Twerking (//) is a type of dance originating as part of the bounce music scene of New Orleans in the late 1980s. Individually-performed, chiefly but not exclusively by women, dancers move throwing or thrusting their hips back or shaking their buttocks, often in a low squatting stance. Twerking is part of a larger set of characteristic moves unique to the New Orleans style of hip-hop known as "Bounce". Moves include "mixing", "exercising", the "bend over", the "shoulder hustle", "clapping", "booty clapping", and "the wild wood"—all recognized as "booty shaking" or "bounce". Twerking is but one choreographic gesture within bounce.
As a tradition shaped by local aid and pleasure clubs, block parties and second lines, the dance was central to "a historical situating of sissy bounce—bounce music as performed by artists from the New Orleans African-American community that [led to] a meteoric rise in popularity post-[Hurricane Katrina after 2005]." In the 90s, twerking had widespread appeal in black party culture throughout the hip-hop/rap region known as The Dirty South, including New Orleans, Memphis, Virginia Beach, Miami, Atlanta, and Houston. In 2013 it became the top "What is" search on the Google search engine.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines an 18th century use of the word as a blend of "twist" and "jerk", which was reported by the BBC in conjunction with the black cultural context, but this seems to be an erroneous connection or a false cognate. Outsiders speculate that the term is a contraction of "footwork" and repeat the notion that it is a portmanteau of the words "twist" and "jerk". The Oxford Dictionaries blog states, "the most likely theory is that it is an alteration of work, because that word has a history of being used in similar ways, with dancers being encouraged to "work it". Local bounce practitioners attribute the term to a contraction of "to work" or "t'werk".
The earliest use of the word "twerk" on record was produced in a local New Orleans recording by DJ Jubilee. The word specifically originated from the inner-city of New Orleans and was used frequently in New Orleans Bounce music by rappers and DJs hosting block parties in the housing projects. The word became popular in the 2000s when it was used by Atlanta rapper Lil Jon and The Eastside Boys. A Google Trends search reveals that interest in the word "twerk" arose in November 2011. The diffusion of the dance phenomenon began earlier via local parties and eventually strip clubs often associated with mainstream rap music and video production aired by video cable television shows that featured rap and R&B music. Popular video-sharing channels amplified interest since the advent of digital social media platforms.
In 2013, the dance became a viral sensation beyond black culture. Miley Cyrus used the dance in a video that was uploaded first to Facebook and then YouTube in March. Though twerking began trending as a web search in November 2011, and despite its origins in the bounce culture of New Orleans in the late 1980s, the word twerk would be added to the Oxford Dictionary Online and attributed to Cyrus following her appearance at the MTV VMA Awards in August 2013. It became the number one "What is" Google search that year as those outside the culture questioned the popularity of the dance. The word was a runner-up to "selfie" in the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013.
Linked to Africa and the African diasporaEdit
Historically and currently, similar styles of booty-shaking are found throughout the continent of Africa as well as the African and Afro-Latin diaspora. Similar styles of dance are known as mapouka in Ivory Coast, leumbeul in Senegal, and other styles can be found in Tanzania, Southeast Nigeria, Uganda and Kenya to name a few. This style of pelvic- and hip-isolated dancing is known as perreo or sandungueo associated with Reggaeton from Puerto Rico. Twerking can be said to be indirectly linked to African cultural dancing without any direct connections between people from Africa. Without knowledge of its historical or cultural roots in New Orleans and links to a diaspora of styles of dance, the trend was discussed in ahistorical ways. Twerking like many cultural traditions or expressive dances associated with marginalized groups has become stigmatized in racialized and gendered ways that often associates those who perform the dance—primarily girls and women of color—with deviant behavior.
In the recording industryEdit
First time on recordEdit
The word "twerking" first appeared on record in "Do the Jubilee All" by DJ Jubilee in 1993, in which he chanted, "Twerk baby, twerk baby, twerk, twerk, twerk." In 1995, New Orleans-based rapper Cheeky Blakk recorded the song "Twerk Something!", a call-and-response dance song dedicated to twerking. In 1997, DJ Jubilee recorded "Get Ready, Ready" in which he encouraged listeners to "Twerk it!".
