The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of U.S. currency. A portrait of Andrew Jackson, the seventh U.S. president (1829–1837), has been featured on the obverse of the bill since 1928; the White House is featured on the reverse.
|Weight||c. 1.0 g|
|Security features||Security fibers, watermark, security thread, color shifting ink, micro printing, raised printing, EURion constellation|
|Material used||75% cotton|
|Years of printing||1861–present|
As of December 2018, the average life of a $20 bill in circulation is 7.8 years before it is replaced due to wear. Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps.
- 1861A demand note with the Goddess of Liberty holding a sword and shield on the front, and an abstract design on the back. The back is printed green. :
- 1862A note that is very similar, the first $20 United States note. The back is different, with several small variations extant. :
- 1863A gold certificate $20 note with an Eagle vignette on the face. The reverse has a $20 gold coin and various abstract elements. The back is orange. :
- 1865A national bank note with "The Battle of Lexington" and Pocahontas's marriage to John Rolfe in black, and a green border.:
- 1869A new United States note design, with Alexander Hamilton on the left side of the front and Victory holding a shield and sword. The back design is green. :
- 1875As above, except with a different reverse.:
- 1878A silver certificate $20 note with a portrait of Stephen Decatur on the right side of the face. The back design is black. :
- 1882A new gold certificate, with a portrait of James Garfield on the right of the face. The back is orange and features an eagle. :
- 1882A new national bank note. The front is similar, but the back is different and printed in brown. :
- 1886A new silver certificate $20 note, with Daniel Manning on the center of the face.:
- 1890A treasury (coin) note with John Marshall on the left of the face. Two different backs exist both with abstract designs. :
- 1902A new national bank note. The front features : Hugh McCulloch, and the back has a vignette of an allegorical America.
- 1905A new gold certificate $20 note, with George Washington on the center of the face. The back design is orange. :
- 1914A Federal Reserve Note.:
1880 $20 Legal Tender depicting Alexander Hamilton
Small size notesEdit
The security strip in a twenty-dollar bill glows green under a blacklight.
Andrew Jackson has appeared on the $20 bill since the series of 1928. The placement of Jackson on the $20 bill is considered ironic; as president, he vehemently opposed both the National Bank and use of paper money. After the president of the Second Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle, defied Jackson and requested the renewal of the charter of the Second Bank in an election year, Jackson responded by making it a goal of his administration to destroy the National Bank. Jackson prevailed over Biddle, and the absence of the Second Bank contributed to a real estate bubble in the mid-1830s. The bubble collapsed in the Panic of 1837, leading to a deep depression.
Given Jackson’s opposition to the concept of a National Bank, his presence on the $20 bill was controversial from the start. When pressed to reveal why the various images were chosen for the new bills, Treasury officials denied there was any political motivation. Instead, they insisted that the images were based only on their relative familiarity to the public. An article in the June 30, 1929 issue of the New York Times, stated “The Treasury Department maintains stoutly that the men chosen for small bills, which are naturally the ones in most demand, were so placed because their faces were most familiar to the majority of people.” It is also true that 1928 coincides with the 100th anniversary of Jackson's election as president, but no evidence has surfaced that would suggest that this was a factor in the decision. According to more recent inquiries of the U.S. Treasury: "Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence."
- 1914: Began as a large-sized note, a portrait of Grover Cleveland on the face, and, on the back, a steam locomotive and an automobile approaching from the left, and a steamship approaching from the right.
- 1918A federal reserve banknote with Grover Cleveland on the front, and a back design similar to the 1914 Federal Reserve Note.:
- 1928: Switched to a small-sized note with a portrait of Andrew Jackson on the face and the south view of the White House on the reverse. The banknote is redeemable in gold or silver (at the bearer's discretion) at any Federal Reserve Bank.
- 1933: With the U.S. having abandoned the gold standard, the bill is no longer redeemable in gold, but rather in "lawful money", meaning silver.
- 1942: A special emergency series, with brown serial numbers and "HAWAII" overprinted on both the front and the back, is issued. These notes were designed to circulate on the Hawaiian islands and could be rendered worthless in the event of a Japanese invasion.
- 1948: The White House rendering on the reverse of the bill was updated to reflect renovations to the building itself, including the addition of the Truman Balcony, as well as the passage of time. Most notably, the trees are larger. The change occurred during production of Series 1934C.
