Typhoon Winnie, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ibiang, was the most destructive tropical cyclone to impact the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangsu, and Shandong in 200 years. Originating from an area of low pressure over the Pacific Ocean on August 5, 1997, the system organized into a tropical depression. It headed northwestward, slowly strengthening into a tropical storm on August 9. Intensification became more rapid as conditions became more favorable, and Winnie reached typhoon strength on August 10. On August 12, 1997, Winnie became a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon, with peak 1-minute sustained winds of 160 miles per hour (260 km/h). Winnie then weakened and passed north of Taiwan, before making landfall in Eastern China at Category 1-equivalent typhoon strength on the August 18. Winnie continued northeast over land while weakening, bringing heavy rainfall before dissipating on August 23.

Typhoon Winnie (Ibiang)
Typhoon Winnie near peak intensity on August 12
Meteorological history
FormedAugust 5, 1997
ExtratropicalAugust 20, 1997
DissipatedAugust 23, 1997
Very strong typhoon
10-minute sustained (JMA)
Highest winds185 km/h (115 mph)
Lowest pressure915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg
Category 5-equivalent super typhoon
1-minute sustained (SSHWS)
Highest winds260 km/h (160 mph)
Overall effects
Fatalities372 total
Damage$3.2 billion
Areas affectedNorthern Mariana Islands, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, China, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East
IBTrACSEdit this at Wikidata

Part of the 1997 Pacific typhoon season

Winnie is also tied with Typhoon Carmen in 1960 for having the largest eye on record, at 230 mi (370 km) in diameter.[1]

Meteorological history edit

 
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
  Extratropical cyclone, remnant low, tropical disturbance, or monsoon depression

On August 5, an area of low-pressure formed near the Marshall Islands. The low headed northwestward while gradually organizing, strengthening into a tropical depression on the next day, with the JTWC assigning the storm the identifier 14W. Tropical Depression 14W subsequently strengthened into Tropical Storm Winnie on August 9. Intensification became more rapid as conditions became more favorable, and Winnie reached typhoon strength on August 10. Two days later, Winnie became the 4th Super Typhoon of the season, with peak 1-minute sustained winds of 160 mph. Soon afterward, the eye became ragged and large, with an outer eyewall reaching 230 miles (320 km) in diameter.[1] On August 18, Typhoon Winnie passed north of Taiwan and made landfall in eastern China, where it winded down until it degenerated into a remnant low on August 20. Winnie's remnant continued northeastward, bringing heavy rain and damage across China, before dissipating on August 23.[2]

Impact edit

 
Photograph of Typhoon Winnie on August 13 taken by a crew member of STS-85

Philippines edit

In combination with the seasonal monsoon, rainfall from Typhoon Winnie killed at least 27 people in the northern Philippines on August 18. A total of 810,105 people were affected by the storm in the country, of which 53,654 were evacuated. A total of 204 homes were destroyed and 5,885 others were damaged. Preliminary damage was estimated at 60.188 million pesos (US$2.2 million).[3]

Japan edit

Throughout the Ryukyu Islands and Kyūshū, Typhoon Winnie produced torrential rainfall, peaking at 450 mm (18 in) in Mikado, Miyazaki.[4]

Taiwan edit

Across Taiwan, Typhoon Winnie produced enormous amounts of rainfall, with some areas recording over 710 mm (28 in) over a 13-hour span.[5] At least 46 people were killed by the storm throughout the island,[6] 28 of whom were crushed when the Lincoln Mansions [zh] apartment building buckled and collapsed after the hillside it was on gave way near the town of Xizhi.[7] Nine other people were trapped underneath the rubble and likely perished.[8] Near Taipei, six people were killed in a landslide, including two children. Three more drowned amidst flood waters near the city; another died after being blown off a roof while trying to break into a home; and a sixth died from unknown causes. Flooding in suburban Taipei left the entire ground level of buildings underwater, sending debris across streets turned into rivers. Large swells produced by the storm also eroded coastal highways along the eastern shores. Additionally, an estimated 68,000 people lost power in northern Taiwan.[5] Overall, damage from Winnie was estimated at $10 million across the island.[9]

People's Republic of China edit

In the People's Republic of China, Typhoon Winnie was regarded as one of the worst storms to strike the country in over a decade.[10] At least 310 people were confirmed to have been killed and damage exceeded $3.2 billion (1997 USD).[11] Additionally, over 3,000 people were injured by the typhoon.

