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Seabed Arms Control Treaty

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty, formally the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union (now Russia), United Kingdom, and 91 other countries[1] banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or "weapons of mass destruction" on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22.2 km) coastal zone. It allows signatories to observe all seabed "activities" of any other signatory beyond the 12-mile zone to ensure compliance.

Seabed Arms Control Treaty
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Ratifications and signatories of the treaty
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed11 February 1971
Effective18 May 1972
Condition22 ratifications (including depositary states)
Signatories84
Parties94[1] (as of May 2014)
DepositaryGovernments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Seabed Arms Control Treaty at Wikisource

Like the Antarctic Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, and the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone treaties, the Seabed Arms Control Treaty sought to prevent the introduction of international conflict and nuclear weapons into an area hitherto free of them. Reaching agreement on the seabed, however, involved problems not met in framing the other two agreements.

HistoryEdit

In the 1960s, advances in the technology of oceanography and greatly increased interest in the vast and virtually untapped resources of the ocean floor led to concern that the absence of clearly established rules of law might lead to strife. And there were concurrent fears that nations might use the seabed as a new environment for military installations, including those capable of launching nuclear weapons.

In keeping with a proposal submitted to the U.N. Secretary General by Ambassador Pardo of Malta in August 1967, the U.N. General Assembly, on 18 December 1967, established an ad hoc committee to study ways of reserving the seabed for peaceful purposes, with the objective of ensuring "that the exploration and use of the seabed and the ocean floor should be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, in the interests of maintaining international peace and security and for the benefit of all mankind." The Committee was given permanent status the following year. At the same time, seabed-related military and arms control issues were referred to the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENDC) and its successor, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD). In a message of 18 March 1969, President Nixon said the American delegation to the ENDC should seek discussion of the factors necessary for an international agreement prohibiting the emplacement of weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and ocean floor and pointed out that an agreement of this kind would, like the Antarctic and Outer Space treaties, "prevent an arms race before it has a chance to start."

