Outer Space Treaty

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a multilateral treaty that forms the basis of international space law. Negotiated and drafted under the auspices of the United Nations, it was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, entering into force on 10 October 1967. As of February 2021, 111 countries are parties to the treaty—including all major spacefaring nations—and another 23 are signatories.[1][5][note 1]

Outer Space Treaty
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
Outer Space Treaty parties.svg
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed27 January 1967
LocationLondon, Moscow and Washington, D.C.
Effective10 October 1967
Condition5 ratifications, including the depositary Governments
Parties111[1][2][3][4]
DepositaryGovernments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Full text
Outer Space Treaty of 1967 at Wikisource

The Outer Space Treaty was spurred by the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in the 1950s, which could reach targets through outer space.[6] The Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, in October 1957, followed by a subsequent arms race with the United States, hastened proposals to prohibit the use of outer space for military purposes. On 17 October 1963, the U.N. General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution prohibiting the introduction of weapons of mass destruction in outer space. Various proposals for an arms control treaty governing outer space were debated during a General Assembly session in December 1966, culminating in the drafting and adoption of the Outer Space Treaty the following January.[7]

Key provisions of the Outer Space Treaty include prohibiting nuclear weapons in space; limiting the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes; establishing that space shall be freely explored and used by all nations; and precluding any country from claiming sovereignty over outer space or any celestial body. Although it forbids establishing military bases, testing weapons and conducting military maneuvers on celestial bodies, the treaty does not expressly ban all military activities in space, nor the establishment of military space forces or the placement of conventional weapons in space.[8][9]

Drawing heavily from the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the Outer Space Treaty likewise focuses on regulating certain activities and preventing unrestricted competition that could lead to conflict.[10] Consequently, it is largely silent or ambiguous on newly developed space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining.[11][12][13] Nevertheless, the Outer Space Treaty is the first and most foundational legal instrument of space law,[14] and its broader principles of promoting the civil and peaceful use of space continue to underpin multilateral initiatives in space, such as the International Space Station and the Artemis Program.[15][16]

ProvisionsEdit

The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. According to the U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), the core principles of the treaty are:[17]

  • the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
  • outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
  • outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
  • States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
  • the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;
  • astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind;
  • States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities;
  • States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and
  • States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.

Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It specifically limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes, and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit, and thus some highly destructive attack tactics, such as kinetic bombardment, are still potentially allowable.[18] In addition, the treaty explicitly allows the use of military personal and resources to support peaceful uses of space, mirroring a common practice permitted by the Antarctic Treaty regarding that continent. The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the states.

Article II of the treat explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial body such as the Moon or a planet as its own territory, whether by declaration, occupation, or "any other means".[19] However, the state that launches a space object, such as a satellite or space station, retains jurisdiction and control over that object;[20] by extension, a state is also liable for damages caused by its space object.[21]

Responsibility for activities in spaceEdit

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Party shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities.

As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."[22][23]

Applicability in the 21st centuryEdit

Being primarily an arms control treaty for the peaceful use of outer space, the Outer Space Treaty offers limited and ambiguous regulations to newer space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining.[11][13][24] It is therefore debated whether the extraction of resources falls within the prohibitive language of appropriation, or whether the use of such resources encompasses the commercial use and exploitation.[25]

Seeking clearer guidelines, private U.S. companies lobbied the U.S. government, which in 2015 introduced the U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act of 2015 legalizing space mining.[26] Similar national legislation to legalize the appropriation of extraterrestrial resources are now being introduced by other countries, including Luxembourg, Japan, China, India, and Russia.[11][24][27][28] This has created some controversy regarding legal claims over the mining of celestial bodies for profit.[24][25]

1976 Bogota DeclarationEdit

The "Declaration of the First Meeting of Equatorial Countries", also known as the "Bogota Declaration", was one of the few attempts to challenge the Outer Space Treaty. It was promulgated in 1976 by eight equatorial countries to assert sovereignty over those portions of the geostationary orbit that continuously lie over the signatory nations' territory.[29] These claims did not receive wider international support or recognition, and were subsequently abandoned.[30]

