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The Vernadsky Research Base (Ukrainian: Антарктична станція Академік Вернадський) is a Ukrainian Antarctic Station located at Marina Point on Galindez Island of Argentine Islands, not far from Kiev Peninsula. The region is under territorial claim between three countries (more Territorial claims in Antarctica). The single Ukrainian antarctic station is named after Russian and Ukrainian mineralogist Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945) who was the first president of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Vernadsky Research Base

Антарктична станція Академік Вернадський

Faraday Research Base (until 1996)
Antarctic base
Vernadsky Station research base in January 2014
Vernadsky Station research base in January 2014
Official Vernadsky Station emblem
Location within Antarctica
Location within Antarctica
Vernadsky Research Base
Location within Antarctica
Coordinates: 65°14′45″S 64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786Coordinates: 65°14′45″S 64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786
Country Ukraine
Islands of AntarcticaWilhelm Archipelago
Argentine Islands
RegionGraham Land
Antarctic Peninsula
LocationGalindez Island
Established1947 (by the United Kingdom)
TransferredFebruary 1996 (1996-02) (to Ukraine)
Named forVladimir Vernadsky
Government
 • TypeDirectorate
 • BodyNational Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine
Population12
Time zoneUTC-3 (ART)
TypeAll year-round
PeriodAnnual
StatusOperational
Websiteuac.gov.ua
Weradskyi3(js).jpg

Despite having "close cultural ties" with Russia, the research base was spared to Ukraine not by Russia following dissolution of the Soviet Union,[2] but rather the United Kingdom. Before being handed over to Ukraine in 1996, the research base for almost half of century existed as the British research base.

Coordination and operational administration of the base is conducted by the National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine which is part of Ministry of Education and Sciences of Ukraine.

The closest neighboring antarctic stations are Palmer Station of the United States and reopened in 2015 Yelcho Base of Chile.

Wordie House

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Map of Gerlache Strait region, Cartographic base: Antarctic Digital Database www.add.scar.org/

British Faraday Station (Station F)Edit

The Faraday station existed for 49 years and 31 days (7 January 1947 – 6 February 1996) operated by FIDS and BAS.[3]

The research base was established in 1947 at the Wordie House site on Winter Island by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (today British Antarctic Survey) as Argentine Islands.[4] The primary purpose of the station was to research geophysics, meteorology, and ionospherics.[3]

In May of 1954 the base moved from Winter Island to the present site on adjacent Galindez Island[3] where the main building was named "Coronation House" in honor of the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II.[3]

The personnel of the British Argentine Islands station (later Faraday station) sometimes used the Argentine Groussac refuge station at Petermann Island.[3]

On 15 August 1977 it was renamed as Station F — Faraday soon after the Argentine Air Force established own military base at Southern Thule earlier in November of 1976 (see Corbeta Uruguay base) during 1970–1980s contestation of the region between Argentina and the United Kingdom. The British base was renamed Faraday Station in honour of British scientist Michael Faraday.[4] In September of 1977 at Rasmussen Island was planted memorial cross in honor of G H Hargreaves, M A Walker and G J Whitfield.[3] On 14 August 1982 another memorial cross was planted at Petermann Island in honor of A C Morgan, K P Ockleton and J Coll.[3]

Ukrainian Vernadsky StationEdit

Ukraine took over the operation of the base in February 1996,[4] which was sold by the UK for a symbolic one pound. The cost of disassembling the base with good environmental practices and standards would be too costly. The National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine continues a programme of meteorology, upper atmospheric physics, geomagnetism, ozone, seismology, glaciology, ecology, biology and physiology research.[5]

ClimateEdit

The climate of the base is classified as marine subantarctic.[6] The climate is strongly influenced by the surrounding Pacific Ocean, moderating winter and summer temperatures.[6] Thus, winter temperatures rarely fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) owing to the warmer waters while in summer, the cool waters and snow cover causes temperatures to rarely reach above 0 °C (32 °F).[6] The mean annual temperature is −4 °C (25 °F) although within the last decade, temperatures have risen with much of it in winter and autumn.[6]

Being located in the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, the climate is dominated by the low pressure systems that develop over the Pacific Ocean and move eastwards towards the peninsula mountain range.[6] This process leads to frequent precipitation and strong winds in the base.[6] Unpredictable and short snowfalls and snowstorms occur often.[6] On average, the base receives 300 days with snow per year.[6] Anticyclone weather patterns caused by high pressure systems in the interior of Antarctica or from the north are rare.[6] In the cases that they occur, when the weather is influenced by the high pressure system from the interior of the continent, cold air masses from the south moves northwards.[6] This can occasionally lead to foggy conditions and hoarfrost.[6]