StatusEdit

List of partiesEdit

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty was opened for signature in Washington, London, and Moscow on 11 February 1971. It entered into force 18 May 1972, when the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and more than 22 nations had deposited instruments of ratification. As of October 2018, 94 current states are parties to the treaty, while another 21 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method
  Afghanistan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 22, 1971 (M)
Apr 23, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Algeria Jan 27, 1992 (W) Accession
  Antigua and Barbuda Nov 16, 1988 (W)
Dec 26, 1988 (M)
Jan 26, 1989 (L)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Argentina Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W) Mar 21, 1983 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Australia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jan 23, 1973 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Austria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 10, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Bahamas Jun 7, 1989 (W) Accession
  Belarus Mar 3, 1971 (M) Sep 14, 1971 (M) Ratification
  Belgium Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 20, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Benin Mar 18, 1971 (W) Jun 19, 1986 (M)
Jul 2, 1986 (L)
Jul 7, 1986 (W)
Ratification
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Aug 15, 1994 (W) Succession from   Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  Botswana Feb 11, 1971 (W) Nov 10, 1972 (W) Ratification
  Brazil Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W) May 10, 1988 (L, W)
Aug 4, 1988 (M)
Ratification
  Bulgaria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 16, 1971 (M)
May 7, 1971 (W)
May 26, 1971 (L)
Ratification
  Canada Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 17, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Cape Verde Oct 24, 1979 (M) Accession
  Central African Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W) Jul 9, 1981 (W) Ratification
  China Feb 28, 1991 (L, M, W) Accession
  Congo Oct 23, 1978 (W) Accession
  Côte d'Ivoire Jan 14, 1972 (M, W) Accession
  Cuba Jun 3, 1977 (M) Accession
  Cyprus Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 17, 1971 (L, M)
Dec 30, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Czech Republic Jan 1, 1993 (W)
Apr 5, 1993 (L)
Apr 9, 1993 (M)
Succession from   Czechoslovakia
  Denmark Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 15, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Dominican Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W) Feb 11, 1972 (W) Ratification
  Ethiopia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jul 12, 1977 (L)
Jul 14, 1977 (M, W)
Ratification
  Finland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Germany Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 18, 1975 (L, W) Ratification
  Ghana Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 9, 1972 (W) Ratification
  Greece Feb 11, 1971 (M)
Feb 12, 1971 (W)
May 28, 1985 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Guatemala Feb 11, 1971 (W) Apr 1, 1996 (W) Ratification
  Guinea-Bissau Aug 20, 1976 (M) Accession
  Hungary Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 13, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Iceland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 30, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  India Jul 20, 1973 (L, M, W) Accession
  Iran Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 26, 1971 (L, W)
Sep 6, 1971 (M)
Ratification
  Iraq Feb 22, 1971 (M) Sep 13, 1972 (M) Ratification
  Ireland Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) Aug 19, 1971 (L, W) Ratification
  Italy Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Sep 3, 1974 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Jamaica Oct 11, 1971 (L, W)
Oct 14, 1971 (M)
Jul 30, 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Japan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 21, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Jordan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 17, 1971 (W)
Aug 30, 1971 (M)
Nov 1, 1971 (L)
Ratification
  South Korea Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) Jun 25, 1987 (L, W) Ratification
  Laos Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
Oct 19, 1971 (L)
Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Nov 3, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Latvia Jun 24, 1992 (L)
Aug 3, 1992 (W)
Aug 21, 1992 (M)
Accession
  Lesotho Sep 8, 1971 (W) Apr 3, 1973 (W) Ratification
  Libya Jul 6, 1990 (M) Accession
  Liechtenstein May 30, 1991 (L, W)
May 31, 1991 (M)
Accession
  Luxembourg Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 11, 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Malaysia May 20, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 21, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Malta Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) May 4, 1971 (W) Ratification
  Mauritius Feb 11, 1971 (W) Apr 23, 1971 (W)
May 3, 1971 (L)
May 18, 1971 (M)
Ratification
  Mexico Mar 23, 1984 (L, M, W) Accession
  Mongolia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M) Oct 8, 1971 (M)
Nov 15, 1981 (L)
Ratification
  Montenegro Jun 3, 2006 (M)
Dec 12, 2006 (L)
Succession from   Serbia and Montenegro[a]
  Morocco Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 18, 1971 (L)
Jul 26, 1971 (L)
Aug 5, 1971 (W)
Jan 18, 1972 (M)
Ratification
    Nepal Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 24, 1971 (L)
Jul 6, 1971 (L)
Jul 29, 1971 (M)
Aug 9, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Netherlands Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jan 14, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
  New Zealand Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Feb 24, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Nicaragua Feb 11, 1971 (W) Feb 7, 1973 (W) Ratification
  Niger Feb 11, 1971 (W) Aug 9, 1971 (W) Ratification
  Norway Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 28, 1971 (L, M)
Jun 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Panama Feb 11, 1971 (W) Mar 20, 1974 (W) Ratification
  Philippines Nov 5, 1993 (L) Accession
  Poland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 15, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Portugal Jun 24, 1975 (L, M, W) Accession
  Qatar Nov 12, 1974 (L) Accession
  Romania Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jul 10, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Russia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Rwanda Feb 11, 1971 (W) May 20, 1975 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Saint Kitts and Nevis May 18, 1972 (W) Accession
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines May 13, 1999 (L) Succession from   United Kingdom
  Sao Tome and Principe Aug 24, 1979 (M) Accession
  Saudi Arabia Jan 7, 1972 (W) Jun 23, 1972 (W) Ratification
  Serbia Jun 3, 2006 (L, M) Succession from   Serbia and Montenegro
  Seychelles Mar 12, 1985 (L)
Mar 14, 1985 (M)
Apr 8, 1985 (W)
Accession
  Singapore May 5, 1971 (L, M, W) Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Slovakia Jan 1, 1993 (W)
May 17, 1993 (L)
Jun 25, 1993 (M)
Succession from   Czechoslovakia
  Slovenia Apr 7, 1992 (L)
Aug 20, 1992 (W)
Succession from   Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  Solomon Islands Jun 17, 1981 (L) Succession from   United Kingdom
  South Africa Feb 11, 1971 (W) Nov 14, 1973 (W)
Nov 26, 1973 (L)
Nov 30, 1973 (M)
Ratification
  Spain Jul 15, 1987 (L, M, W) Accession
  Swaziland Feb 11, 1971 (W) Aug 9, 1971 (W) Ratification
  Sweden Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 28, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
   Switzerland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 4, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Togo Apr 2, 1971 (W) Jun 28, 1971 (W) Ratification
  Tunisia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Oct 28, 1971 (L)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
  Turkey Feb 25, 1971 (L, M, W) Oct 19, 1972 (W)
Oct 25, 1972 (L)
Oct 30, 1972 (M)
Ratification
  Ukraine Mar 3, 1971 (M) Sep 3, 1971 (M) Ratification
  United Kingdom Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  United States Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Vietnam Jun 20, 1980 (M) Accession as the   Socialist Republic of Vietnam[b]
  Yemen Feb 23, 1971 (M) Jun 1, 1979 (M) Ratification
  Zambia Oct 9, 1972 (L)
Nov 1, 1972 (W)
Nov 2, 1972 (M)
Accession
Notes
  1. ^ Montenegro's effective date of succession was 3 June 2006.[5]
  2. ^ Signed by the   Republic of Vietnam on 11 February 1971, but following the victory by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the Vietnam War, the reunified Socialist Republic of Vietnam renounced all treaty actions performed by the Republic of Vietnam.[6]

State with limited recognition, abiding by treatyEdit

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 14 UN member states, deposited their instruments of ratification of the treaty prior to the United States' decision to switch their recognition of the sole legitimate government of China from the Republic of China (ROC) to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the ROC's ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations".[7]

State Signed Deposited Method
  Republic of China Feb 11, 1971 Feb 22, 1972 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratifiedEdit

State Signed
  Bolivia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
  Burundi Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
  Cambodia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Cameroon Nov 11, 1971 (M)
  Colombia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Costa Rica Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Equatorial Guinea Jun 4, 1971 (W)
  Gambia May 18, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (M)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
  Guinea Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
  Honduras Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Lebanon Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
  Liberia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Madagascar Sep 14, 1971 (W)
  Mali Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
  Myanmar Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
  Paraguay Feb 23, 1971 (W)
  Senegal Mar 17, 1971 (W)
  Sierra Leone Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
Feb 24, 1971 (W)
  Sudan Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
  Tanzania Feb 11, 1971 (W)
  Uruguay Feb 11, 1971 (W)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State document "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof".

  1. ^ a b c d "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  2. ^ "TREATY ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLACEMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE SEA-BED AND THE OCEAN FLOOR AND IN THE SUBSOIL THEREOF". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
    "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (London Version)". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof". United States Department of State. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Договор о запрещении размещения на дне морей и океанов и в его недрах ядерного оружия и других видов оружия массового уничтожения" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. ^ "Montenegro: Succession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  6. ^ "Viet Nam: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  7. ^ "China: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 February 2015.

External linksEdit