzmaurice, second son of Thomas Fitzmaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry (see Earl of Kerry for earlier history of the family), and his wife Anne, the daughter of the political economist Sir William Petty, whose wife had been created Baroness Shelburne for her own life only and whose two sons had been created at different times Baron Shelburne in the peerage of Ireland and Earl of Shelburne respectively, but who had both died without heirs. In 1751, on the death of his maternal uncle Henry Petty, Earl of Shelburne, John Fitzmaurice succeeded to his estates and assumed by Act of Parliament the surname of Petty in addition to FitzMaurice.[3] That same year, he was created Viscount FitzMaurice and Baron Dunkeron in the Peerage of Ireland.[4] In 1753, the earldom held by his uncle was revived when he was made Earl of Shelburne, in the County of Wexford, in the Peerage of Ireland.[5] He later represented Wycombe in the House of Commons as a Whig, his Irish peerages not disbarring him. However, in 1760 Viscount FitzMaurice was created Baron Wycombe, of Chepping Wycombe in the County of Buckingham, in the Peerage of Great Britain,[6] which gave him a seat in the House of Lords at Westminster and meant that he could no longer sit in the Commons.

Through his first wife Lady Sophia Carteret (1745–1771), only daughter of Robert Carteret, 3rd Earl Granville, Fitzmaurice acquired large estates, including Lansdowne Hill near Bath, from which his son later took a new title.

From 1765 until the Reform Act 1832, the head of the family controlled the two seats in parliament of the pocket borough of Calne in Wiltshire. After 1832, there was only one seat and a wider franchise, but a member of the family was usually elected until the borough was abolished in 1885.

Creations edit

The first Earl of Shelburne of the new creation was succeeded by his eldest son William Petty-FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne. He was a prominent statesman and served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1782 to 1783. His brother Thomas FitzMaurice (1742–1793) of Cliveden, was a Member of Parliament. In 1784, the second Earl of Shelburne was created Marquess of Lansdowne, in the County of Somerset, Earl of Wycombe, of Chepping Wycombe, and Viscount Calne and Calston, referring to Calne and Calstone in the County of Wiltshire, all in the Peerage of Great Britain.[7] However, he is better known to history under his former title of Earl of Shelburne. He was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Sophia Carteret, John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne. He died childless in 1809 and was succeeded by his half-brother, the third Marquess, the son of their father’s second marriage, to Lady Louisa FitzPatrick. Known as Lord Henry Petty from 1784 to 1809, he was one of the most influential Whig politicians of the first half of the 19th century. In a ministerial career spanning over fifty years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1806 to 1807, as Home Secretary from 1827 to 1828, as Lord President of the Council from 1830 to 1834, 1835 to 1841, and 1846 to 1852, and as Minister without Portfolio from 1852 to 1858. He twice declined to become Prime Minister and in 1857 refused the offer of a dukedom from Queen Victoria. In 1818 Lansdowne also succeeded his cousin as fourth Earl of Kerry. His eldest son William Petty FitzMaurice, Earl of Kerry, was a Member of Parliament for Calne, but predeceased his father, without having a son. Lansdowne was therefore succeeded by his second son, the fourth Marquess. He had already in 1856 been summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Wycombe and served under Lord Palmerston as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1856 to 1858. He married as his second wife Emily Jane Mercer-Elphinstone-de Flahault, 8th Lady Nairne (see the Lord Nairne), eldest daughter of the French general and statesman Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut, and his wife Margaret Nairne, 7th Lady Nairne.

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne

He was succeeded by his eldest son from his second marriage, the fifth Marquess. Like his grandfather, he was a prominent statesman and had an equally long ministerial career. Lord Lansdowne was Governor-General of Canada from 1883 to 1888, Viceroy of India from 1888 to 1894, Secretary of State for War from 1895 to 1900, Foreign Secretary from 1900 to 1905, Leader of the Conservative Party in the Lords from 1911 to 1916, and also served in the war-time coalition government as Minister without Portfolio from 1915 to 1916. In 1895 he succeeded his mother as Lord Nairne. His eldest son, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, sat as Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire from 1908 to 1918 and was a Senator of the Irish Free State in 1922. In 1927 he succeeded his father and became the 6th Marquess.

On his death in 1936 he was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, the seventh Marquess, who was killed in action in 1944 during the Second World War, unmarried. As the third and youngest brother, Lord Edward Norman Petty-Fitzmaurice, had been killed in action only a week before, the Scottish lordship of Nairne was passed on to their eldest sister Katherine (see Lord Nairne for later history of this title). Lord Lansdowne was survived in the remaining titles by his first cousin, the eighth Marquess. He was the son of Major Lord Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne Petty-Fitzmaurice (1874–1914), second son of the fifth Marquess. Born George John Charles Mercer Nairne, he assumed by Decree of the Lord Lyon the additional surnames of Petty-Fitzmaurice in 1947. Lord Lansdowne sat on the Conservative benches in the House of Lords and served as Joint Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1958 to 1962 and as Minister of State for Colonial Affairs from 1962 to 1964. As of 2014 the titles are held by his eldest son, the ninth Marquess, who succeeded in 1999.