Rise to national attentionEdit
Twerking first received national recognition in the United States in the early 2000s, when the song "Whistle While You Twurk" (2000), by Southern hip hop duo Ying Yang Twins, peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs component chart. It was later referenced in their later track "Say I Yi Yi" (2002), in which the lyrics "she got her hands up on her knees and her elbows on her thighs / she like to twerk and that's for certain I can tell that she fly" are heard. In Silkk The Shocker's 2001 Song "That's Cool", which reached number 8 in the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs the chorus features the line "Somebody that's off the chain / who could twerk that thang". The first mainstream artist to use the word in a song occurred in 2005, when American recording artist Beyoncé sings "Dip it, pop it, twerk it, stop it, check on me tonight" in the song Check on It. The single reached number-one on the US Billboard Hot 100, following its release. "Twerk" was also sung in the Destiny's Child's single "Jumpin' Jumpin'".
In 2006, the song "Pop, Lock & Drop It", by American rapper Huey, reached number six on the US Billboard Hot 100. Also in 2006, the hit single "SexyBack", by American pop singer Justin Timberlake, featuring Timbaland, from the former's second studio album Futuresex/Lovesounds, featured Timbaland rapping the lyrics "Let me see what you're twerking with / Go ahead, be gone with it, Look at those hips". During her tenure in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), Eve Torres would twerk before performing a standing moonsault on her opponent.
In the mediaEdit
In 2011, a group of female dancers who call themselves the Twerk Team and have posted several videos of themselves twerking on YouTube were mentioned during the song "Round of Applause" by Waka Flocka Flame featuring Drake, in the line "Bounce that ass, shake that ass like the Twerk Team". Australian rapper Iggy Azalea has incorporated twerking into her live shows since 2011.
In July 2012, during the Workaholics episode "The Lord's Force", Anders Holm says "Let's just, uh, put on some twerk videos or something, right?". The 2012 single "Bandz a Make Her Dance" by Juicy J, contains the lyric "Start twerking when she hear her song", while French Montana questions the ability of a girl to twerk by asking "What you twerkin' with," in his respective 2012 single "Pop That", featuring fellow rappers Drake, Lil Wayne and Rick Ross. The aforementioned songs, along with "Express Yourself" by Nicky Da B and Diplo, "made twerking the most popular dance move since the Dougie".
In March 2013, American pop singer Miley Cyrus posted a video on Facebook which featured her performing a twerking routine while wearing a unicorn suit, to the 2011 single "Wop" by J. Dash. The popularity of the video, along with parodies and responses made by fans, influenced the song's re-emergence on the Billboard Hot 100. Miley Cyrus's "Wop" video would go to become viral; by April 9, 2013, copies of the video had amassed over 4 million views on YouTube. Also in March 2013, Mollie King, an English singer-songwriter and lead vocalist of British-Irish girl group The Saturdays, was seen twerking when her bandmate Rochelle Humes uploaded the footage on YouTube. American actress and singer Vanessa Hudgens was also seen twerking in March on American late-night talk show The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. In September 2013, Hudgens was later seen twerking, this time to the song "Bubble Butt", during her performance at Bootsy Bellows in West Hollywood, with her girl group YLA. Hudgens was again seen twerking in a video for Shade 45's radio show Sway in the Morning. American actress and singer Ashley Tisdale can also be seen twerking in a video for Shade 45's radio show Sway in the Morning.
On July 9, 2013, a video was posted on the Twitter-owned video sharing service Vine entitled "Twerk Team", which featured a group of five women provocatively twerking to "Don't Drop That Thun Thun". The clip was shared by users over 100,000 times, and users created their own responses and parodies featuring the song, collected under the hashtags "#dontdropthat" and "#thunthun". The viral popularity of the Vine clips led to an unexpected increase in sales for the song; prior to the posting of the "Twerk Team" clip, only 4,000 copies of the song had been sold; in the following weeks, sales went up to 34,000, then to over 72,000. By late-July, "Don't Drop That Thun Thun" had reached #5 on Billboard's R&B/Hip-Hop Digital Songs chart, and it eventually peaked at #35 on Billboard's Hot 100 chart.
