Sindhi literature

Sindhi literature (Sindhi: سنڌي ادب), is the composition of oral and written scripts and texts in Sindhi language in the form of prose: romantic tales, epic stores, and poetry: Ghazal, Wai and Nazm. It is considered to be the one of the oldest language of ancient india, due to the influence of Indus Valley inhabitants. The Sindhi literature has developed over the course of more than 1000 years from today and has been spoken in Sindh, province of Paksitan,India, and other parts of the world.[1][2][3]

portrait of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Portrait of prominent poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, who is wildely acknowledged as the greatest poet of Sindhi language.

According to the historian, Nabi Bux Baloch, Rasool Bux Palijo, and GM Syed, Sindhi language has a great influence of Hindi language in pre-Isalmic times. Nevertheless after the advent of Islam in eighth century, Arabic language and Persian language influenced its inhabitant and were the official language of territory through different periods.[4][5]

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Shah Abdul Karim Bulri, Shaikh Ayazand Ustad Bukhari are well dominant poet of Sindhi language.

Arabs Period 712-1030Edit

Before Arabs Local Hindu ruled over Sindh. But after 712 Arabs conquered Sindh and established their government. They were foreigners that's why they didn't pay attention to Sindhi language, but in spite of all that Sindhi writers and poets played a crucial rule in Sindhi and Arabic language. This period usually known as early period of Sindhi literature.

DevelopmentsEdit

  • Qur'an was translated into Sindhi language.
  • All previous books which were written in Sindhi language translated into Arabic.
  • In this period Sindhi ode (Qasida) founded.
  • Too much Sindhi language improved and language got new shape.
  • Sindhi Scholars and writers poets play very important role in Arabic language.
  • In this period Sindhi language not only taught but also written too.
  • Many books written into Sindhi language which were taught into religious seminaries.
  • The earliest book about Sindh history " Chaach Nama" also written in this period.

Notable scholarsEdit

[6][7][8]

Soomra Period 1030-1350Edit

When the Arab rule declined in Sindh, The Native Sindhi speaking rulers emerged they defeated Arabs and became rulers of Sindh, this period is widely known as the classical period of Sindhi literature, even though the rulers were Sindhi speaking, Persian remained the official language and Arabic as a religious language. They ruled over Sindh nearly 170 years, in that period Sindhi language expanded and new literary idea expressed in Gech (گيچ) and Gahi (ڳاھ).[9]

Romantic talesEdit

  • Sasui & Phunoo, this romantic story goes back to the Soomra rule. Sasui belonged to Bhambore whereas Phunoo belonged to Makran, Both got married, and after that Phunoo took him back then Sasui came out in the search of Phunoo, this story is full of troubles tension and hardship, many Sindhi poets gave this story in their poetry, especially Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, And this is the earliest ever story of soomra ruled.
  • Umar Marvi is the second famous Romantic story that period which was widely sung by Sindhi language poets, Umar was the Soomra ruler of Umarkot he fall in love with Marvi, he picked up her and then captivated her in the palace of Umarkot, where he impressed from Marvi affection towards her native people, finally he got her Free. This story took place in Sindhi literature as a true patronism as well as a real love for Homeland.
  • Mumal Rano this third famous story Soomra ruler Hameer. Rano was son in law of Hameer Ruler who fall in love with one Gujrati girl finally, he got her.
  • Soni Mehar this is the fourth romantic story of this period
  • Liyla Chanesar this story too belongs soomra period .
  • Sorath Rai Deyaj, this story date back to soomra period,
  • Daman Sonaro this is semi romanotic belongs to that time when Soommra government was in Lar.[10]

Epic poetryEdit

When Soommra and Gujar fought from 1150-1250, many poets composed Gah over that battles. Dodo and Chanesar war was another chapter which was composed by Sindhi poets.