The courtesy title for the Lord Lansdowne's eldest son and heir apparent alternates between Earl of Kerry and Earl of Shelburne.

The family seat is Bowood House, near Calne, Wiltshire. The family's former London residence was Lansdowne House in Berkeley Square. A major late-1990s/early-2000s housing development in the northwest of Calne was named Lansdowne Park after the local seat.

Earls of Shelburne (1753) edit

Marquesses of Lansdowne (1784) edit

The full coat of arms of the Marquesses of Lansdowne

The heir apparent is the present holder's son, Simon Henry George Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Kerry (b. 1970)
The heir apparent's heir apparent is his son George Henry Charles Petty-Fitzmaurice, Viscount Calne and Calstone (b. 2020)

Family tree edit

Line of succession edit

Line of succession[8]
  •   George Petty-Fitzmaurice, 8th Marquess of Lansdowne (1912–1999)
    •   Charles Petty-Fitzmaurice, 9th Marquess of Lansdowne (born 1941)
      • (1)   Simon Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Kerry (born 1970)
        • (2)   George Petty-Fitzmaurice, Viscount Calne and Calstone (born 2020)
      • (3) Lord William Petty-Fitzmaurice (born 1973)
    • (4) Lord Robert Mercer Nairne (born 1947)
      • (5) Samuel George Mercer Nairne (born 1976)
        • (6) George Yvan Mercer Nairne (born 2009)
        • (7) Harold Charles Mercer Nairne (born 2011)
      • (8) Joseph Douglas Mercer Nairne (born 1980)
        • (9) Fergus Grey Mercer Nairne (born 2009)
        • (10) Angus John Mercer Nairne (born 2013)

Middleton connection edit

It was reported in 2012 that the direct descendants of Thomas FitzMaurice, brother of the first Marquess, included brothers Lieut. Osmund Fitzmaurice Bullock and Sir Christopher Bullock[9] and that Sir Christopher's wife, Lady Bullock (née Barbara May Lupton), was a second cousin of Olive Middleton (née Lupton), the great grandmother of the Princess of Wales.[10][11][12][13]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1876 p.282
  2. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1876 p.281
  3. ^ Deed Poll Office: Private Act of Parliament 1750 (24 Geo. 2). c. 43
  4. ^ "No. 9095". The London Gazette. 24 September 1751. p. 2.
  5. ^ "No. 9273". The London Gazette. 5 June 1753. p. 2.
  6. ^ "No. 10001". The London Gazette. 20 May 1760. p. 1.
  7. ^ "No. 12599". The London Gazette. 30 November 1784. p. 1.
  8. ^ Morris, Susan; Bosberry-Scott, Wendy; Belfield, Gervase, eds. (2019). "Lansdowne, Marquess of". Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. Vol. 1 (150th ed.). London: Debrett's. pp. 3283–3297. ISBN 978-1-9997-6705-1.
  9. ^ Fox-Davies, A. (1910). Armorial Families: A Directory of Gentlemen of Coat-armour. C. & E.C. Jack. p. 219. Sir Alex. Spearman, Bart, P.C.; and has issue-(1) Walter Llewellyn Bullock, Gentleman, b. 1890; (2) Christopher Llewellyn Bullock, Gentleman, b. 1891; (3) Osmund FitzMaurice Llewellyn Bullock, Gentleman, b. 1905;
  10. ^ Nikkhah, Roya (16 December 2012). "Duchess discovers blue blood in her own family". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  11. ^ "Air Crash off Scots Coast". Dundee Courier. 3 October 1933. Retrieved 16 August 2015. Two men were killed in an air accident off Tarbet Ness, Ross-shire, yesterday. They were Lieutenant Osmond Fitzmaurice Llewellyn Bullock, Royal Navy, officer of the Royal Air Force, (and brother of Sir Christopher, and) the pilot of the aircraft...
  12. ^ Westcott, Sarah (17 December 2012). "Family tree reveals Duchess of Cambridge Kate MIddleton's aristocratic roots". Daily Express. UK. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  13. ^ Nicholl, Katie (13 December 2013). Kate: The Future Queen. Weinstein Books. ISBN 9781602862470. Retrieved 16 August 2015. (Michael Middleton's family were) linked to earls, countesses, a former Prime Minister – William Petty-FitzMaurice, the first Marquess of Lansdowne, who served as Prime Minister...

Sources edit

External links edit