Both "Wop" and "Don't Drop That Thun Thun" have been cited as examples of how viral and user-created videos can bring renewed interest to songs; Spin writer Jordan Sargent considered "Wop" to be rap music's "Harlem Shake moment", but not a meme to the same extent as it. In April 2013, American rapper Danny Brown released the song "Express Yourself", inspired by music producer Diplo's song of the same name. The song, produced by Trampy, features a fast-paced electronic beat and is a composition about the popular dance craze twerking. Brown dedicated the song "to all the ladies that like to turn up and have fun," in which he raps "Toes on the wall and her ass in the air / And she twerk that thing like she ain't have a care".
In the music video for Barbadian singer Rihanna's single "Pour It Up", which was released in May 2013, the singer can be seen twerking. In June 2013, American rapper Busta Rhymes released a Jamaican dancehall-inspired single titled "Twerk It", featuring Nicki Minaj, who has been featured on several other "twerking songs", including "Shakin' It 4 Daddy" by Robin Thicke, "Dance (A$$)" by Big Sean and "Clappers" by Wale. Minaj can be seen twerking in all four of the aforementioned songs' respective music videos. Minaj can also be seen twerking in the music videos for American rapper Nelly's single "Get Like Me" and American singer Ciara's single "I'm Out". In August 2013, the song "Twerk", by Lil Twist, featuring pop singers Miley Cyrus and Justin Bieber, was leaked online.
On July 14, 2013, Showtime broadcast Season 1 Episode 3, of the series, "Ray Donovan", entitled "Twerk," in which actor John Voight's character enters a college library and pays a student to give up his computer terminal so that he can watch online videos of women twerking. A YouTube video of the scene has more than 38,000views.
In August 2013, Juicy J announced via Twitter, that he would give out a $50,000 scholarship for the girl who can twerk the best. The competition is inspired by the track "Scholarship" on his third album Stay Trippy, which contains the lyric "Keep twerking baby, might earn you a scholarship." In early September 2013, a video titled "Worst Twerk Fail EVER - Girl Catches Fire!", began circulating around online; the video went on to become viral with over 9 million views, and received media coverage. The following week, American comedian and television host Jimmy Kimmel revealed the video was a hoax that he and his team had devised, on Jimmy Kimmel Live!. In April 2014, the video won the Webby Award for best viral clip of the year.
Also in September, "Twerk" from the MTV VMA show was named the Top Television Word of the Year (Teleword) of the 2012–2013 TV season by the Global Language Monitor. In October 2013, American actress Beth Behrs, of American television sitcom 2 Broke Girls, was seen twerking on The Ellen DeGeneres Show. Behrs was later seen twerking to the 1992 hit "Baby Got Back", in January 2014, during the 40th annual awards ceremony of the People's Choice Awards, which she hosted alongside her co-star Kat Dennings. The fifth episode of the fifth season of the American musical television series Glee, which aired November 13, 2013 and was titled "The End of Twerk", revolved around the twerking phenomenon. The seventh episode of the second season of the American reality television series Bad Girls All-Star Battle, which aired February 25, 2014 and was titled "Twerk It Out", featured the contestants twerking as fast as possible with pedometers on their back.
In August 2013, American recording artist Miley Cyrus, generated controversy following a sexually provocative performance during the 2013 MTV Video Music Awards, in which Cyrus twerked during a medley of her track "We Can't Stop", "Blurred Lines" and "Give It 2 U" by Robin Thicke.
In August 2014, American recording artist Taylor Swift, featured twerking in the music video to her single "Shake It Off". This caused some controversy with American rapper Earl Sweatshirt saying that the video was "perpetuating stereotypes".