Religious poetryEdit

In the Soomra time when different Islamic sect missionary arrived in Sindh to preach the Islam in the wake first Suharwardi , Qadari then Isailmi Shia Leaders started preaching in Sindh. Most popular Isailmi sect Ginan poetry played pivotal role in Sindhi literature, first of all in 1079 , Syed Noor Deen Ismaili Imam arrived in Sindh, he used to preach in Local language, then Shamas Sabzwari Multani came n Sindh his Ginan too present in Sindhi language, But most popular Ginan belongs to Pir Shahab u deen and his son Pir Sadar u Deen (1290-1409), they set up 40 letters Sindhi language alphabet, which was called Khawajqi Sindhi, Ginan was religious poetry, in which morals lesson were taught,[11]

Literature TechnicsEdit

  • Gahi ( ڳاھِ), This is the early form of Sindhi beet . Gahi is type evental and descriptive beet.this word derived from Gahe (ڳاءِ).
  • Epic poetry, (Razmia poetry) this type of poetry widely representx the battle and its history, warriors and their memory.
  • Romantic poetry, it's another type of Sindhi language poetry in which romance love stories have been represented.
  • Semi romanotic poetry, it like also romantic poetry,
  • Ginan , it's religious type of poetry first propagandized by Ismailis Shia religious missionary, and this further moved and gave shaped to Beet.
  • Madih ( مدح), is type of poetry in which any Famous religious personalities goodness mentioned, the first Madih poet of Sindhi language was Juman Charan.
  • Religion poetry, in this poetry Islamic principles are mentioned and composed by various Sindhi poets.
  • Geech ( ڳيچ)
  • Evental verses ( واقعاتي بيت)

Overview of Soomra PeriodEdit

  • this period's romantic stories became part of others poets like Sachal Sermast and Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai.
  • History of Sindh had written on the base of poverty of this period.
  • In this period 40 letters Sindhi language alphabet was set up which was called Khwujki Sindhi.
  • Ismailis Diyan laid down Ginan in Sindhi language.
  • Prose type poetry started.
  • Different types poetry Technics came into being.
  • In this period poetry was sung in beet type Gah.
  • In this period hejh goya(such poverty in which bad things are mentioned) type poetry too present.
  • Because of this period Sindhi literature widened.
  • This period is also called the Bhaten and Bhanan period.
  • This is also called the classical and romantic period.
  • In this period epic poetry too present.
  • This period poverty reflects the Social life of that time.

PoetsEdit

Epic storiesEdit

  • Dodo Chaniser
  • Morero Meharbar
  • Jam Hali and Hameer Soomro war
  • Soomra and Gujar wars

Samma Period 1350-1520Edit

Samma were allied of Soomra, but with the passage of time, the final Soomra ruler Hameer was defeated by Samma ruler Jam Unar. And they became the Ruler of Thatta. Even though this period is considered the constructive period of sindhi literature, in this period Persian remained official language and Arabic as a religious language, this period resembled to Soomra but language's vocabulary enhanced as well as power of expression.the borders of Sindh reached Multan , Bhawalwapur, Pasni, Khatiyawar, Makran, Sibi, Kuch, Kalat too. Thatta became the center of knowledge and more than 5000 religious seminaries present in Thatta.

Romantic storiesEdit

Religion PoertyEdit

Madih PoetryEdit

PoetsEdit

OverviewEdit

Mughal, Argon and Turkhan Period 1521-1718Edit

After the downfall of Samma dynasty, the three noble families ruled Sindh approximately 2 centuries, in which the prominent Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Karim Bulri, the four-father of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, was born. He made notable contributions to sindhi poetry and made it in a new form in the shape of ‘‘Bait and Wai’’. [12]

Kalhora Period 1718-1782Edit

In the time of Mughal Empire in subcontinent, Kalhora’s became strong and were close assistant to the rulers of Mughal’s. After a period, Yar Muhammad Kalhoro made an agreement of execution of prominent poet Shah Abdul Karim Bulri and became the first ruler of Kalhora Dynasty.

