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Tai Tham script

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The Tai Tham script, Lanna script (Thai: อักษรธรรมล้านนา) or Tua Mueang (Northern Thai: ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩥᩬᨦ, Northern Thai pronunciation: [tǔa.mɯ̄aŋ] About this soundlisten, Tai Lü: ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼, Tham, "scripture") or Lanna, is used for Northern Thai (that is, Kham Mueang), Tai Lü, and Khün. In addition, the Lanna script is used for Lao Tham (or Old Lao) and other dialect variants in Buddhist palm-leaf manuscripts and notebooks. The script is also known as Tham or Yuan script.[1]

Tai Tham
Lanna
Tai Tham script sample.png
Type
LanguagesNorthern Thai, Tai Lü, Khün, Isan and Lao
Time period
c. 1300–present
Parent systems
Child systems
New Tai Lue
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Lana, 351
Unicode alias
Tai Tham
U+1A20–U+1AAF
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

The Northern Thai language is a close relative of Thai and member of the Chiang Saeng language family. It is spoken by nearly 6,000,000 people in Northern Thailand and several thousand in Laos of whom few are literate in Lanna script. The script is still read by older monks. Northern Thai has six linguistic tones and Thai only five, making transcription into the Thai alphabet problematic. There is some resurgent interest in the script among younger people, but an added complication is that the modern spoken form, called Kammuang, differs in pronunciation from the older form.[2] There are 670,000 speakers of Tai Lü of whom those born before 1950 are literate in Tham, also known as Old Tai Lue.[citation needed] The script has also continued to be taught in the monasteries. The New Tai Lue script is derived from Tham. There are 120,000 speakers of Khün for which Lanna is the only script.

Name board outside a Buddhist temple in Chiang Mai written with Lanna characters: Wat Mokhamtuang (and street number 119 in Thai)

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants are divided into two groups: main consonants (พยัญชนะหลัก) and added consonants (พยัญชนะเติม). There are 33 main consonants, and there are 15 added consonants. The main consonants are those from Pali. The main consonant group is further divided into two groups: categorized (พยัญชนะวัคค์, vagga) and uncategorized consonants (พยัญชนะอวัคค์, avagga). There are 25 categorized consonants, and there are 8 uncategorized consonants. The added consonant group consists of consonants that have been added to write Tai sounds that do not occur in Pali.

Categorized
Obstruents Nasals
main added main added main added main
 

/k/
hiɡh
 
khǎ
/x/
hiɡh
 
khǎ
/x/
hiɡh
 
ka᷇
/k/
low
 
kha᷇
/x/
low
 
kha᷇
/x/
low
 
nga᷇
/ŋ/
low
 
chǎ
/t͡ɕ/
hiɡh
 

/s/
hiɡh
 
cha᷇
/t͡ɕ/
low
 
sa᷇
/s/
low
 ,  
sa᷇
/s/
low
 
nya᷇
/ɲ/
low
 
la tǎ
/t/
hiɡh
 ,  
la thǎ
/tʰ/
hiɡh
 
da᷇
/d/
mid
 
la tha᷇
/tʰ/
low
 
la na᷇
/n/
low
 

/t/
hiɡh
 
thǎ
/tʰ/
hiɡh
 
ta᷇
/t/
low
 
tha᷇
/tʰ/
low
 
na᷇
/n/
low
 

/b/
mid
 

/p/
hiɡh
 
phǎ
/pʰ/
hiɡh
 

/f/
hiɡh
 
pa᷇
/p/
low
 
fa᷇
/f/
low
 
pha᷇
/pʰ/
low
 
ma᷇
/m/
low
Uncategorized
 
nya᷇
/ɲ/
low
 

/j/
mid
 
ha᷇
/h/
low
 
la᷇
/l/
low
 
wa᷇
/w/
low
 

/s/
hiɡh
 

/s/
hiɡh
 

/s/
hiɡh
 

/h/
hiɡh
 
la᷇
/l/
low
 ,  
ǎ
/ʔ/
mid
 
ha᷇
/h/
low
 ,  
lāe
/lɛ̄ː/
 

/nāː/
 
sǒr sǒnɡ ho᷇nɡ
/sɔ̌ː sɔ̌ːŋ hɔ᷇ːŋ/
 
nya᷇ nya᷇
/ɲa᷇ʔ ɲa᷇ʔ/
 
ra rōnɡ
/la᷇.hōːŋ/
 
lu᷇e
/lɯ᷇ʔ/
 
lūe
/lɯ̄ː/

VowelsEdit

 
Northern Thai language written in Tai Tham script in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Vowels are written at various locations around their consonant, like Thai.[3] There are special letters for initial vowels (some are shown below), and many vowel combinations.[4]