Prior to the typhoon's arrival in mainland China, officials evacuated an estimated 1 million people from coastal areas. Along coastal Zhejiang, large swells produced by Winnie breached dikes at several towns, prompting the evacuation of 30,000 people. Across the province, heavy rains flooded at least 20,000 homes and killed at least 241 people.[8][12] Thousands of homes were destroyed by the storm, which accounted for a majority of the fatalities.[13] In Shanghai, the Huangpu River broke its banks and inundated 400 homes with 1.5 m (4.9 ft) of water and knocked out power to thousands of residents.[8] An estimated 1.45 million people were isolated during the storm after thousands of towns were surrounded by flood waters. In Zhenjiang province alone, damage was estimated at 8.3 billion yuan (US$1 billion).[14] Additionally, roughly 1.6 million acres of farmland was damaged, leaving $2.2 billion in losses.[13] In nearby Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, 69 people were killed by the storm.[8][15]

Aftermath edit

Taiwan and the Philippines edit

In the wake of the typhoon, rescue crews were deployed throughout Taiwan, especially to the hard-hit areas around Taipei. At the site of the apartment collapse, rescue attempts were taken out for three days and after finding no additional survivors on the third, the remaining nine trapped within the rubble were presumed dead.[8]

In response to the widespread damage and flooding in the Philippines, the National Disaster Coordinating Council deployed disaster teams on August 20 to the affected regions to evacuate residents and begin relief efforts. The Philippine National Red Cross reported that it had enough food in store to serve 4,106 families in the wake of the storm.[3]

People's Republic of China edit

According to news reports in China, emergency crews were out and repairing dikes damaged or destroyed by the typhoon as early as August 20.[8] Within a few days of the storm's passage, food supplies and transportation had returned to normal in most of the affected areas.[16] Roughly 300 km (190 mi) of failed dikes in Zhenjiang were considered to be the main reason why the storm was unusually deadly and destructive. By August 23, residents began repairing their homes in parts of the province after having evacuated ahead of the storm.[17]

Records edit

 
Typhoon Winnie on August 17, 1997 having the largest eye of a tropical cyclone ever recorded, tied with Typhoon Carmen of 1960.

Typhoon Winnie is tied with Typhoon Carmen in 1960 for having the largest eye on record, at 200 nautical miles (230 mi; 370 km) in diameter. This gigantic eye contributed to Winnie's unusually large storm surge in Shanghai, even though the storm made landfall well to the south of the city.[1]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c Jeff Masters (July 10, 2015). "Category 3 Chan-hom: One of Shanghai's Strongest Typhoons on Record?". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  2. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Super Typhoon Winnie (14W). Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  3. ^ a b United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (August 20, 1997). "The Philippines - Typhoon Winnie DHA-Geneva Situation Report No. 1". Center for International Disaster Information. Retrieved July 22, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "降水量サマリービュー Typhoon 199713" (in Japanese). National Institute of Informatics. 1998. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Typhoon Winnie Kills 25 In Taiwan". The Columbian. Associated Press. August 18, 1997. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  6. ^ "Typhoon Winnie kills at least 72". The Toronto Star. Reuters. August 21, 1997. p. A.20. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  7. ^ Irene Lin (May 17, 2000). "Lincoln Mansions victimsbalk at High Court ruling". Taipei Times.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Typhoon Winnie slams China as Taiwan cleans up". Sun Journal. Associated Press. August 21, 1997. p. 18. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  9. ^ Voice of America (August 21, 1997). "Work crews continue to clean up damage". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  10. ^ "Typhoon Winnie kills". Lodi News-Sentinel. Associated Press. August 22, 1997. p. 6. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  11. ^ Staff Writer (August 24, 1997). "World/Nation Briefs". Newsday. p. A.24.
  12. ^ Jian-Min Li, Guochen Wan (August 21, 1997). "Typhoon Winnie Kills More than 241 in Zhejiang". China News Digest. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  13. ^ a b "Typhoon Winnie kills 140 in east China". CNN. Reuters. August 21, 1997. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  14. ^ United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (August 20, 1997). "China - Typhoon Winnie DHA-Geneva Situation Report No. 1". Center for International Disaster Information. Retrieved July 22, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Staff Writer (August 20, 1997). "Typhoon Winnie Leaves Death and Devastation". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  16. ^ "Typhoon Winnie kills 56 in eastern China". Sun Journal. Associated Press. August 22, 1997. p. 20. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  17. ^ Xinhua news agency (August 23, 1997). "China: Typhoon caused 2.5bn dollars'damage in Zhejiang". BBC. Retrieved July 22, 2010.

External links edit