Thurso (pronounced //; Scots: Thursa, Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Theòrsa [ˈiɲɪɾʲ ˈhjɔːrˠs̪ə]) is a town and former burgh on the north coast of the Highland council area of Scotland. Situated in the historical area of Caithness, it is the northernmost town on the British mainland.
|Population||7,933 (2011 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|• Edinburgh||183 mi (295 km)|
|• London||508 mi (818 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
It lies at the junction of the north–south A9 road and the west–east A836 road, connected to Bridge of Forss in the west and Castletown in the east. The 34-mile (55 km) River Thurso flows through the town and into Thurso Bay and the Pentland Firth. The river estuary serves as a small harbour. At the 2011 Census, Thurso had a population of 7,933. The larger Thurso civil parish including the town and the surrounding countryside had a population of 9,112.
Thurso functioned as an important Norse port, and later traded with ports throughout northern Europe until the 19th century. A thriving fishing centre, Thurso also had a reputation for its linen-cloth and tanning activities. As of 2015[update] the Dounreay Nuclear Research Establishment, although mostly decommissioned at the end of the 20th century, employs a significant number of the local population. The Category-A listed ruined Old St Peter's Church (St. Peter's Kirk) is one of the oldest churches in Scotland, dating to at least 1125. The current church, St Andrew's and St Peter's, was built in 1832 to a design by William Burn in the Gothic style.
The town contains the main campus of North Highland College and Thurso High School, the northernmost secondary school on the British mainland, which was established in 1958. Thurso Castle, built in 1872, is in ruins. Thurso is home to the football (soccer) team, Thurso FC, established in 1998, which play in the North Caledonian League, and the rugby teams Caithness Crushers and Caithness RFC.
Thurso railway station, opened in 1874, was the most northern station on the Sutherland and Caithness Railway. The nearby port of Scrabster provides ferry services to the Orkney Islands; the Northlink ferry (MV Hamnavoe) operates between Scrabster and Stromness.
Originally Thurso was known by the Celtic name of tarvodubron meaning "bull water" or "bull river"; similarly Dunnet Head was tarvedunum standing for "bull fort" and the name of the town name may have its roots there. Norse influence altered its name to Thjorsá, then Thorsá, based on the deity of Thor and translating as the place on Thor's River.
Thurso's history stretches back to at least the era of Norse Orcadian rule in Caithness, which ended conclusively in 1266. Neolithic horned cairns found on nearby Shebster Hill, which were used for burials and rituals, date back about 5,000 years. The town was an important Norse port, and has a later history of trade with ports throughout northern Europe until the 19th century. In 1330 Scotland's standard unit of weight was brought in line with that of Thurso at the decree of King David II of Scotland, a measure of the town's economic importance. Old St Peter's Kirk is said to date from circa 1220 and the time of Caithness Bishop Gilbert Murray, who died in 1245.
In 1649, the Irish, led by Donald Macalister Mullach, attacked Thurso and were chased off by the residents, headed by Sir James Sinclair. One of the locals, a servant of Sinclair was said to have killed Mullach by "cutting a button from his master's coat and firing it from a musket". In 1811, the parish had 592 houses with a population of 3462. This had decreased to 2,510 people by 1841. Following the passage into law of the 1845 Poor Law Act, a combination poorhouse was constructed; work commenced in 1854 and was completed by 1856. The building, which had a capacity to house 149 inmates, was on a 5-acre (2 ha) site to the west of Thurso Road and provided poor relief for Thurso and the parishes of Bower, Canisbay, Dunnet, Halkirk, Olrig, Reay and Watten. Many of the poorhouses in Scotland were under used, and by 1924 the building had been unoccupied for several years so was sold; it was later utilised as housing but by 2001 was again abandoned.