While this period considered to be the golden person of Sindhi literature, due to birth of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and advancement in Sindhi literature. Due to the fact that the rulers were Sindhi, so the priorities their language and make it useful. [13]

Talpur Period 1782-1843Edit

This is the period what we konw as the the early foundation of Sindhi Prose. After the invasion of Talpur’s over Kalhora, they ruled Sindh about 150 years. They didn’t not train their army due to lack of literacy and awareness, British with their strong army and defeated them. [14]

British RajEdit

After partitionEdit

Sufi literature and poetryEdit

The earliest references to Sindhi literature are contained in the writings of Arab historians; Sindhi was among the earliest Eastern languages into which the Quran was translated in the eighth or ninth century AD. Evidence exists that Sindhi poets recited verses before Muslim caliphs ruled in Baghdad. Secular treatises were also written in Sindhi about astronomy, medicine, and history during the eighth and ninth centuries. Pir Nooruddin, an Ismaili missionary who lived in Sindh in 1079, wrote Sufi poetry in the Sindhi language. His verses, known as ginans, are an example of early Sindhi poetry. Because Pir Nooruddin was a Sufi and an Islamic preacher, his verses are full of references to (and descriptions of) mysticism and religion.

Pir Shams Sabzwari Multani, Pir Shahabuddin and Pir Sadardin also wrote Sindhi poetry, and some verses by Baba Farid Ganj Shakar were written in Sindhi. Pir Sadruddin (1290–1409 AD) was another major Sufi Sindhi poet, composing verse in Sindhi's Lari and Katchi dialects. He also wrote in Punjabi, Seraiki, Hindi, and Gujarati. Sadruddin modified the language's old script, which was commonly used by the lohana caste of Sindh Hindus who embraced Islam as a result of his teaching; he called them Khuwajas or Khojas.

During the Samma dynasty (1351-1521), Sindh produced notable scholars and poets; the Sammas were some of the original inhabitants of Sindh. This era has been called the "original period for Sindhi poetry and prose".[quote citation needed] Mamui Faqirs' (Seven Sages) riddles in verse are associated with this period. Ishaq Ahingar (Blacksmith) was also a notable contemporary poet. Sufi scholar and poet Qazi Qadan (died 1551) composed Doha and Sortha poetry, and was a landmark in the history of Sindhi literature. Shah Abdul Karim Bulri, Shah Lutufullah Qadri, Shah Inayat Rizvi, Makhdoom Nuh of Hala, Lakho Lutufullah, and Mahamati Pirannath are among other authors of Sindhi mystic, romantic and epic poetry.

Kalhora and Talpur dynastiesEdit

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689–1752) lived during the Kalhora dynasty, a significant period in the history of Sindhi literature. The Sindhi language was standardized at this time, and classical Sindhi poetry flourished with Shah Latif's work. Shah Latif invented a variant of the tanbur, a musical instrument played when poetry is sung. His compilation, Shah Jo Risalo, includes "Sassi Punnun" and "Umar Marvi".

Shah Latif traveled to remote regions of Sindh, studying its people and their attachment to its land, culture, music, art and crafts. He described Sindh and its people in folk tales, expressing ideas about the universal brotherhood of mankind, patriotism, the struggle against injustice and tyranny, and the beauty of human existence. Also a musician, Shah Latif composed fifteen svaras (melodies). Each line of his poetry is sung on a specific svara. Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari, whose poetry appears in Abdul Rahim Garhori's Shara Abyat Sindhi, was another notable Kalhora Sufi poet.

Sachal Sarmast, Sami and Khalifo Nabi Bux Laghari were celebrated poets of the Talpur period (1783–1843). Khalifo Nabi Bux was an epic poet known for his depictions of patriotism and the art of war. Rohal, Bedil, Bekas, Syed Misri Shah, Hammal Faqir, Sufi Dalpat, Syed Sabit Ali Shah, Khair Shah, Fateh Faqir and Manthar Faqir Rajar were other noteworthy poets of the pre- and early British era.