Influence on space lawEdit

As the first international legal instrument concerning space, the Outer Space Treaty is considered the "cornerstone" of space law.[31][32] It was also the first major achievement of the United Nations in this area of law, following the adoption of the first U.N. General Assembly resolution on space in 1958,[33] and the first meeting of the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) the subsequent year.[34]

Within roughly a decade of the treaty's entry into force, several other treaties were brokered by the U.N. to further develop the legal framework for activities in space:[35]

With the exception of the Moon Treaty, to which only 18 nations are party, all other treaties on space law have been ratified by most major space-faring nations (namely those capable of orbital spaceflight).[36] COPUOS coordinates these treaties and other questions of space jurisdiction, aided by the U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs.

The Bogota Declaration tried to complement shortcomings of the treaty on safeguarding control of Earth's geostationary orbit, but was not implemented.[37] Similarly it has been argued that while the Outer Space Treaty guarantees access to space, it does not secure international and social inclusiveness.[38]

List of partiesEdit

The Outer Space Treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of February 2021, 111 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington, D.C. Also indicated is whether the state became a party by way of signature and subsequent ratification, by accession to the treaty after it had closed for signature, or by succession of states after separation from some other party to the treaty.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method
  Afghanistan
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 17 Mar 1988 (L, M)
  • 21 Mar 1988 (W)
Ratification
  Algeria 27 Jan 1992 (W) Accession
  Antigua and Barbuda
  • 16 Nov 1988 (W)
  • 26 Dec 1988 (M)
  • 26 Jan 1989 (L)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Argentina
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 18 Apr 1967 (M)
26 Mar 1969 (M, W) Ratification
  Armenia 28 Mar 2018 (M) Accession
  Australia 27 Jan 1967 (W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Austria 20 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 26 Feb 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Azerbaijan 9 Sep 2015 (L) Accession
  Bahamas
  • 11 Aug 1976 (L)
  • 13 Aug 1976 (W)
  • 30 Aug 1976 (M)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Bahrain 7 Aug 2019 (M) Accession
  Bangladesh
  • 14 Jan 1986 (L)
  • 17 Jan 1986 (W)
  • 24 Jan 1986 (M)
Accession
  Barbados 12 Sep 1968 (W) Accession
  Belarus 10 Feb 1967 (M) 31 Oct 1967 (M) Ratification
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, M)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 30 Mar 1973 (W)
  • 31 Mar 1973 (L, M)
Ratification
  Benin
  • 19 Jun 1986 (M)
  • 2 Jul 1986 (L)
  • 7 Jul 1986 (W)
Accession
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 29 Sep 2020 (L)
Accession
  Brazil
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (L, W)
5 Mar 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Bulgaria 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 28 Mar 1967 (M)
  • 11 Apr 1967 (W)
  • 19 Apr 1967 (L)
Ratification
  Burkina Faso 3 Mar 1967 (W) 18 Jun 1968 (W) Ratification
  Canada 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Chile
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 3 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 20 Feb 1967 (M)
8 Oct 1981 (W) Ratification
  China
  • 30 Dec 1983 (W)
  • 6 Jan 1984 (M)
  • 12 Jan 1984 (L)
Accession
  Cuba 3 Jun 1977 (M) Accession
  Cyprus