Much of the town is a planned 19th-century development. In 1906, a new Royal National Lifeboat Institution boathouse and slipway was inaugurated near Scrabster Harbour. A fire on 10 December 1956 destroyed the building and its 47ft Watson-class lifeboat and a new building and boat was built, launched the following year. A new lifeboat, named "The Three Sisters" was inaugurated in 1971 by The Queen Mother. A major expansion occurred in the mid-20th century when the Dounreay nuclear power plant was established at Dounreay in 1955, 9 miles (14 km) to the west of the town. The arrival of workers related to the power station caused a three-fold increase in the population of Thurso; the 1951 census gave a figure of 3,000 but this had swelled to 9,000 by 1971. This led to around 1,700 new houses being built in Thurso and nearby Castletown, a mixture of local authority housing blended with private houses and flats built by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Decommissioned at the end of the 20th century, it is estimated the site will not be cleared of all the waste until the 2070s, so will continue to provide employment.
Thurso is also the name of the viscountcy held by the Sinclair family in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Thurso hosted the National Mòd in 2010, which was the first time this festival of Gaelic language and culture had been held so far north.
Thurso has history as a burgh of barony dating from 1633 when it was established by Charles I. In 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, the local government burgh was merged into the Caithness district of the two-tier Highland region. In 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, the district was abolished and the region became a unitary council area. From 1996 until 2007, the town of Thurso was covered by two or three wards, each electing one councillor by the first-past-the-post system of election. In 2007, a single Thurso ward was created to elect three councillors by the single transferable vote system. In 2017 the Thurso ward was absorbed into a new multi member ward along with the Western portion of Landward Caithness, the new ward, named Thurso and Northwest Caithness, was contested for the first time in the Highland Council election of 2017. The incumbent councillors are Cllr Matthew Reiss (Independent), Cllr Struan Mackie (Scottish Conservative), Donnie Mackay (Independent) and Karl Rosie (Scottish National Party).
Electing four members to the new ward, it is one of two within the Highland Council's Caithness ward management area and one of seven within the council's Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross corporate management area.
Thurso Community Council was created in 1975 when the burgh was abolished. The community council is not a tier of local government, but it is recognised as a level of statutory representation. The community council represents an area which is somewhat smaller than that represented by ward councillors. The ward area also includes parts of other community council areas.
Thurso is the most northerly town on the British mainland, situated on the northern coastline overlooking the Orkney Islands. It is situated at the northern terminus of the A9 road, the main road linking Caithness with the south of Scotland, and is 19.5 miles (31.4 km) west of John o' Groats and 20.4 miles (32.8 km) northwest of Wick, the closest town. Thurso railway station is the most northerly location served by Britain's rail network, which links the town directly with Wick, the county town of Caithness, and with Inverness. Thurso is bordered by the parishes of Olrig and Bower to the east, Halkirk to the south, and Reay to the west, and stretches from Holborn Head and Crosskirk Bay in the west to Dunnet Head and Dunnet Bay in the east. It lies slightly further north than the Alaskan capital of Juneau.
The 34-mile (55 km) River Thurso, reputable for its salmon fishing, flows through the town and into Thurso Bay and the Pentland Firth. The river estuary serves as a small harbour. Thurso has a fine harbour and beach and looks out over the Pentland Firth to the Orkney island of Hoy and the towering Old Man of Hoy (a stack of rock standing out from the main island).
Thurso has a cool oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb), featuring similar weather to the Scottish Highlands, Iceland, the Alaska Panhandle, Crescent City in Northern California and the West Coast of Norway. The highest temperature recorded was 25 °C or 77 °F (July 1995) and the lowest −11 °C or 12.2 °F (December 2010). Similar parallels in nearby interior Scandinavia have much more continental climates with much more extensive heat and coldwaves, further demonstrating the moderating effect of the North Atlantic. The moderate winter climate is some 30 °C (54 °F) warmer than marine areas around Hudson Bay in Canada on similar latitudes. Although Thurso is mild enough to permit the growing of trees, the windswept surroundings mostly consist of grasslands resembling the offshore northern archipelagoes of Orkney and Shetland. The sea remains chilly also in summer and offshore sea surface temperatures do not fluctuate much throughout the year.