In 2009, a trio of teenage African-American girls from Atlanta, Georgia founded "The Twerk Team." After turning 18, they joined YouTube creating TheOfficialTwerkTeam channel with an upload on June 5, 2009 announcing themselves to the world as @BeTTyBuTT, @MizzTwerkSum and @TTLadyLuscious. Their videos featured "them gyrating and shaking their butts, to a point that it's artistic." In 2011 the Twerk Team got a shout out in the song and music video "Round of Applause" by Waka Flocka Flame featuring Drake, in the line "Bounce that ass, shake that ass like the Twerk Team".
The group was called "YouTube's foremost ass-shaking troupe" by gossip website Gawker. As of December 2012 their channel had a total of more than 74 million views and more than 250,000 subscribers and their Twitter account had about 115,000 followers. Founding member Jaime Adedra Moore (BeTTy BuTT) left the group in 2012 to pursue her education. Two years later she was fatally shot, murdered during an Atlanta drug deal gone wrong. The Official Twerk Team continues with its two remaining members. By June 2017, their YouTube channel had over 500,000 subscribers with over 160 twerking videos dating back to 2009, four years prior to the cultural appropriations that sparked outrage among black cultural critics from 2011 to 2013.
An interview by BBC News  shows how Kelechi Okafor, an actress and twerk instructor in South London gets through the trauma of sexual abuse using dance twerking as a form of self-expression. According to Kelechi, twerking is more than shaking your bum, it is a feminist movement that she uses to empower the women who come to her studio. "Dance, it’s a channel that you can use to express so much: joy, pain, sadness, you can express so much through it so I started to use that as a way of really communicating the things I felt there were really no words for," Kelechi says.
- Miller, Matt (2012). Bounce: Rap Music and Local Identity in New Orleans. Boston: Univ of Massachusetts Press.
- Dee, Jonathan (2012-08-11). "Sissy Bounce, New Orleans's Gender-Bending Rap - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "Twerk: Definition of Twerk in Oxford Dictionary - American English (US)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "Where They At: New Orleans Hip-Hop and Bounce in Words and Pictures. Aubrey Edwards and Alison Fensterstock. New Orleans 2010". www.wheretheyatnola.com. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "Peter Pan and Bending Over: Big Freedia's 5 Best Non-Twerk Dances". Fuse. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- Fuse (2013-10-09), Big Freedia on New Orleans Bounce Music & Inventing New Dance Moves, retrieved 2017-06-30
- Holly, Hobbs (2012). "A Review of Matt Miller's Bounce: Rap Music and Local Identity in New Orleans". Southern Spaces. 2012. doi:10.18737/M7ZC82.
- Matt, Miller (2008). "Dirty Decade: Rap Music and the US South, 1997–2007". Southern Spaces. 2008. doi:10.18737/M78P5T.
- Hern, Alex (2013-12-17). "Twerking dances its way into 2013 Google search rankings". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "Twerk dates back to 1820, says Oxford English Dictionary". BBC News. 2015-06-25. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "What is the origin of 'twerk'?". 2013-08-29.
- Gaunt, Kyra D. (2015-09-01). "YouTube, Twerking & You: Context Collapse and the Handheld Co-Presence of Black Girls and Miley Cyrus". Journal of Popular Music Studies. 27 (3): 244–273. doi:10.1111/jpms.12130. ISSN 1533-1598.
- Levy, Megan (December 14, 2012). "Do you know how to twerk? (Or even what it is?)". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "A Brief History of Twerking".