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 16 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 5 Jul 1972 (L, W)
  • 20 Sep 1972 (M)
Ratification
  Czech Republic
  • 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
  • 29 Sep 1993 (L)
Succession from   Czechoslovakia
  Denmark 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Dominican Republic 27 Jan 1967 (W) 21 Nov 1968 (W) Ratification
  Ecuador
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 16 May 1967 (L)
  • 7 Jun 1967 (M)
7 Mar 1969 (W) Ratification
  Egypt 27 Jan 1967 (M, W)
  • 10 Oct 1967 (W)
  • 23 Jan 1968 (M)
Ratification
  El Salvador 27 Jan 1967 (W) 15 Jan 1969 (W) Ratification
  Equatorial Guinea 16 Jan 1989 (M) Accession
  Estonia 19 Apr 2010 (M) Accession
  Fiji
  • 18 Jul 1972 (W)
  • 14 Aug 1972 (L)
  • 29 Aug 1972 (M)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Finland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) Jul 12, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  France 25 Sep 1967 (L, M, W) 5 Aug 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Germany 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Feb 1971 (L, W) Ratification
  Greece 27 Jan 1967 (W) 19 Jan 1971 (L) Ratification
  Guinea-Bissau 20 Aug 1976 (M) Accession
  Hungary 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 26 Jun 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Iceland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 5 Feb 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  India 3 Mar 1967 (L, M, W) 18 Jan 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Indonesia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 14 Feb 1967 (L)
25 Jun 2002 (L) Ratification
  Iraq
  • 27 Feb 1967 (L, W)
  • 9 Mar 1967 (M)
  • 4 Dec 1968 (M)
  • 23 Sep 1969 (L)
Ratification
  Ireland 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 17 Jul 1968 (W)
  • 19 Jul 1968 (L)
Ratification
  Israel 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 18 Feb 1977 (W)
  • 1 Mar 1977 (L)
  • 4 Apr 1977 (M)
Ratification
  Italy 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 4 May 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Jamaica 29 Jun 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 6 Aug 1970 (W)
  • 10 Aug 1970 (L)
  • 21 Aug 1970 (M)
Ratification
  Japan 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Kazakhstan 11 Jun 1998 (M) Accession
  Kenya 19 Jan 1984 (L) Accession
  North Korea 5 Mar 2009 (M) Accession
  South Korea 27 Jan 1967 (W) 13 Oct 1967 (W) Ratification
  Kuwait
  • 7 Jun 1972 (W)
  • 20 Jun 1972 (L)
  • 4 Jul 1972 (M)
Accession
  Laos
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (L)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 27 Nov 1972 (M)
  • 29 Nov 1972 (W)
  • 15 Jan 1973 (L)
Ratification
  Lebanon 23 Feb 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 31 Mar 1969 (L, M)
  • 30 Jun 1969 (W)
Ratification
  Libya 3 Jul 1968 (W) Accession
  Lithuania 25 Mar 2013 (W) Accession
  Luxembourg
  • 27 Jan 1967 (M, W)
  • 31 Jan 1967 (L)
17 Jan 2006 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Madagascar 22 Aug 1968 (W) Accession
  Mali 11 Jun 1968 (M) Accession
  Malta 22 May 2017 (L) Accession
  Mauritius
  • 7 Apr 1969 (W)
  • 21 Apr 1969 (L)
  • 13 May 1969 (M)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Mexico 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 31 Jan 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Mongolia 27 Jan 1967 (M) 10 Oct 1967 (M) Ratification
  Morocco
  • 21 Dec 1967 (L, M)
  • 22 Dec 1967 (W)
Accession
  Myanmar 22 May 1967 (L, M, W) 18 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
    Nepal
  • 3 Feb 1967 (M, W)
  • 6 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 10 Oct 1967 (L)