- 1950: Design elements such as the treasury and Federal Reserve seals are reduced in size and repositioned subtly, presumably for aesthetic reasons.
- 1963: "Will Pay To The Bearer On Demand" is removed from the front of the bill and the legal tender designation is shortened to "This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private" (eliminating "and is redeemable in lawful money at the United States Treasury, or at any Federal Reserve Bank.") Also, "In God We Trust" is added above the White House on the reverse. These two acts (one taking U.S. currency off the silver backing, and the other authorizing the national motto) are coincidental, even if their combined result is implemented in one redesign. Also, several design elements are rearranged, less perceptibly than the changes in 1950, mostly to make room for the slightly rearranged obligations.
- 1969: The new treasury seal appears on all denominations, including the $20.
- 1977A new type of serial-number press results in a slightly different font. The old presses are gradually retired, and old-style serial numbers appear as late as 1981 for this denomination. :
- 1992For Series 1990, new anti-counterfeiting features are added: microprinting around the portrait, and a plastic strip embedded in the paper. Production of Series 1990 bills began in April 1992. : 
- 1994: The first $20 notes produced at the Western Currency Facility in Fort Worth, Texas are printed in January 1994, late during production of Series 1990.
- 1998: The Series 1996 $20 note was completely redesigned for the first time since 1929 to further deter counterfeiting; A larger, off-center portrait of Jackson was used and the view of the White House on the reverse of the bill was changed from the south portico to the north. Several new anti-counterfeiting features were added, including color-shifting ink, microprinting, and a watermark. The plastic strip now reads "USA 20" and glows green under a black light. Production of Series 1996 $20 notes began in June,1998.
- 2003: The redesigned Series 2004 20 dollar note is released with light background shading in green and yellow, and no oval around Andrew Jackson's portrait (background images of eagles, etc. were also added to the obverse); the reverse features the same view of the White House, but without an oval around it. Ninety faint "20"s are scattered on the back in yellow as a "EURion constellation" to prevent photocopying. Production of Series 2004 $20 notes began in April, 2003.
|National Bank Note Types 1 & 2||1929||Jones||Woods||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Bank Note||1928A||Jones||Woods||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928||Tate||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928A||Woods||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928B||Woods||Mellon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1928C||Woods||Mills||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934||Julian||Morgenthau||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934 Hawaii||Julian||Morgenthau||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934A||Julian||Morgenthau||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934A Hawaii||Julian||Morgenthau||Brown|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934B||Julian||Vinson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934C||Julian||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1934D||Clark||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950||Clark||Snyder||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950A||Priest||Humphrey||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950B||Priest||Anderson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950C||Smith||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950D||Granahan||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1950E||Granahan||Fowler||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1963||Granahan||Dillon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1963A||Granahan||Fowler||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969||Elston||Kennedy||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969A||Kabis||Connally||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969B||Bañuelos||Connally||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1969C||Bañuelos||Shultz||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1974||Neff||Simon||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1977||Morton||Blumenthal||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1981||Buchanan||Regan||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1981A||Ortega||Regan||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1985||Ortega||Baker||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1988A||Villalpando||Brady||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1990||Villalpando||Brady||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1993||Withrow||Bentsen||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1995||Withrow||Rubin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1996||Withrow||Rubin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||1999||Withrow||Summers||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2001||Marin||O'Neill||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2004||Marin||Snow||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2004A||Cabral||Snow||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2006||Cabral||Paulson||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2009||Rios||Geithner||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2013||Rios||Lew||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2017||Carranza||Mnuchin||Green|
|Federal Reserve Note||2017A||Carranza||Mnuchin||Green|
Proposal for a woman's portraitEdit
In a campaign called "Women on 20s", selected voters were asked to choose three of 15 female candidates to have a portrait on the $20 bill. The goal was to have a woman on the $20 bill by 2020, the centennial of the 19th Amendment which gave women the right to vote. Among the candidates on the petition were Harriet Tubman, Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, and Wilma Mankiller, the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation.
On May 12, 2015, Tubman was announced as the winning candidate of that "grassroots" poll with more than 600,000 people surveyed and more than 118,000 choosing Tubman, followed by Roosevelt, Parks and Mankiller.
On June 17, 2015, Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announced that a woman's portrait would be featured on a redesigned $10 bill by 2020, replacing Alexander Hamilton. However, that decision was reversed, at least in part due to Hamilton's surging popularity following the hit Broadway musical Hamilton.