Early modern periodEdit

Modern Sindhi literature began with the region's 1843 conquest by the British, when the printing press was introduced.

Magazines and newspapers revolutionized Sindhi literature, and books were translated from a number of European languages (particularly English). People were hungry for knowledge and new forms of writing. Mirza Kalich Beg wrote more than four hundred books (including poetry, novels, short stories and essays) about science, history, economics and politics during the last two decades of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth. Thousands of books were published at that time, and Hakeem Fateh Mohammad Sehwani, Kauromal Khilnani, Dayaram Gidumal, Parmanand Mewaram, Lalchand Amardinomal, Bheruamal Advani, Dr. Gurbuxani, Jethmal Parsram, Miran Mohammad Shah, Shamsuddin Bulbul and Maulana Din Muhammad Wafai were pioneers of modern Sindhi literature.

In India Sahitya Akademi Award for Sindhi literature is given annually since 1959.

Modern eraEdit

After World War I, Sindhi literature was affected by the October Revolution and other socioeconomic changes. Literature became more objective and less romantic, and progressivism was an influence.

The struggle for freedom from the British gathered momentum, sparking interest in the history and cultural heritage of Sindh. Scholars such as Allama I. I. Kazi, his wife Elsa Kazi, Rasool Bux Palijo, G. M. Syed, Umer Bin Mohammad Daudpota, Pir Ali Muhammad Shah Rashidi, Pir Husamuddin Shah Rashidi, Maulana deen Muhammad Wafai, Chetan Mariwala, Jairamdas Daulatram, Hasho Kewalramani, Bherumal Meharchand Advani, Abdul Majeed Sindhi (Memon), Badaruddin Dhamraho, Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, Allah Dad Bohyo, Tirath Wasant published works on history and culture.

Mir Hasan Ali and Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Khalifo Gul, Fazil Shah, Kasim, Hafiz Hamid, Mohammad Hashim, Mukhlis, Abojho, Surat Singh, Khaki, Mirza Qalich Baig, Zia and Aziz pioneered poetry in Persian meter. "Bewas" (a pseudonym), Hyder Bux Jatoi and Dukhayal are modern poets.

The novel and short story became the main prose forms, and hundreds of each were translated from European languages to the languages of Pakistan. World War II saw the emergence of novelists and short-story writers such as Narain Das Bhambhani, Gobind Malhi, Sushila J. Lalwani, Lokram Dodeja, Sundri Uttamchandani, Popati Hiranandani, Dr. Moti Prakash, Sharma, Kala Sharma, G L Dodeja, Padan Sharma, Ghulam Rabbani Agro, Usman Deplai, Jamal Abro, Shaikh Ayaz, Rasheed Bhatti, Hameed Sindhi, Hafeez Akhund, Amar Jaleel, Naseem Kharal, Sirajul Haq Memon, Agha Saleem, Anis Ansari, Tariq Ashraf, Ali Baba, Eshwar Chander, Manak, Asghar Sindhi, Adil Abbasi, Ishtiaq Ansari, Shaukat Shoro Kehar Shaukat, Mushtaq Shoro, Shaukat Shoro, Madad Ali Sindhi, Rasool Memon, Akhlaq Asnari, Reta Shahani, Rehmatullah Manjothi, Aziz Kingrani Badal Jamali, Ishaque Ansari, Jan Khaskheli, Hasan Mansoor, Pervez, Shakoor Nizamani, Tariq Qureshi, Munawwar Siraj, Ismail Mangio, Fayaz Chand Kaleri, Ayaz Ali Rind, Altaf Malkani. Sindhi drama has also flourished, and Aziz Kingrani has written scores of plays.[15][16]

Young writers have experimented with new forms of prose and poetry. Free verse, sonnets and ballads have been written in addition to classical poetry forms such as Kafi, Vaee, beit, Geet and Dohira.

