Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation. As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database. In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December 2010.
5 April 1975 (claimed)|
|Known for||Inventing bitcoin, implementing the first blockchain, deploying the first decentralized digital currency|
|Fields||Digital currencies, computer science, cryptography|
On a P2P Foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975. Speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on a number of cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and various European countries. Satoshi Nakamoto also created the bitcointalk forum, posted the first message in 2009 under the pseudonym satoshi.
Development of bitcoinEdit
In October 2008, Nakamoto published a paper on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd.com describing the bitcoin digital currency. It was titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins. Satoshi Nakamoto released the Version 0.1 of bitcoin software on Sourceforge on 9 January 2009.
Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in 2007. The inventor of Bitcoin knew that due to its nature, the core design would have to be able to support a broad range of transaction types. The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script.
Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin.org and continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen, transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project. Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself.
The inventor left a text message in the first mined block which reads 'The Times 3 January 2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks'. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January 2009. It is a strong indication that the first block was mined no earlier than this date. The genesis block has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on 3 January 2009. This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn't have a previous block to reference. This required the use of custom code to mine it. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.
As the sole, predominant early miner, the inventor was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards. Except for test transactions these remain unspent since mid January 2009. The public bitcoin transaction log shows that Nakamoto's known addresses contain roughly one million bitcoins. As of 17 December 2017[update], this is worth over 19 billion USD. This makes him the 44th richest person on Earth.
Characteristics and identityEdit
Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters. He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan, but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.
Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase "bloody hard") in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin. Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text
The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London's The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.:18
Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto's bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. (Between 2pm and 8pm Japanese time, an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan) As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.
Nakamoto's initial email to Dai is dated
22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (
pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the
CreationDate the value
20081003134958-07'00' – this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on
bitcoin.org, which is dated
20090324113315-06'00' or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: −7 vs −6.
There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.
In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis. Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on "bit gold", which is considered a precursor to bitcoin. He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s. In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: "Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai's case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai)."
Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo. Speaking on RT's The Keiser Report, he said "I've concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap ...". However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: 'Thanks for letting me know. I'm afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I'm used to it'. Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that "the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo."
In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek, journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto, as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor. Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business "not under the government's thumb." In the article's seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: "I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It's been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection." The article's publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto's house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview. However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman's question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified. In a Reddit "ask-me-anything" interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman's question as being related to his work for Citibank. Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto's P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: "I am not Dorian Nakamoto." However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto's P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.
Hal Finney (4 May 1956 – 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements. He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto's family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg. Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney's writing to Satoshi Nakamoto's, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey). Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian's identity as a "drop" or "patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits". However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet's history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto's emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto's other writings than Finney's do. Finney's fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of "at least" 15% that "Hal was more involved than he’s said", before further evidence suggested that was not the case.
Craig Steven WrightEdit
On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, "either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did". Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright's email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013. A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports. Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax, which Wired acknowledged "cast doubt" on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.
On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright's home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that "This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin." According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.
On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction. During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:
Some people will believe, some people won't, and to tell you the truth, I don't really care. (...) I didn't decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they're making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. (...) They want to be private. They don't want all of this to affect them. And I don't want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it's true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don't like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.
Wright's claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.
However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright's blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort. The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying "There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin's creator." Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright's claim was "intentional scammery".
On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish "a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim". But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled "I'm Sorry", which read in part:
I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.
On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying "Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK". Wright stated that "I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.".
In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O'Hagan about the events, based on his book "The Secret Life: Three True Stories" in which O'Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright's public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O'Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O'Hagan also interviews Wright's wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims. It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright's claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O'Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O'Hagan's book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker "Satoshi Nakamoto".
Following O'Hagan's article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O'Hagan's account as the possible reasons for Wright's apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:
To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.
He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.
But O'Hagan shows us something rather different - a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.
This is in reference to O'Hagan's firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits "It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency."
On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman's estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman's share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together. The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.
Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion's share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.
New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the Bitcoin paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time.
In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear, then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University. Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto, as did Lehdonvirta.
In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto. They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase "computationally impractical to reverse" in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto. The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.
In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki. Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.
A 2013 article in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.
In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions, but later retracted their claim.
Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code, said that Nakamoto could either be a "team of people" or a "genius"; Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.
A 2017 article published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk's technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.
- S., L. (2 November 2015). "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?". The Economist explains. The Economist. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Economist Staff (31 October 2015). "Blockchains: The great chain of being sure about things". The Economist. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- Patron, Travis (9 November 2014). "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?". diginomics.com. Diginomics. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Wallace, Benjamin (23 November 2011). "The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin". Wired. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
It seemed doubtful that Nakamoto was even Japanese. His English had the flawless, idiomatic ring of a native speaker.
- "From Nakamoto to 'HODL': 5 Intriguing Facts About Iconic Bitcointalk Forum". CoinTelegraph. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018.