  • 16 Oct 1967 (M)
  • 22 Nov 1967 (W)
Ratification
  Netherlands 10 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
  New Zealand 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 31 May 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Nicaragua
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 13 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 30 Jun 2017 (W)
  • 10 Aug 2017 (M)
  • 14 Aug 2017 (L)
Ratification
  Niger 1 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 17 Apr 1967 (L)
  • 3 May 1967 (W)
Ratification
  Nigeria 14 Nov 1967 (L) Accession
  Norway 3 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 1 Jul 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Pakistan 12 Sep 1967 (L, M, W) 8 Apr 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Papua New Guinea
  • 27 Oct 1980 (L)
  • 13 Nov 1980 (M)
  • 16 Mar 1981 (W)
Succession from   Australia
  Paraguay 22 Dec 2016 (L) Accession
  Peru 30 Jun 1967 (W)
  • 28 Feb 1979 (M)
  • 1 Mar 1979 (L)
  • 21 Mar 1979 (W)
Ratification
  Poland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 30 Jan 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Portugal 29 May 1996 (L) Accession
  Qatar 13 Mar 2012 (W) Accession
  Romania 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 9 Apr 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Russia 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification as the   Soviet Union
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13 May 1999 (L) Succession from   United Kingdom
  San Marino
  • 21 Apr 1967 (W)
  • 24 Apr 1967 (L)
  • 6 Jun 1967 (M)
  • 29 Oct 1968 (W)
  • 21 Nov 1968 (M)
  • 3 Feb 1969 (L)
Ratification
  Saudi Arabia 17 Dec 1976 (W) Accession
  Seychelles 5 Jan 1978 (L) Accession
  Sierra Leone
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, M)
  • 16 May 1967 (W)
  • 13 Jul 1967 (M)
  • 14 Jul 1967 (W)
  • 25 Oct 1967 (L)
Ratification
  Singapore 10 Sep 1976 (L, M, W) Accession
  Slovakia
  • 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
  • 17 May 1993 (L)
Succession from   Czechoslovakia
  Slovenia 8 Feb 2019 (L) Accession
  South Africa 1 Mar 1967 (W)
  • 30 Sep 1968 (W)
  • 8 Oct 1968 (L)
  • 14 Nov 1968 (M)
Ratification
  Spain
  • 27 Nov 1968 (L)
  • 7 Dec 1968 (W)
Accession
  Sri Lanka 10 Mar 1967 (L) 18 Nov 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Sweden 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 11 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
   Switzerland
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
18 Dec 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Syria 19 Nov 1968 (M) Accession
  Thailand 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 5 Sep 1968 (L)
  • 9 Sep 1968 (M)
  • 10 Sep 1968 (W)
Ratification
  Togo 27 Jan 1967 (W) 26 Jun 1989 (W) Ratification
  Tonga
  • 22 Jun 1971 (M)
  • 7 Jul 1971 (L, W)
Succession from   United Kingdom
  Tunisia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 28 Mar 1968 (L)
  • 4 Apr 1968 (M)
  • 17 Apr 1968 (W)
Ratification
  Turkey 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 27 Mar 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Uganda 24 Apr 1968 (W) Accession
  Ukraine 10 Feb 1967 (M) 31 Oct 1967 (M) Ratification
  United Arab Emirates 4 Oct 2000 (W) Accession
  United Kingdom 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  United States 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Uruguay
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
31 Aug 1970 (W) Ratification
  Venezuela 27 Jan 1967 (W) 3 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
  Vietnam 20 Jun 1980 (M) Accession
  Yemen 1 Jun 1979 (M) Accession
  Zambia
  • 20 Aug 1973 (W)
  • 21 Aug 1973 (M)
  • 28 Aug 1973 (L)
Accession