- Miller, Matt (April 2006). "Bounce: Rap Music and Cultural Survival in New Orleans" (PDF). HypheNation: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Critical Moments Discourse (published 2006). 1 (1). Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Google Trends - Web Search interest - Worldwide, 2004 - present". Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- Nellie Jay (2013-03-20), Miley Cyrus Twerk., retrieved 2016-06-25
- "'Twerk,' 'selfie' added to Oxford dictionary". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. August 28, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Hern, Alex (2013-12-17). "Twerking dances its way into 2013 Google search rankings". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- Staff, Guardian (2013-11-19). "Selfie is Oxford Dictionaries' word of the year | Books | The Guardian". The Guardian. theguardian.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (2000-05-28). "Dance Has Africans Shaking Behinds, and Heads". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- Yobi100 (2009-07-24), Mapouka Nouvelle d'aujourd'hui MAPOUKA 2009 Booty Dance, retrieved 2016-06-25
- LABEL IVOIRE (2012-07-14), Nigui Saff K.Dance - Mapouka Originel, retrieved 2016-06-25
- Baldé, Assanatou. "Senegalese traditional dance, sex or pornography? - Afrik-news.com : Africa news, Maghreb news - The african daily newspaper". www.afrik-news.com. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- senewebdirect (2010-11-25), Leumbeul senegal, retrieved 2016-06-25
- Niamba, Baskerville (2014-01-01). "Twerk It: Deconstructing Racial and Gendered Implications of Black Women's Bodies through Representations of Twerking".
- Megan Anne Todd, 2009 Getting Krump: Reading Choreographies of Cultural Desire Through an Afro-diasporic Dance, Ph.D. dissertation, 2009 University of Arizona. Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI, 2009 3357286.
- Sarig, Roni (2007). Third Coast: Outkast, Timbaland, and How Hip-Hop Became a Southern Thing. Da Capo. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-306-81647-5.
- "A Brief History of Twerking". Fuse. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- "Beyoncé – Check on It Lyrics". Rap Genius. November 11, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "Eve Torres Knock Out Booty Shake".
- "Hot GIF of Eve Torres Popping Her Booty | Daily Wrestling News".
- Morgan, Glennisha. "Could 'Twerking' Possibly Be a New Way to Stay Fit?". Frugivore Magazine. Archived from the original on May 29, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- "Iggy Azalea Claims Miley Cyrus' Twerking Was 'Probably' Inspired By Her Dance Moves". huffingtonpost.com. October 3, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Top Iggy Azalea Twerking Moments". Bossip. 2013-10-21. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Workaholics s03e07 Episode Script | SS". springfieldspringfield.co.uk. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Juicy J – Bands A Make Her Dance (Remix 2) Lyrics". RapGenius. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "French Montana – Pop That Lyrics". RapGenius. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Weiss, Jeff (December 28, 2012). "2012: The Year We All Got Ratchet". MTV Hive. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "How to Do the Wop? Miley Cyrus Demonstrates". Fusion. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- "Mollie King Twerking on video filmed by The Saturdays bandmate Rochelle - 3am & Mirror Online". mirror.co.uk. 2013-03-24. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Who Did It Better: Vanessa Hudgens's Booty Dance Vs. Miley Cyrus's Unicorn Twerking". uproxx.com. 2013-03-21. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Vanessa Hudgens -- My Ass is Small But I'm Twerking Like It's BIG | TMZ.com". tmz.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "VIDEO: Vanessa Hudgens Twerks in Live Performance with YLA | HEAVY". heavy.com. 2013-09-25. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Sway's Universe | Vanessa Hudgens Booty Pops on Sway In The Morning & Answers Sex Questions from Sway's Mystery Sack". swaysuniverse.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Watch Vanessa Hudgens Booty Pop to Diplo's "Express Yourself" | Do Androids Dance". doandroidsdance.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Ashley Tisdale Twerks on Sway in the Morning. Is She Better Than Miley Cyrus? | The Rotten Apple TV". therottenappletv.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "INTERVIEW: Ashley Tisdale Twerks on Sway in the Morning – Shade 45 » Kimmi Cupcakes: 50% Korean + 50% Panamanian = 100%". kimmicupcakes.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Vine Twerk Mashups Bump Sales For FiNATTiCZ' 'Don't Drop That Thun Thun'". Billboard.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- "How Twerking on Vine Sent Years-Old Rap Songs Up The iTunes Charts". Animal New York. August 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Zeichner, Naomi (April 5, 2013). "Danny Brown, "#ExpressYourself" (Prod. by Trampy) MP3". The Fader. The Fader, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "XDannyXBrownX: https://t.co/oUhH6G3ir2". Twitter. April 4, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013. External link in
- "Danny Brown – Express Yourself Lyrics". Rap Genius. August 1, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- Reed, Ryan (October 2, 2013). "Rihanna Twerks Dangerously in 'Pour It Up'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Nelly, Nicki Minaj, Pharrell reveal 'Get Like Me' music video - watch - Music News - Digital Spy". digitalspy.com. August 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Ciara & Nicki Minaj's "I'm Out" Video: Watch The Sexy Clip | Music News, Reviews, and Gossip on Idolator.com". idolator.com. July 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Miley Cyrus and Justin Bieber team up for new song called Twerk". The Daily Telegraph. London. August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- "Ray Donovan Recap: Twerk".