Pali vowelsEdit

Tai Tham   -               - 
-ᩣ -ᩮᩣ,-ᩮᩤ,
IPA /ʔáʔ/ /ʔāː/ /ʔíʔ/ /ʔīː/ /ʔúʔ/ /ʔūː/ /ʔēː/ /ʔōː/

Tonal markersEdit

 
mai yo
/máj.jɔ́ʔ/
 
mai kho chang
/máj.xɔ̌ː.t͡ɕáːŋ/

Tai Tham and Other ScriptsEdit

Consonants in Lanna have two sets of glyphs: the base form and the subjoined form. The sakot is used to trigger the subjoined forms.[1][5]

Categorized lettersEdit

Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/ká/   -᩠ᨠ က
/xá/   -᩠ᨡ
/xá/   - -
/ka᷇/   -᩠ᨣ
/xa᷇/   -
/xa᷇/   -᩠ᨥ -  
/ŋa᷇/   -᩠ᨦ
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/t͡ɕá/   -᩠ᨧ
/sá/   -᩠ᨨ -  
/t͡ɕa᷇/   -᩠ᨩ
/sa᷇/   -
/sa᷇/   -᩠ᨫ -  
/ɲa᷇/
/ja᷇/[6]
  -᩠ᨬ -  
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/tá/   -᩠ᨭ -  
/tʰá/   -᩠ᨮ -  
/dá/   -᩠ᨯ ฑ,ด  ,ດ
/tʰa᷇/   -᩠ᨰ -  
/na᷇/   -᩠ᨱ -  
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/tá/   -᩠ᨲ
/tʰá/   -᩠ᨳ
/ta᷇/   -᩠ᨴ
/tʰa᷇/   -᩠ᨵ  
/na᷇/   -᩠ᨶ
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/bá/   -᩠ᨷ
/pá/   -
/pʰá/   -᩠ᨹ
/fá/   -
/pa᷇/   -᩠ᨻ
/fa᷇/   -
/pʰa᷇/   -᩠ᨽ  
/ma᷇/   -᩠ᨾ

Uncategorized lettersEdit

Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/ɲa᷇/
/ja᷇/[6]
  ᨿ -᩠ᨿ ย ต่ำ
/já/   - ย กลาง, อย
/ha᷇/
/la᷇/
  -᩠ᩁ
/lɯ́ʔ/   - -
/la᷇/   -᩠ᩃ
/lɯ̄ː/   - -
/wa᷇/   -᩠ᩅ
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/sá/   -᩠ᩆ -  
/sá/   -᩠ᩇ -  
/sá/   -᩠ᩈ
/há/   -᩠ᩉ
/la᷇/   -᩠ᩊ -  
/ʔá/   -᩠ᩋ
/ha᷇/   - -

NumeralsEdit

Lanna has two sets of numerals. The first set, Lek Nai Tam, is reserved for liturgical purposes. The other set, Lek Hora, is used in everyday life.[7]

Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Hora digits
Tham digits
Thai numerals
Lao numerals
Burmese numerals
Khmer numerals

Sanskrit and PaliEdit

The Tai Tham script (like all Indic scripts) uses a number of modifications to write Pali and related languages (in particular, Sanskrit). When writing Pali, only 33 consonants and 12 vowels are used.