On April 20, 2016, Lew officially announced that Alexander Hamilton would remain on the $10 bill, while Andrew Jackson would be replaced by Tubman on the front of the $20 bill, with Jackson appearing on the reverse. Lew simultaneously announced that the five- and ten-dollar bills would also be redesigned in the coming years and put into production in the next decade.
While campaigning for president, Donald Trump responded to the announcement that Tubman would replace Jackson on the twenty-dollar bill. The day following the announcement Trump called Tubman "fantastic", but stated that he would oppose replacing Jackson with Tubman, calling the replacement "pure political correctness", and suggested that Tubman could perhaps be put on another denomination instead.
On August 31, 2017, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said that he would not commit to putting Tubman on the twenty-dollar bill, explaining "People have been on the bills for a long period of time. This is something we'll consider; right now we have a lot more important issues to focus on." According to a Bureau of Engraving and Printing spokesperson, the next redesigned bill will be the ten-dollar bill, not set to be released into circulation until at least 2026.
In May 2019, Mnuchin stated that no new imagery will be unveiled until 2026, and that a new bill will not go into circulation until 2028. In making the announcement, Mnuchin blamed the delay on technical reasons. However, an employee within the Bureau of Engraving and Printing told the New York Times that at the time of the announcement "the design appeared to be far along in the process." Democratic members of the House of Representatives asked Mnuchin to provide more specific reasons for the delay. In June, the Treasury Department's acting inspector general, Rich Delmar, announced his office would conduct an investigation into what caused the delay in production of the new bill featuring Tubman.
In January 2021, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki said President Joe Biden will accelerate the Tubman redesign. However, the Tubman redesign is unlikely to be released until at least 2030.
- Twenty Bucks, a 1993 movie that follows the travels of a $20 bill.
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- ^ "GIGANTIC TASK OF CHANGING OUR MONEY; Revolution Soon to Be Effected in Our Paper Currency Has Been in Process for Two Years in the Great Plant at Washington Which Has Been Shipping Out $15,000,000 a Day in Bills to the Banks". The New York Times. June 30, 1929.
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- ^ Tan, Avianne (April 8, 2015). "'Women on 20s' to Ask President Obama to Put One of These 4 Women on $20 Bill". ABC News. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
Which country has the least sexist banknotes? BBC. April 13, 2015. Retrieved on April 14, 2015.
"Final Round Candidates". Women On 20s. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- ^ "Harriet Tubman wins poll to replace Andrew Jackson on $20 bill". New York Post. Reuters. May 13, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 24, 2019). "Treasury's Inspector General to Review Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Delay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- ^ "Andrew Jackson To Be Taken Off The $20 Bill". Huffington Post. April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- ^ Nguyen, Tina (April 20, 2016). ""Hamilton" Fans, Rejoice: Founding Father to Stay on the $10 Bill". Vanity Fair.
- ^ a b "Treasury Secretary Lew Announces Front of New $20 to Feature Harriet Tubman, Lays Out Plans for New $20, $10 and $5" (Press release). United States Department of the Treasury. April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
White, Ben; McCaskill, Nolan D. "Treasury's Lew to announce Hamilton to stay on $10 bill". Politico. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- ^ a b Korte, Gregory (April 21, 2016). "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on the front of the $20 bill". USA Today. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
- ^ Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: Tubman on the $20 bill is 'pure political correctness'". CNN.
- ^ Temple-West, Patrick (August 31, 2017). "Mnuchin dismisses question about putting Harriet Tubman on $20 bill". Politico. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- ^ What Happened to the Plan to Put Harriet Tubman on the $20 Bill?
- ^ The Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Plan Has Been Put on the Back Burner
- ^ Rappeport, Alan (May 22, 2019). "Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Is Delayed Until Trump Leaves Office, Mnuchin Says". New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 14, 2019). "See a Design of the Harriet Tubman $20 Bill That Mnuchin Delayed". New York Times.
- ^ Romo, Vanessa (June 24, 2019). "Treasury Department Launches Investigation Into Delays Behind Harriet Tubman $20 Bill". NPR. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
- ^ Breuninger, Kevin (January 25, 2021). "Biden's Treasury revives push to put Harriet Tubman on $20 bill after Trump shelved it". CNBC. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- ^ Mark, Michelle (April 22, 2022). "Harriet Tubman probably won't be on the $20 bill until at least 2030 — here's why". Insider.