|Climate data for Thurso, Scotland|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.1
|Average high °C (°F)||6.2
|Average low °C (°F)||0.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||100.4
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||36.6||67.9||96.4||145.3||196.3||157.3||140.9||135.2||114.1||76.2||45.7||28.7||1,240.5|
Historically, Thurso was known for its production of linen cloth and had a thriving tanning business. Fishing has always been of major significance in the running of the local economy, and the Thurso Shipowner's Association overlooked much of the shipping activity. The port of Scrabster lies about 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) to the west of the estuary of the River Thurso, and plays a significant role in the white fish industry in Scotland. Scrabster has deep water in the shelter of Holborn Head. The harbour includes a berth for the MV Hamnavoe, a roll-on/roll-off ferry operated by Northlink linking the Scottish mainland with Stromness on Orkney. There is also a large fishmart and the local lifeboat is stationed there too. From June 2007, a summer-only weekly ferry service operated by the Faroese company Smyril Line reopened, connecting Scrabster with the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, but has now been discontinued.
Thurso boasts a small museum, Caithness Horizons, several hotels and bars, a surf shop/cafe stocking famous brands, and a small skatepark. There is also a sizeable British Telecom call centre and a plant making lithium-ion batteries for the MoD on the west side of the town, which along with the Dounreay Nuclear power plant, provide a high level of employment in Caithness. On 12 January 2010, approval was granted for the Baillie wind farm near Thurso which will feature 21 turbines and supply 52.5 MW, enough for 25,000 homes.
The Category A listed ruined Old St Peter's Church (St. Peter's Kirk) is one of the older churches in Scotland, dated to at least 1125, and at one time it was the principal church for the county, administered by the Bishops of Caithness. The church held hearings against criminal activity and determined how those caught should be punished. In 1701, a woman who had a relationship with a Dutch sailor had her head shaved and was publicly shamed, paraded through the town by the local hangman.
The current church, St Andrew's and St Peter's, was built in 1832 to a design by William Burn in the Gothic style with buttressed walls and a square tower. The pipe organ was added by Norman & Beard in 1914, and in 1922 Oscar Paterson contributed some of the stained glass windows such as 'The Sower'. In 2013 gravestones were vandalised in the graveyard. Holburn Head Lighthouse, within the parish territory, was completed in 1862 to a design by David & Thomas Stevenson and has since achieved Category B listed status.
The Swanson Gallery of Thurso hosts exhibitions throughout the year, and showcases glass art by Ian Pearson. The Caithness Horizons building contains a museum and also hosts exhibitions. Hotels of note include the 103-room Royal Hotel, Pentland Hotel, Waterside House, Murray House and the Category B listed Forss House Hotel, about 4 miles to the west of Thurso in a Georgian country mansion. At Sir John's Square is an ornamental garden and statue which was donated to the town by Sir Tollemache Sinclair in memory of his grandfather Sir John Sinclair, a prominent local figure responsible for the "compilation of the First Statistical Account of Scotland and the pioneering of agricultural reforms in Caithness". A Category C listed fountain was built in 1894 by the son of Sir George Sinclair. Also of note is the wellhouse of Meadow Well at the junction of Traill Street and Manson's Lane, which was the primary water supply for Thurso for centuries. The current well, with a conical roof, was completed in 1823.
The main campus of North Highland College, formerly Thurso College, is one of several partner colleges which constitute the University of the Highlands & Islands. It offers several certificate, diploma and degree courses from subjects as diverse as Nuclear Decommissioning, Hairdressing, Gamekeeping and Golf Management. Adjacent to the UHI is Thurso High School, the most northerly secondary school on the British mainland, established in 1958. The town also has three primary schools, Pennyland, Miller Academy Primary[a] and Mount Pleasant. Mount Pleasant Primary School teaches in Scottish gaelic, part of a revival of the language in Caithness. According to the 2011 census, 110 residents of the town age three and over (1.43%) speak Gaelic while 181 overall (2.35%) have some facility with the language. A Gaelic language nursery school, Cròileagan Inbhir Theòrsa, was created in the town in 1996.
Caithness Horizons is a small museum that opened in 2008. The museum now houses panels from the control room at the Dounreay Materials Testing Reactor (DMTR), which in 1958 had become Scotland's first operation nuclear reactor.
With its powerful swells, Thurso is a notable location for surfing and kayaking, with international surfing championship events having regularly been held in the area. It attracts surfers from all over the world, and both the European Surfing Championships and Scottish Surf Kayaking Championships have been held in Caithness, with Thurso East being the main focus of activity. An annual raft race is organised by the North Coast Branch of Coastguard Association.