Categorised (วัคค์ ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩼ vagga)Edit

class unaspirated
unvoiced
สิถิลอโฆษะ
aspirated
ธนิตอโฆษะ
unaspirated
voiced
สิถิลโฆษะ
aspirated
voiced
ธนิตโฆษะ
nasal
นาสิก
velar  [ka]   khá [kha]   ka᷇ [ga]   kha᷇ [gha]   nga᷇ [ṅa]
palatal  [ca]  [cha]   ca᷇ [ja]   sa᷇ [jha]   nya᷇ [ña]
retroflex  [ṭa]   thá [ṭha]   da᷇ [ḍa]   tha᷇ [ḍha]   na᷇ [ṇa]
dental  [ta]   thá [tha]   ta᷇ [da]   tha᷇ [dha]   na᷇ [na]
labial  [pa]   phá [pha]   pa᷇ [ba]   pha᷇ [bha]   ma᷇ [ma]
tone class H L

Uncategorised (อวัคค์ ᩋᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩼ avagga)Edit

glottal palatal retroflex dental labial tonal class
  nya᷇ [ya]   ha᷇ [ra]   la᷇ [la]   wa᷇ [va] L
 [śa]  [ṣa]  [sa] H
 [ha]

UnicodeEdit

Tai Tham script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

BlockEdit

The Unicode block for Tai Tham is U+1A20–U+1AAF:

Tai Tham[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1A2x
U+1A3x ᨿ
U+1A4x
U+1A5x  ᩖ  ᩘ  ᩙ  ᩚ  ᩛ  ᩜ  ᩝ  ᩞ
U+1A6x   ᩠   ᩢ  ᩥ  ᩦ  ᩧ  ᩨ  ᩩ  ᩪ  ᩫ  ᩬ
U+1A7x  ᩳ  ᩴ  ᩵  ᩶  ᩷  ᩸  ᩹  ᩺  ᩻  ᩼  ᩿
U+1A8x
U+1A9x
U+1AAx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

FontsEdit

There are currently a few fonts that support this range. Thai people are used to typing the Thai script by placing a front vowel before a consonant; this might cause incorrect input method for Tai Tham script because the consonant must be always typed before the associated vowel, regardless of the relative written position of the vowel, similar to typing the Khmer, Myanmar or Tamil script.

  • A Tai Tham KH New – 244 characters in version 1.000 September 15, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[8]
  • A Tai Tham KH – 239 characters in version 2.000 February 27, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (95); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[8]
  • Tai Tham LN – 244 characters in version 1.000 November 15, 2014
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download
  • Chiangsaen Alif – 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[9]
  • Lanna Alif – 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[9]
  • Lanna Unicode UI – 374 characters (487 glyphs) in version 0.40 July 14, 2010
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (25); Latin-1 Supplement (5); Greek and Coptic (1); Tai Tham (127); Mathematical Operators (1); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[10]
  • Alan Wood's Tai Tham test page[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Everson, Michael, Hosken, Martin, & Constable, Peter. (2007). Revised proposal for encoding the Lanna script in the BMP of the UCS.
  2. ^ Natnapang Burutphakdee (October 2004). Khon Muang Neu Kap Phasa Muang [Attitudes of Northern Thai Youth towards Kammuang and the Lanna Script] (PDF) (M.A. Thesis). Presented at 4th National Symposium on Graduate Research, Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 10–11, 2004. Asst. Prof. Dr. Kirk R. Person, adviser. Chiang Mai: Payap University. P. 7, digital image 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-09. Retrieved June 8, 2013. The reason why they called this language ‘Kammuang’ is because they used this language in the towns where they lived together, which were surrounded by mountainous areas where there were many hill tribe people.
  3. ^ Simple rendition of syllabic vowels can be seen in Ian James′ ″New Lanna″ at Sky Knowledge.
  4. ^ See more details of ″Lanna script″ at Sky Knowledge.
  5. ^ Chew, P., Saengboon, P., & Wordingham, R. (2015). "Tai Tham: A Hybrid Script that Challenges Current Encoding Models". Presented at the Internationalization and Unicode Conference (IUC 39).
  6. ^ a b In Tai Lue
  7. ^ Omniglot. Lanna alphabet (Tua Mueang). Retrieved 28 April 2019
  8. ^ a b "Tai Tham Fonts". Kengtung.org. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017.
  9. ^ a b Silpachai, Alif. "SIMs Heart". Tai Tham (Lanna) Unicode Font. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Download: Tai Tham Fonts (Lanna)". Octra Bond's World. Archived from the original on 2010-11-22. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  11. ^ Wood, Alan. "Test for Unicode support in Web browsers: Tai Tham". Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2016.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

  • ISO/IEC 10646:2003/Amd.5:2008 Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) -- Amendment 5: AMENDMENT 5: Tai Tham, Tai Viet, Avestan, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C, and other characters