Partially recognized state abiding by treatyEdit

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that it still considers the ROC to be "bound by its obligations".[5]

State Signed Deposited Method
  Republic of China 27 Jan 1967 24 Jul 1970 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratifiedEdit

Twenty-three states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

State Signed
  Bolivia 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Botswana 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Burundi 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Cameroon 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Central African Republic 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Colombia 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 29 Apr 1967 (M)
  • 4 May 1967 (L)
  Ethiopia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 10 Feb 1967 (M)
  Gambia 2 Jun 1967 (L)
  Ghana
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 3 Mar 1967 (L)
  Guyana 3 Feb 1967 (W)
  Haiti 27 Jan 1967 (W)
   Holy See 5 Apr 1967 (L)
  Honduras 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Iran 27 Jan 1967 (L)
  Jordan 2 Feb 1967 (W)
  Lesotho 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Malaysia
  • 20 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 21 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 3 May 1967 (M)
  Panama 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Philippines
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 29 Apr 1967 (M)
  Rwanda 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Somalia 2 Feb 1967 (W)
  Trinidad and Tobago
  • 24 Jul 1967 (L)
  • 17 Aug 1967 (M)
  • 28 Sep 1967 (W)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b "TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON AND OTHER CELESTIAL BODIES". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
    "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies [London version]". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies". United States Department of State. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Договор о принципах деятельности государств по исследованию и использованию космического пространства, включая Луну и другие небесные тела" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b "China: Accession to Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  6. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  7. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  8. ^ Shakouri Hassanabadi, Babak (30 July 2018). "Space Force and international space law". The Space Review. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  9. ^ Irish, Adam (13 September 2018). "The Legality of a U.S. Space Force". OpinioJuris. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  11. ^ a b c If space is ‘the province of mankind’, who owns its resources? Senjuti Mallick and Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. The Observer Research Foundation. 24 January 2019. Quote 1: "The Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967, considered the global foundation of the outer space legal regime, […] has been insufficient and ambiguous in providing clear regulations to newer space activities such as asteroid mining." *Quote2: "Although the OST does not explicitly mention "mining" activities, under Article II, outer space including the Moon and other celestial bodies are "not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty" through use, occupation or any other means."
  12. ^ Space Law: Is asteroid mining legal?. Wired. 1 May 2012.
  13. ^ a b Who Owns Space? US Asteroid-Mining Act Is Dangerous And Potentially Illegal. IFL. Accessed on 9 November 2019. Quote 1: "The act represents a full-frontal attack on settled principles of space law which are based on two basic principles: the right of states to scientific exploration of outer space and its celestial bodies and the prevention of unilateral and unbriddled commercial exploitation of outer-space resources. These principles are found in agreements including the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Moon Agreement of 1979." *Quote 2: "Understanding the legality of asteroid mining starts with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Some might argue the treaty bans all space property rights, citing Article II."
  14. ^ "Space Law". www.unoosa.org. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  15. ^ "International Space Station legal framework". www.esa.int. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  16. ^ "NASA: Artemis Accords". NASA. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  17. ^ "The Outer Space Treaty". www.unoosa.org. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  18. ^ Bourbonniere, M.; Lee, R. J. (2007). "Legality of the Deployment of Conventional Weapons in Earth Orbit: Balancing Space Law and the Law of Armed Conflict". European Journal of International Law. 18 (5): 873. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm051.
  19. ^ Frakes, Jennifer (2003). "The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise?". Wisconsin International Law Journal (21 ed.): 409.
  20. ^ Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VIII  – via Wikisource.
  21. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VII
  22. ^ Terrill Jr., Delbert R. (May 1999), Project West Ford, "The Air Force Role in Developing International Outer Space Law" (PDF), Air Force History and Museums:63–67
  23. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article IX
  24. ^ a b c Davies, Rob (6 February 2016). "Asteroid mining could be space's new frontier: the problem is doing it legally". The Guardian.
  25. ^ a b Koch, Jonathan Sydney (2008). "Institutional Framework for the Province of all Mankind: Lessons from the International Seabed Authority for the Governance of Commercial Space Mining". Astropolitics. 16 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1080/14777622.2017.1381824. S2CID 149116769.
  26. ^ "U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act". Act No. H.R.2262 of 5 December 2015. 114th Congress (2015–2016) Sponsor: Rep. McCarthy, Kevin.
  27. ^ Ridderhof, R. (18 December 2015). "Space Mining and (U.S.) Space Law". Peace Palace Library. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Law Provides New Regulatory Framework for Space Commerce | RegBlog". www.regblog.org. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  29. ^ "Text of Declaration of the First Meeting of Equatorial Countries". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  30. ^ Gangale, Thomas (2006), "Who Owns the Geostationary Orbit?", Annals of Air and Space Law, 31, archived from the original on 27 September 2011, retrieved 14 October 2011.
  31. ^ "History: Treaties". unoosa.org. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  32. ^ "Space Law Treaties and Principles". unoosa.org. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  33. ^ "A History of Space". unoosa.org. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  34. ^ Beyond UNISPACE: It's time for the Moon Treaty. Dennis C. O'Brien. Pace Review. 21 January 2019.
  35. ^ "Space Law Treaties and Principles". unoosa.org. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  36. ^ Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2008 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2008
  37. ^ Durrani, Haris (19 July 2019). "Is Spaceflight Colonialism?". The Nation. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  38. ^ Bartels, Meghan (25 May 2018). "People are calling for a movement to decolonize space—here's why". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 November 2021.

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Further readingEdit

  • Annette Froehlich, et al.: A Fresh View on the Outer Space Treaty. Springer, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-319-70433-3.

External linksEdit


  1. ^ In addition, the Republic of China in Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.
  1. ^ Gangale, Thomas (2006), "Who Owns the Geostationary Orbit?", Annals of Air and Space Law, 31, archived from the original on 27 September 2011, retrieved 14 October 2011.