Třebíč (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtr̝̊ɛbiːtʃ] (listen); German: Trebitsch; Yiddish: טרייביטש Treybitsh) is a town in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 34,000 inhabitants.

Třebíč
Aerial view of the centre of Třebíč
Aerial view of the centre of Třebíč
Flag of Třebíč
Coat of arms of Třebíč
Třebíč is located in Czech Republic
Třebíč
Třebíč
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°12′54″N 15°52′54″E / 49.21500°N 15.88167°E / 49.21500; 15.88167Coordinates: 49°12′54″N 15°52′54″E / 49.21500°N 15.88167°E / 49.21500; 15.88167
Country Czech Republic
RegionVysočina
DistrictTřebíč
First mentioned1277
Government
 • MayorPavel Pacal (STAN)
Area
 • Total57.59 km2 (22.24 sq mi)
Elevation
405 m (1,329 ft)
Population
 (2022-01-01)[1]
 • Total34,415
 • Density600/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
674 01
Websitewww.trebic.cz
Official nameJewish Quarter and St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč
Criteriaii, iii
Reference1078
Inscription2003 (27th Session)

The beginnings of the town's history are connected with the establishment of a Benedictine monastery, where the castle is located today. In the age of its expansion, Třebíč was the third most important town in Moravia. The population growth started after World War II.

There are several well-known tourist sights in the town. The Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius Basilica were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 because of their testimony to cultural interchange across several centuries and the remarkable architecture within the site.[2] The town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone.

Administrative partsEdit

 
Administrative parts of Třebíč

The town is made up of 17 town parts and villages:

GeographyEdit

Třebíč is situated 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of Jihlava and 65 kilometres (40 mi) west of Brno. It lies in the Jevišovice Uplands within the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. The town is located the Jihlava River. The highest point in the municipal territory has an elevation of 579 metres (1,900 ft) above sea level. The area is rich in water bodies, including many fish ponds and Lubí Reservoir.

HistoryEdit

 
Komenského Square and a municipal tower

The first written mention of Třebíč is from 1101, when a Benedictine monastery was established here. In 1277, Třebíč was first referred to as a town. In 1335, Třebíč obtained town rights at the level of the rights of royal towns. Třebíč had right to built town fortifications and ceased to be subject unconditionally to the monastery. The Jewish population was first documented in 1338.[3]

During the Hussite Wars, Třebíč was conquered by the Hussites and became their military base. After the wars, the town was returned to the possession of the monastery. In 1468, Třebíč was conquered and destroyed by Matthias Corvinus, including the monastery. After the Bohemian–Hungarian War (1468–1478), Třebíč was acquired by Zdeněk of Sternberg. During the rule of the Pernštejn family between 1490 and 1556, the town recovered and stabilized economically.[3]

Třebíč was not too affected by the Thirty Years' War. After the war, the town was re-Catholicized. In the 17th an 18th centuries, Třebíč was mostly owned by the Waldstein family. In 1786, the Germanisation began. In 1821 and 1822, large fires severely damaged the town.[3]

In the late 19th century, Třebíč was industrialised. There has been mainly development of tannery and shoemaking. The development of industry was accelerated by the opening of the railway in 1886. In the 1930s, the shoe factory was bought by Bata Corporation and workers' colonies were constructed in Borovina.[3][4]

In the 1970s and 1980s, several historic buildings were demolished and new housing estates were constructed, which resulted in population growth.[3]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186910,328—    
188011,999+16.2%
189013,726+14.4%
190015,309+11.5%
191016,347+6.8%
YearPop.±%
192117,191+5.2%
193017,555+2.1%
195020,257+15.4%
196120,387+0.6%
197022,555+10.6%
YearPop.±%
198029,017+28.6%
199138,355+32.2%
200139,021+1.7%
201136,998−5.2%
202134,368−7.1%
Source: Censuses[5][6]

TransportEdit

 
The expressway (I/23) in Třebíč

Třebíč is an important traffic junction of the region. The main roads crossing Třebíč are I/23 (BrnoČeské Budějovice) and II/360, which connects Třebíč with the D1 motorway. Road II/405, passing near the town, connects Třebíč with Jihlava.

The railway has the east–west direction in Třebíč. This railway No. 240 connects Třebíč with cities of Brno and Jihlava. There are two train stations serving the town: Třebíč and Třebíč-Borovina.

There is a small sport airport in the outskirts.

CultureEdit

Festivals held in Třebíš include:

  • Theatre Třebíč (Divadelní Třebíč) – festival of amateur theatre
  • Šamajim – festival of Jewish culture
  • Třebíč potato festival (Bramborobraní) – folklore festival – music and dance
  • UNESCO Jubilee – jubilee celebration of town entrance to the UNESCO list
  • Theatre 2-3-4 actors (Divadla 2-3-4 herců) – festival of professional theatre
  • Zámostí – cultural and music festival[7]
  • Concentus Moraviae – concerts of classical music

EducationEdit

In Třebíč there is one private university, Westmoravian College Třebíč. Secondary schools include:

  • Gymnasium Třebíč
  • Secondary Industrial School Třebíč
  • Catholic Gymnasium Třebíč
  • Dr. Albín Bráf Business Academy
  • Higher Vocational School and Secondary School of Veterinary, Agricultural and Medical Třebíč
  • Hotel School Třebíč
  • Secondary School of Civil Engineering Třebíč
  • Secondary School of Crafts Třebíč
  • Private Secondary School and Secondary Vocational School

SightsEdit

 
The entrance of the Jewish quarter

The historical treasury of Třebíč includes the old Jewish Quarter and the large Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica, which incorporates some later Gothic features, including a rare example of a ten-part (also known as 'botanical') rose window. Such designs reflect the five or ten parts of the family Roseaceae flowers and fruit, based on their five sepals and petals or the usual ten segments of their fruit. Botanical rose windows contrast with more complex Gothic windows that contain more segments (usually multiples of traditional gothic units of design – three trefoil, or four quatrefoil). Another thesis says that these decorations are based on an ancient design, inspired by forerunners in the wheel of life, associated with eastern religions nowadays, or may allude to the Virgin Mary.[8]

The famous Basilica originated in the early 12th century as a Benedictine monastery. It was endowed so well, that it led to the establishment of a local commercial centre; the town of Třebíč. The monastery was rebuilt during the reign of King Wenceslaus I (1230–53), and again at the end of the 15th century. During the first half of the 16th century some of Třebíč's historic monastic buildings were remodeled into a castle, and were later renovated in Baroque style.[8]

In the early eighteenth century changes were introduced on the basilica by the Czech architect František Maxmilián Kaňka; windows were enlarged, buttresses were added, a southwest tower was rebuilt, and a new west front with two towers was constructed in the gothic baroque style.[8]

The historic centre of Třebíč, which extends on both sides of the river Jihlava, was declared an urban monument zone in 1990. The Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius Basilica, together with the castle and gardens, are all included within the urban monument zone.[9]

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Třebíč is twinned with:[10]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 29 April 2022.
  2. ^ "Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Třebíč – Historie" (in Czech). České dědictví UNESCO. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  4. ^ "Historie města Třebíč v datech" (in Czech). Město Třebíč. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  5. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Třebíč" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 13–14.
  6. ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 27 March 2021.
  7. ^ Zamosti.cz Zamosti.cz
  8. ^ a b c Sváček, Libor (2015). UNESCO. pp. 100–107. ISBN 978-80-7339-067-9.
  9. ^ "Třebíč" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Třebíč. Retrieved 5 November 2021.

External linksEdit