StatisticsEdit

Climate data for Vernadsky Research Base
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
11.7
(53.1)
7.8
(46.0)
7.2
(45.0)
6.7
(44.1)
6.1
(43.0)
4.4
(39.9)
7.2
(45.0)
5.0
(41.0)
6.1
(43.0)
6.7
(44.1)
11.4
(52.5)
11.7
(53.1)
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
2.4
(36.3)
0.9
(33.6)
−0.9
(30.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−5.0
(23.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.2
(32.4)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.8
(28.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.1
(34.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−8.1
(17.4)
−6.5
(20.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.4
(32.7)
−1.3
(29.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
−4.8
(23.4)
−7.7
(18.1)
−8.5
(16.7)
−9.9
(14.2)
−8.5
(16.7)
−7.2
(19.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
−4.5
(23.9)
Record low °C (°F) −10.6
(12.9)
−12.2
(10.0)
−16.1
(3.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−40.6
(−41.1)
−43.3
(−45.9)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−43.3
(−45.9)
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 81 84 81 79 80 81 84 83 84 86 83
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[7]

InfrastructureEdit

Main complexEdit

The station consists of nine buildings standing on rock foundations. A 1961 extension at the east end of the hut provided living quarters for 15 people. Major alterations in 1980 updated the living and working accommodation. A two-storey extension provides sleeping accommodation for 24 people, a clothing store, boiler room and reverse osmosis plant on the ground floor. Upstairs are a lounge, library, dining room, gift store and kitchen. The lounge is considered the southernmost public bar in the world, where visitors could purchase $3 shots of horilka (made on the premises) up until 2016. The old part of the building is now mostly laboratories and work rooms, together with the surgery and washrooms. The generator shed was erected in 1978-79, with the old one now used as a frozen food store and a carpenter's workshop. Other buildings include two non-magnetic buildings, a balloon launching shed (now skidoo garage), and a general store.[8]

Wordie HouseEdit

Not part of the current Ukrainian Research Base, yet associated with the history of preceding British Faraday Station, the Wordie House served as a foundation of new British Antarctic station.[3] Built on the site of an earlier British Graham Land Expedition sometime in 1935–36, it was destroyed possibly by a tsunami in 1946.[3] The hut was named "Wordie House" after Sir James Wordie, a member of 1914–16 Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition who visited during its construction.[8][3]

To commemorate the historic landmark, on 19 May 1995 the Wordie House at Winter Island has been restored and designated as Historic Site and Monument No. 62.[3][9] After Faraday base complex at Galindez Island was transferred to Ukraine, the new Vernadsky base personnel continued temporarily supervise the Wordie House.[3]

In January of 2007 the landmark was inspected by conservation architect for BAS and since October of 2009 the Wordie House is managed by United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust under a "Memorandum of Understanding" with BAS.[3]

Rasmussen HutEdit

At Rasmussen Island there is a hut that was under official use in Mar 1984–6 Feb 1996.[10] Currently it is considered as closed, yet used occasionally by Ukrainian personnel from Vernadsky Station for emergency refuge shelter and recreational.

OperationsEdit

Climate researchEdit

As one of the longest operating bases in Antarctica, Vernadsky Station has been the subject of scientific research studies on long-term temperature trends that indicate global warming. A study published in the April 2013 issue of the International Journal of Climatology examined the daily observed temperature at the Faraday/Vernadsky station from 1947 to 2011. It concluded that “Faraday/Vernadsky is experiencing a significant warming trend of about 0.6°C/decade (1.1°F) over the last few decades. Concurrently, the magnitude of extremely cold temperatures has reduced.”[11]

Postal services and tourismEdit

Vernadsky Station operates several services for visiting tourists. A post office accepts postcards at a cost of US$2 each. This is one of only a few post offices where visitors may send mail from Antarctica. Stamps for letters cost $6. Mail will take several months to be delivered.[11] In addition to selling postage and accepting outgoing mail, the post office sells commemorative postcards and envelopes for $2 to $3 each.

StaffEdit

During 2013-14, Vernadsky Station is staffed by 12 Ukrainians who make up the XVIII Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition.[1]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b XVIII Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition
  2. ^ Akademik Vernadskyi antarctic station, chronology of events (Станція АКАДЕМІК ВЕРНАДСЬКИЙ: хроніка подій). National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m History of Faraday (Station F). British Antarctic Survey.
  4. ^ a b c "Faraday station". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
  5. ^ "Research projects in Sixth Ukrainian Antarctic expedition 2001-2002". Retrieved 2007-11-24.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Meteorological conditions in Vernadsky Station area". National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Klimatafel von Faraday / Argentine Island (Großbritannien) / Antarktis" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  8. ^ a b "History". Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Akademik Vernadsky". Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
  9. ^ "Wordie House". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
  10. ^ History of Rasmussen Hut (Station RS). British Antarctic Survey.
  11. ^ a b Vernadsky Station -- TravelPod

External linksEdit