The football team, Thurso FC (nicknamed "the Vikings"), was established in 1998 and plays in the North Caledonian League. Caithness Crushers are a rugby league club playing in the Scotland Rugby League Conference Division 1, while Caithness RFC are a rugby union club that participate in the Caledonia One. The local athletics club is Caithness Amateur Athletics Club (C.A.A.C.); hurdler Moira Mcbeath was a 1986 Commonwealth Games athlete. Thurso has the largest swimming club in the Highland area, Thurso Amateur Swimming Club (TASC), with over 250 members. Thurso Bowling Club is next door to the Tesco supermarket. Also of note is Caithness Motocross Club, which stages races fortnightly during the summer on tracks around the county.
Thurso railway station opened in 1874. It was the most northern station on the Sutherland and Caithness Railway. The station became part of the Highland Railway Company in the late 19th century before being absorbed into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway in 1923. and it is now part of the Far North Line.
The nearby port of Scrabster provides ferry services to the Orkney Islands. The A9 trunk road, which connects Thurso to Inverness, Perth and the Central Belt ends at the ferry terminal. Stagecoach run bus services from Thurso to Wick and John O' Groats, and a long-distance service to Helmsdale and Inverness.
Thurso Is twinned with Brilon, Germany. Clive Campbell, Scout Leader at 2nd Thurso met Joachim Brill, Brilon Scout Leader at Gilwell Park in London in 1971. Brill brought his group to Thurso in 1972; a reciprocal visit to Brilon happened in 1973, when Campbell met Hans Witteler, another Brilon Leader with whom he formed a close friendship. Brill moved to Bielefeld shortly afterwards, but the close friendship between the Campbell and Witteler families as well as their respective Scout Groups continued, and in 1979 the towns were formally twinned. Scouts from Thurso and Brilon continue to meet regularly, and 2019 marks the 40th anniversary of the formal twinning with 60 German Scouts and 12 civic guests from Brilon visiting Thurso to mark the occasion.
- Andrew Geddes Bain (1797–1864) — geologist, road engineer, palaeontologist and explorer.
- David Orson Calder (1823–1884) — academician and pioneer settler in Utah.
- John Charles "Jock" Campbell (VC) (1894–1942) — British Army officer.
- Martin Carr (born 1968) — writer and musician.
- Robert Dick (1811–1866) — geologist; lived in Thurso from 1830 until death.
- John Finlaison (1783–1860) — civil servant and government actuary.
- George Finlayson (1790–1823) — naturalist and traveler.
- Bryan Gunn (born 1963) — professional football goalkeeper and manager.
- Robin Harper (born 1940) — politician.
- William Henderson (1810–1872) — physician and homeopath.
- Christina Keith (1889–1963), Scottish academic and author
- Jock Macdonald (1897–1960) — Canadian painter and art educator.
- Gary Mackay-Steven (born 1990) — professional football winger, currently playing for Aberdeen.
- Tommy McGee (born 1979) — Scottish rugby league and rugby union footballer.
- Anne McKevitt (born 1967) — entrepreneur, TV Personality, author and philanthropist.
- Martin Rennie (born 1975) — professional football coach.
- Sir William David Ross, KBE (1877–1971) — moral philosopher, editor and translator of Aristotle.
- Arthur St. Clair (1737–1818) — American Revolutionary War soldier and politician.
- Sir William Alexander Smith (1854–1914) — founder of the Boys Brigade.
- Donald Swanson (1848–1924) — senior police officer in the Metropolitan Police during the Jack the Ripper murders.
- Very Rev Walter Ross Taylor (1805-1896) Moderator of the Free Church of Scotland in 1884 and his son Very Rev Walter Ross Taylor (1838-1907) Moderator in 1900
- Jordan Walker (1989-Present) - entrepreneur, TV Personality, author of New York Times Best Seller "What the F* is my Team Doing!?"
- Robbie McNicol (2000-Present) - rhythm guitarist and lead singer of Forgetting the Future.
- Jamie Mackay (2000-Present) - lead guitarist of Forgetting the Future.
- Max Paul (2000-Present) - bass guitarist of Forgetting the Future.