- "Ray Donovan hilarious john voight scene Twerk!!".
- "Twerk Hard and Earn a $50,000 College Scholarship Courtesy Of Juicy J". Time. August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Blake, Meredith (September 10, 2013). "Jimmy Kimmel reveals truth behind 'twerking girl on fire' video - Los Angeles Times". articles.latimes.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Oldenburg, Ann (September 10, 2013). "Jimmy Kimmel: 'Twerking girl on fire' video was a hoax". usatoday.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Jimmy Kimmel Admits 'Twerking FAIL' Video Was Hoax Set Up By His Show". huffingtonpost.com. September 10, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Worst Twerk Fail ever video: Girl sets herself on fire while twerking clip wins top viral Webby award for internet excellence - Mirror Online". mirror.co.uk. 2014-04-30. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Beth Behrs Twerks the DJ Stand on Ellen show - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Beth Behrs Twerks the DJ Stand | EllenTV.com". ellentv.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Beth Behrs "Baby Got Back" Twerking Sketch at 2014 People's Choice Awards | Clevver News - Yahoo Screen". screen.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "'2 Broke Girls' Star Twerks To 'Baby Got Back' At The 'People's Choice Awards'". huffingtonpost.com. January 9, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Glee Recap: Twerking, Moles, and 'Blurred Lines' -- Vulture". vulture.com. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "'Bad Girls All Star Battle' Season 2, Episode 7: 'Twerk It Out' - Atlanta Blackstar". atlantablackstar.com. 2014-02-25. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Lauren Moraski (September 21, 2013). "Miley Cyrus' booty-shaking VMA performance gets quite the reaction". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Phillips, Catherine (2014-08-21). "Is Taylor Swift's video for Shake It Off racist?". Metro.co.uk. Associated Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Gupta, Prachi (2014-08-19). "Taylor Swift's music video is uncomfortable, but is it really racist?". Salon.com. Salon Media Group, Inc. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- TheOfficialtwerkteam (2009-06-09), The Official Twerk Team – P.S.A, retrieved 2017-06-30
- "Bio | Twerk Team". Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- "OfficialTwerkTeam". YouTube. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Sargent, Jordan (6 December 2012). "Demi Moore Auditions for Twerk Team at Alex Rodriguez's House (UPDATE)". Gawker. Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "Victim, Suspects in Smyrna Homicide Identified". Smyrna-Vinings, GA Patch. 2014-11-18. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- Gaunt, Kyra; Ph.D. (2014-11-25). "Bet UOENO Her Name: Bottomlines for BeTTy BuTT". music and the bottomlines of race, gender and technology. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "Twerk Team". Twitter. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Cottom, Tressie McMillan (2013-08-29). "Brown Body, White Wonderland". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- "Iggy Azalea Claims Miley Cyrus' Twerking Was 'Probably' Inspired By Her Dance Moves". Huffington Post. 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- Pages, The Society. "When Your (Brown) Body is a (White) Wonderland - Sociological Images". thesocietypages.org. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
- Gaunt, K. "YouTube, Bad Bitches, and a M.I.C. (Mom-in-Chief)" inGosa, Travis L.; Nielson, Erik (2015). The Hip Hop & Obama Reader. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199341818.
- "Twerking through trauma".
- "Twerking is a feminist movement". 2018-02-13.
- "Twerking is a Feminist Movement, Black South London Instructor Says". 2018-02-13.