- Nakamoto, Satoshi (24 May 2009). "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Nakamoto, Satoshi (31 October 2008). "Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper". Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "Satoshi's posts to Cryptography mailing list". Mail-archive.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Davis, Joshua. "The Crypto-Currency: Bitcoin and its mysterious inventor". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013.
- Penenberg, Adam. "The Bitcoin Crypto-Currency Mystery Reopened". Fast Company. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013.
A New Yorker writer implies he found Bitcoin's mysterious creator. We think he got the wrong man, and offer far more compelling evidence that points to someone else entirely.
- Satoshi Nakamoto (17 November 2008). "Re: Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper 2008-11-17 16:33:04 UTC". Satoshi Nakamoto Institute. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Satoshi Nakamoto (17 June 2010). "Re: Transactions and Scripts: DUP HASH160 ... EQUALVERIFY CHECKSIG". Satoshi Nakamoto Institute. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Bosker, Bianca. "Gavin Andresen, Bitcoin Architect: Meet The Man Bringing You Bitcoin (And Getting Paid In It)". HuffPostTech. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016.
- "How to use hexdump to look at the Genesis Block". 21.co. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Danny Bradbury (23 November 2014). "How Dangerous is Satoshi Nakamoto?". Coindesk. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "The Well Deserved Fortune of Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin creator, Visionary and Genius". Archived from the original on 21 April 2013.
- "Bitcoin Exchange Rate — Bitcoin Live Converter — Preev". preev.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "Satoshi Nakamoto has got richer in theory — Steemit". Steemit. 5 August 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. forbes.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Satoshi Nakamoto's Page". P2P Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Jeffries, Adrianne (4 October 2011). "The New Yorker's Joshua Davis Attempts to Identify Bitcoin Creator Satoshi Nakamoto". Betabeat. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Davis, Joshua (10 October 2011). "The Crypto-Currency: Bitcoin and its mysterious inventor". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Pagliery, Jose (2014). Bitcoin: And the Future of Money. Triumph Books. ISBN 9781629370361. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- Dai, Satoshi Nakamoto, Wei. "Dai/Nakamoto emails - Gwern.net". www.gwern.net. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- Simonite, Tom (15 August 2014). "The Man Who Really Built Bitcoin". MIT Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Feins, William. "Satoshi Nakamoto". www.eurocheddar.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- John Biggs. "Who is the real Satoshi Nakamoto? One researcher may have found the answer". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Grey, Skye (1 December 2013). "Satoshi Nakamoto is (probably) Nick Szabo". Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Grey, Skye (11 March 2014). "Occam's Razor: who is most likely to be Satoshi Nakamoto?". Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Re: on anonymity, identity, reputation, and spoofing". 18 October 1993. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Nick Szabo (28 May 2011). "Bitcoin, what took ye so long?". Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Frisby, Dominic (2014) "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?" In Bitcoin : the Future of Money?, p 85-149. Unbound. ISBN 1783520779
- "Nick Szabo is (probably) Satoshi Nakamoto". 6 November 2014. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014. at ~17:30 into the show
- Frisby p 147
- Popper, Nathaniel (15 May 2015). "Decoding the Enigma". New York Times.
the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.
- Leah McGrath Goodman (6 March 2014). "The Face Behind Bitcoin". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Andy Greenberg. "Bitcoin Community Responds To Satoshi Nakamoto's Outing With Disbelief, Anger, Fascination". Forbes. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Oremus, Will (26 November 2013). "The real Satoshi Nakamoto: Newsweek finds mysterious bitcoin creator in Los Angeles". Slate.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Winton, Richard (7 March 2014). "Deputies: Newsweek Bitcoin story quoted Satoshi Nakamoto accurately". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (6 March 2014). "Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto chased by reporters, denies founding Bitcoin". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Hedman Rahm, Victor. "The Unbelievable story of Bitcoin". Coinworld. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Hi r/bitcoin I am Dorian Nakamoto. AMA". Reddit. 8 October 2016. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Bitcoin open source implementation of P2P currency". 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "'Real' bitcoin creator: 'I am not Dorian Nakamoto'". CNBC. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015.
- "Satoshi Nakamoto's Discussions". 8 October 2017. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "The Satoshi Nakamoto Email Hacker Says He's Negotiating with the Bitcoin Founder". VICE. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017.
- "Hi r/bitcoin I am Dorian Nakamoto. AMA". Reddit AMA. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018.