- Connor Wilson (2000-Present) - drummer of Forgetting the Future.
- Originally Miller Institution, it changed to only a Primary School in 1958 when Thurso High School was built to accommodate the influx of people connected to the Dounreay Nuclear Power Station.
- Highland profile, Highland Council, archived from the original on 17 November 2017, retrieved 28 December 2017
- Field, John (1984). Discovering Place Names. Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0852637029.
- Mills, A. D. (2011). Thurso. A Dictionary of British Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199609086. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "Scottish Place Names in Scots". Scots Language Centre. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Neolithic horned cairns near Caithness wind farm scanned". BBC News. BBC. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Mitchell 1825, p. 385.
- McFadden 1999, p. 301.
- "Gravestones vandalised at Old St Peter's Church in Thurso". BBC. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Rees 1819, p. 603.
- The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol.IV, (1848), London, Charles Knight, p.16
- "Poor Relief", Scottish Archive Network, archived from the original on 24 September 2015, retrieved 20 January 2015
- Groome (1885), p. 438
- Higginbotham, Peter. "Thurso Combination, Caithness". workhouses.org. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Higginbotham (2012), The 1845 Scottish Poor Law Act
- "Thurso". Visitoruk.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- ThirdWay. Hymns Ancient & Modern Ltd. April 1986. p. 5.
- The History and Achievements of UKAEA Dounreay (PDF), UKAEA, archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2015, retrieved 10 June 2015
- "Dounreay Decommissioning: Monumental task", The Engineer, 19 May 2008, archived from the original on 24 September 2015, retrieved 22 June 2015 – via Highbeam Research
- Groot 1993, p. 236.
- "Gaelic medium primary department for Caithness". BBC News. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "List of Mod's places". Sabhal Mòr Ostaig. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Publications. 1855. p. 753.
- "Highland Council". Alexgraham.org.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "The Highland Council - Find Councillors".
- Wilson, P. (13 February 2007), "Council to save pounds 1m in jobs changes", The Press and Journal, p. 4
- Atkinson 2010, p. 929.
- Google (14 December 2014). "Thurso" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Krauskopf 2001, p. 9.
- "Lord Thurso puts his famous salmon river up for sale at GBP 2m". The Scotsman, accessed via HighBream Research (subscription required). 8 October 2005. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Lewis 1848, p. 534.
- Tait & Johnstone 1836, p. 640.
- "climate: Thurso". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Aberdeen Journal - Saturday 1 March 1879, p.8, Accessed via The British Newspaper Archive (subscription required). Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Scotland's marine atlas: Fishing". The Scottish Government. March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "Reopening of North Atlantic Link to Scrabster - Highland". Highland Council. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Summer ferry sailings cancelled". BBC. 11 November 2008. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "News release: Two wind farm schemes approved". Scottish Government. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
- "St Peter's & St Andrew's Church, Thurso". Scotland Church's Trust. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Holburn Head". Northern Lighthouse Board. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Thurso". Visitscotland.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "The Royal Hotel". Bespokehotels.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Wilson 2012, p. 262.
- "Thurso". Caithness.org. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Meadow Well". Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Ramsay, Pat, "About our school", Miller Academy Primary School Handbook 2015–2016, archived from the original on 10 June 2015, retrieved 10 June 2015
- "Pennyland Primary School". Highland Council. Retrieved 14 December 2014.[permanent dead link]
- "2011 Scottish Census (Table QS211SC)". Scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Scottish Gaelic Local Studies" (PDF). Linguae-celticae.org. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Scotland's museums: Caithness Horizons". Museums Galleries Scotland. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Dounreay control room given to museum in Thurso". BBC News. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Cox, Roger (16 November 2013). "Thurso still boasts world-class waves". The Scotsman. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Mason 2011, p. 12.
- "Thurso Bay Raft Race". Caithness.org. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Caithness Rugby Football Club: history: CRFC 1962 - Present Day". Pitchero.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Caithness baton bearers named". John O'Groat Journal. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Thurso Amateur Swimming Club". Thursoasc.org.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Caithness Moto-X Club". sport.caithness.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "Sutherland and Caithness Railway". 15. The Railway Magazine. 1904. Cite journal requires
- Campbell 1920, p. 150.
- Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 204.
- "Far North Line: Inverness to Thurso and Wick". ScotRail. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Scottish independence: my way and the highway". The Guardian. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "Timetable 51336 77" (PDF). Stagecoach Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Bain 1949, p. xii.
- Chamberlin 1960, p. 584.
- Zabecki 2015, p. 283.
- Larkin 2011, p. 10.
- Harper's Weekly. Harper's Magazine Company. 1879. p. 95.
- Urban 1860, p. 194.
- The British Critic. F. and C. Rivington. 1826. p. 158.
- Brack 2011, p. 24.
- Spicer 2004, p. 132.
- Debus 1968, p. 783.
- Zemans 1985, p. 7.
- "Celtic's Gary Mackay-Steven back in the big time". The Scotsman. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "McGhee lands seven-week suspension". The Scotsman. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Apprentice contestant, Alex Epstein to participate in college Enterprise Day". North Highland College. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Scots manager Martin Rennie: I'll put my heart and Seoul into running new club in Korea". The Daily Record. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "William David Ross". Giffordlectures.org. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Browning 1898, p. 154.
- Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh Almanac and National Repository ... Oliver & Boyd. 1912. p. 751.
- "True detective: The Scot who hunted Jack the Ripper". BBC News. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Atkinson, David (15 September 2010). Great Britain. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-341-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bain, Andrew Geddes (1949). Journals. Van Riebeeck Society.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Brack, Ted (6 October 2011). There's Only One Sauzee: When Le God Graced Easter Road. Black & White Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84502-395-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Browning, Charles Henry (1898). The Magna Charta Barons and Their American Descendants with the Pedigrees of the Founders of the Order of Runnemede Deduced from the Sureties for the Enforcement of the Statutes of the Magna Charta of King John.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Campbell, H.F. (1920). Caithness and Sutherland Cambridge County Geographies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-69280-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chamberlin, Ralph Vary (1960). The University of Utah: A History of Its First Hundred Years, 1850 to 1950. University of Utah Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Debus, Allen G. (1968). World Who's who in Science: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Scientists from Antiquity to the Present. Marquis-Who's Who.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Groot, Gerard J. De (January 1993). Liberal Crusader: The Life of Sir Archibald Sinclair. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-182-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Groome, Francis H. (1885), Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, 6, Thomas C. Jack
- Higginbotham, Peter (2012), The Workhouse Encyclopedia (eBook), The History Press, ISBN 978-0-7524-7719-0
- Krauskopf, Sharma (2001). Scottish Lighthouses. Sharma Krauskopf. ISBN 978-0-86281-803-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Larkin, Colin (27 May 2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-85712-595-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lewis, Samuel (1848). Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. British History Online (online edition).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Macleod, Norman; Dewar, Daniel (1845). A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. Bohn.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mason, Paul (2011). Surfing: The World's Most Fantastic Surf Spots and Techniques. Capstone. ISBN 978-1-4296-6879-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- McFadden, David (1999). An Innocent in Scotland: More Curious Rambles and Singular Encounters. M&S. ISBN 978-0-7710-5528-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mitchell, James (1825). The Scotsman's Library: Being a Collection of Anecdotes and Facts Illustrative of Scotland and Scotsmen. J. Anderson.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rees, Abraham (1819). The Cyclopaedia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature. - London, Longman, Hurst (usw.) 1819-20. Longman, Hurst.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Spicer, Matthew (2004). The Scotsman Guide to Scottish Politics. Scotsman Publications. ISBN 978-0-7486-1924-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tait, William; Johnstone, Christian Isobel (1836). Tait's Edinburgh Magazine. W. Tait.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Urban, Sylvanus (1860). The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Whitehouse, Patrick; Thomas, David St John (2002). LMS 150 : The London Midland & Scottish Railway A century and a half of progress. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-1378-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wilson, Neil (1 March 2012). Lonely Planet Scotland's Highlands & Islands. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-688-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zabecki, David T. (1 May 2015). World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-81242-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zemans, Joyce (1 January 1985). Jock Macdonald. National Gallery of Canada. ISBN 978-0-88884-527-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)