Notable Sindh poets are Makhdoom Muhammad Zaman Talib-ul-Mola, Ustad Bukhari, Shaikh Ayaz, Darya Khan Rind, Ameen Faheem, and Imdad Hussaini. Mubarak Ali Lashari is a literary critic and the author of Kuthyas Kawejan.[17]

Noor-ud-din Sarki and Abdul Ghafoor Ansari founded Sindhi Adabi Sangat, an organization of Sindhi-language writers originally centered in Karachi, in 1952. Chapters now exist in other parts of Pakistan and overseas.

Children's literatureEdit

The children's novels Lakho Phulani (Sindhi: لاکو ڦلاڻي and Naon Chateeha Lakhinoo (Sindhi: نئون ڇٽيهہ لکڻو) were written by Shamsuddin Ursani. Gul Phul is a popular children's magazine which was edited by author Akbar Jiskani.[18] Laat, a magazine published by Mehran Publication, was founded by Altaf Malkani and Zulfiqar Ali Bhatti (author of the spy novel Khofnaak Saazish. The Sindhi Adabi Board has published books for children.[19] Waskaro, a magazine which began publication in 1990, contains short stories, poems and articles.[20] The Sindhi Language Authority has also published books for children.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Sindhi Sahitya Charitre - Kannaḍa language translation by Sumatheendra Nadig of History of Sindhi Literature by L. H. Ajwani. Sahitya Akademi, Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi 110001 (1981).
  • "Indo-Persian Literature in Sindh" in The Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature by R. M. Chopra, Iran Culture House, New Delhi (2012).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Culture and Literature". Government of Sindh. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  2. ^ ‎سنڌي ادب تاريخي جائزو, Roshni publishers, 2017, p. 23-26
  3. ^ Sindhi Adab jo mukhtasir Jaizo by Akbar Lighari, Roshni publishers, 2018
  4. ^ سنڌو جي ساڃاح, Roshni publishers, 2017
  5. ^ سنڌي ٻولي ء ادب جي تاريخ, Adance publishers {{citation}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Sindhiana volume 4, Sindhi language Authority, 2010, p. 360
  7. ^ سنڌي ادب جو مختصر جائزو, Roshni publication Kandiyaro Authority, 2010, p. 1
  8. ^ سنڌي ادب تحقيق۽ تنقيدي مطالعو, Advanced publishers, 2016, p. 6
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Sindhiana volume 4, Sindhi language Authority, 2010, p. 400
  10. ^ سنڌي ادب تحقيق۽ تنقيدي مطالعو, Advanced publishers, 2010, p. 38
  11. ^ سنڌي ادب جو مختصر جائزو, Roshni publication Kandiyaro, 2010, p. 18
  12. ^ سنڌي ادب تحقيق۽ تنقيدي مطالعو, Advanced publishers, 2010, p. 34-39
  13. ^ سنڌي ادب تحقيق۽ تنقيدي مطالعو, Advanced publishers, 2010, p. 40-41
  14. ^ سنڌي ادب تحقيق۽ تنقيدي مطالعو, Advanced publishers, 2010, p. 64
  15. ^ ":: LIVEVISION :: - Entertainment". www.livevisionusa.com. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  16. ^ "Ismaili.NET WEB :: First Ismaili Electronic Library and Database". www.ismaili.net. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  17. ^ Times, The Sindh (March 6, 2016). "New book of renowned critic Mubarak Ali Lashari published".
  18. ^ "Editor passesaway | Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF)". www.pakistanpressfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06.
  19. ^ "Sindhi Adabi Board Online Library (Children's Literature)". www.sindhiadabiboard.org.
  20. ^ "انسائيڪلوپيڊيا سنڌيانا : (Sindhianaسنڌيانا)". www.encyclopediasindhiana.org.

External linksEdit