- "Hal Finney received the first Bitcoin transaction. Here's how he describes it". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Andy Greenberg (25 March 2014). "Nakamoto's Neighbor: My Hunt For Bitcoin's Creator Led To A Paralyzed Crypto Genius". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- "Conspiracy Theory, Up Close & Personal". 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Greenberg, Andy; Branwen, Gwern (8 December 2015). "Bitcoin's Creator Satoshi Nakamoto Is Probably This Unknown Australian Genius". Wired. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- Biddle, Sam; Cush, Andy (8 December 2015). "This Australian Says He and His Dead Friend Invented Bitcoin". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- Kaminska, Izabella (9 December 2015). "So, Satoshi is an Aussie?". FT Alphaville. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Jeong, Sarah (9 December 2015). "Satoshi's PGP Keys Are Probably Backdated and Point to a Hoax". Motherboard. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Ryall, Jenni (10 December 2015). "New chase for Bitcoin founder leaves everyone exhausted and no wiser". Mashable. Mashable. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Greenberg A (11 December 2015). "New Clues Suggest Craig Wright, Suspected Bitcoin Creator, May Be a Hoaxer". Wired. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- Hunt, Ellie; Farrell, Paul (9 December 2015). "Reported bitcoin 'founder' Craig Wright's home raided by Australian police". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Creator of Bitcoin digital cash reveals identity – BBC News". BBC News. BBC. BBC. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Craig Steven Wright claims to be Satoshi Nakamoto. Is he?". The Economist. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Satoshi, archived from the original on 5 May 2016, retrieved 7 May 2016
- Thomas Fox-Brewster (2 May 2016). "Craig Wright Claims He's Bitcoin Creator Satoshi – Experts Fear An Epic Scam". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017.
- "Bitcoin Core Project". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016.
- Floyd, David (2 May 2016). "Has Bitcoin Creator Satoshi Nakamoto Been Found?". investopedia.com. Investopedia. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Craig Wright's New Evidence That He Is Satoshi Nakamoto Is Worthless". Motherboard. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016.
- "Validating Satoshi (Or Not)". Dan Kaminsky's Blog. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016.
- Alex Hern. "Bitcoin: Craig Wright promises new evidence to prove identity". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016.
- Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Proof – Dr. Craig Wright BlogDr. Craig Wright Blog, archived from the original on 4 May 2016, retrieved 7 May 2016
- "Dr. Craig Wright". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016.
- Alex Hern. "Craig Wright U-turns on pledge to provide evidence he invented bitcoin". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
- "Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts" by David Gerard, pp. 67-78
- Nakamoto, Andrew O’Hagan on the many lives of Satoshi (30 June 2016). "The Satoshi Affair". London Review of Books. pp. 7–28. ISSN 0260-9592. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "There could be a lot of money in claiming to have invented Bitoin". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- O'Hagan, Andrew (6 June 2017). The Secret Life: Three True Stories. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571335855.
- "Back to the Satoshi Nakamoto Bitcoin affair". Archived from the original on 7 December 2017.
- Prisco, Giulio (1 September 2017). "Banking on Bitcoin Available on Netflix: A Good Intro to Bitcoin in Need of a Sequel". Bitcoin Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Christopher Cannucciari. "Banking on Bitcoin". Netflix.
- Pearson, Jordan (February 27, 2018). "The Man Who Claimed to Invent Bitcoin Is Being Sued for $10 Billion". Motherboard. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- Hern, Alex (February 27, 2018). "Self-proclaimed bitcoin 'creator' sued for $10bn". The Guardian. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Ira Kleiman v. Craig Wright". United States District Court, Southern District of Florida. February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- Why Everyone Missed the Most Important Invention in the Last 500 Years, Daniel Jeffries , Jun 23, 2017
- Metzworld, Cryptography, "Proof-of-Satoshi fails Proof-of-Proof." ianG, Wed May 4 18:44:46 EDT 2016
- "Satoshi Saga Continues: Tulip Trust Trustee Expected to Appear by September 19, Says Joseph VaughnPerling" by Aaron van Wirdum Staff Writer, Bitcoin magazine, May 5, 2016 1:03 PM EST
- Twitter communication with Brian Cohen, 2 May 2016
- "Michael Clear". Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- Davis, Joshua (10 October 2011). "The Crypto-Currency". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Clear, Michael (4 April 2013). "Clarifications on Bitcoin Article". Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?". coindesk.com. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Penenberg, Adam (11 October 2011). "The Bitcoin Crypto-currency Mystery Reopened". The Fast Company. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Updating and Distributing Encryption Keys US 20100042841 A1
- Hardy, John (3 May 2016). "Everything makes sense if David Kleiman was Satoshi Nakamoto. Here's why". Everything Money. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "I Think I Know Who Satoshi Is". YouTube TheTedNelson Channel. 18 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014.
- Ormsby, Eileen (10 July 2013). "The outlaw cult". Theage.com.au. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Liu, Alec. "Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto, the Creator of Bitcoin?". vice.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "I am not Satoshi" (blog). Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Markoff, John (23 November 2013). "Study Suggests Link Between Dread Pirate Roberts and Satoshi Nakamoto". New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013.
- Wile, Rob. "Researchers Retract Claim Of Link Between Alleged Silk Road Mastermind And Founder Of Bitcoin". Business Week. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Naughton, John (7 April 2013). "Why Bitcoin scares banks and governments". The Observer. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "Elon Musk Probably Invented Bitcoin". Medium. 22 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "Musk: I Am Not Bitcoin's Satoshi Nakamoto". Bloomberg.com. 28 November 2017. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.