Ross Ulbricht

Ross William Ulbricht (born March 27, 1984) is an American inmate serving life imprisonment for creating and operating the darknet market website Silk Road from 2011 until his arrest in 2013.[3] The site used Tor for anonymity and bitcoin as a currency and facilitated the sale of narcotics and other illegal sales.[4][5] One of Ulbricht's online pseudonyms was "Dread Pirate Roberts" after the fictional character in the novel The Princess Bride and its film adaptation.

Ross Ulbricht
Ross Ulbricht.jpg
Born
Ross William Ulbricht

(1984-03-27) March 27, 1984 (age 38)
Other namesSilk Road Admin, SR Admin, Dread Pirate Roberts, DPR, Frosty, Altoid
Alma materUniversity of Texas at Dallas (BS)
Pennsylvania State University (MS)
OccupationDarknet market operator
Years activeFebruary 2011 – October 2013
Known forCreator of Silk Road
Conviction(s)
Criminal penaltyTwo life sentences without the possibility of parole plus 40 years and $183,961,921 fine (May 29, 2015)
Date apprehended
October 1, 2013
Imprisoned atUnited States Penitentiary, Tucson[2]
Websitefreeross.org

In February 2015, Ulbricht was convicted of conspiracy to commit money laundering, conspiracy to commit computer hacking, conspiracy to traffic fraudulent identity documents, and conspiracy to traffic narcotics by means of the internet.[6] In May 2015, he was sentenced to a double life sentence plus forty years without the possibility of parole. Ulbricht's appeals to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 2017 and the U.S. Supreme Court in 2018 were unsuccessful.[7][8][9] He is currently incarcerated at the United States Penitentiary in Tucson.[10]

Early life and educationEdit

Ulbricht grew up in Austin, Texas. He was a Boy Scout,[11] attaining the rank of Eagle Scout.[12] He attended West Ridge Middle School[13] and Westlake High School, both near Austin, graduating from high school in 2002.[14]

Ulbricht attended the University of Texas at Dallas on a full academic scholarship,[12] and graduated in 2006 with a bachelor's degree in physics.[14] He then attended Pennsylvania State University, where he was in a master's degree program in materials science and engineering and studied crystallography.[13] By the time Ulbricht graduated, he had become interested in libertarian economic theory; he adhered to the political philosophy of Ludwig von Mises, supported Ron Paul, promoted agorism, and participated in college debates to discuss his economic views.[13][15][16] Ulbricht graduated from Penn State in 2009 and returned to Austin. He tried day trading and started a video game company; both ventures failed.[13] He eventually partnered with his friend Donny Palmertree to help build an online used book seller, Good Wagon Books.[13]

Silk RoadEdit

Creation and operation of Silk RoadEdit

Palmertree, cofounder of Good Wagon Books with Ulbricht, eventually moved to Dallas, leaving Ulbricht to run the company by himself. Around this time, Ulbricht began planning Silk Road (initially he called it Underground Brokers).[17] In his personal diary, he outlined his idea for a website "where people could buy anything anonymously, with no trail whatsoever that could lead back to them."[17] Ulbricht's ex-girlfriend said, "I remember when he had the idea ... He said something about ... the Silk Road in Asia ... and what a big network it was ... And that's what he wanted to create, so he thought it was the perfect name."[18] Ulbricht alluded to Silk Road on his public LinkedIn page, where he discussed his wish to "use economic theory as a means to abolish the use of coercion and aggression amongst mankind," and claimed, "I am creating an economic simulation to give people a first-hand experience of what it would be like to live in a world without the systemic use of force."[15]

Silk Road ran on Tor, a network which implements protocols that encrypt data and routes internet traffic through intermediary servers that anonymize IP addresses before reaching a final destination. By hosting his market as a Tor site, Ulbricht could conceal its IP address.[4][5] Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency, was used for transactions on the site. While all bitcoin transactions were recorded in a public log called the blockchain, users who avoided linking their identities to their online "wallets" were able to conduct transactions with considerable anonymity.[19][20] Ulbricht used the "Dread Pirate Roberts" username for Silk Road, although it is disputed whether he was the only one to use that account.[21][22] Ulbricht attributed his inspiration for creating the Silk Road marketplace to the novel, Alongside Night, and the works of Samuel Edward Konkin III.[16]

ArrestEdit

 
The Glen Park branch of the San Francisco Public Library, where Ulbricht was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation

Law enforcement broke the cover of Silk Road in a number of ways. A drug agency investigator managed to infiltrate the site and become an admin, thereby gaining inside information about the site operations, and finding Ulbricht's chats use to be Pacific time, narrowing down his likely location.[citation needed] Law enforcement seized a Silk Road server in Iceland[23][24], using those leads and gained a trove of chat logs, further enriching their knowledge.[citation needed] Ulbricht was connected to "Dread Pirate Roberts" by Gary Alford, an Internal Revenue Service investigator working with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration on the Silk Road case, in mid-2013.[25][26] The connection was made by linking the username "altoid", used during Silk Road's early days to announce the website, and a forum post in which Ulbricht, posting under the nickname "altoid", asked for programming help and gave his email address, which contained his full name.[25] In October 2013 Ulbricht was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation while at the Glen Park branch of the San Francisco Public Library, and accused of being the "mastermind" behind the site.[27][28][29]

To prevent Ulbricht from encrypting or deleting files on the laptop he was using to run the site as he was arrested, two agents pretended to be quarreling lovers. When they had sufficiently distracted him,[30] according to Joshuah Bearman of Wired, the two agents then quickly moved in to arrest him while a third agent grabbed the laptop and handed it to agent Thomas Kiernan.[31] Kiernan then inserted a flash drive in one of the laptop's USB ports, with software that copied key files.[30]

TrialEdit

 
Image placed on Silk Road after seizure by the FBI

On August 21, 2014, Ulbricht was charged with money laundering, conspiracy to commit computer hacking, and conspiracy to traffic narcotics.[32] He was ordered held without bail.[29] On February 4, 2015, Ulbricht was convicted on all counts after a jury trial that had taken place in January 2015.[33] On May 29, 2015, he was sentenced to double life imprisonment plus forty years, without the possibility of parole. Ulbricht was also ordered to pay approximately $183 million in restitution, based on the total sales of illegal drugs and counterfeit IDs through Silk Road.[34][35][36][37]

Murder-for-hire allegationsEdit

Federal prosecutors alleged that Ulbricht had paid $730,000 in murder-for-hire deals targeting at least five people,[29] allegedly because they threatened to reveal Ulbricht's Silk Road enterprise.[38] Prosecutors believe no contracted killing actually occurred.[29] Ulbricht was not charged in his trial in New York federal court with any murder for hire,[29][39] but evidence was introduced at trial supporting the allegations.[29][40] The evidence that Ulbricht had commissioned murders was considered by the judge in sentencing Ulbricht to life, and was a factor in the Second Circuit's decision to affirm the life sentence.[40]

Ulbricht was separately indicted in federal court in Maryland on a single murder-for-hire charge, alleging that he contracted to kill one of his employees (a former Silk Road moderator).[41] Prosecutors moved to drop this indictment after his New York conviction and sentence became final.[42][43]

Attempts to reverse the trial outcomeEdit

AppealEdit

Oral argument in United States v. Ulbricht at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

Ulbricht appealed his conviction and sentence to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in January 2016, centered on claims that the prosecution illegally withheld evidence of DEA agents' malfeasance in the investigation of Silk Road, for which two agents were convicted.[44] Ulbricht also argued his sentence was too harsh.[45] Oral arguments were heard in October 2016,[46][40][47] and the Second Circuit issued its decision in May 2017, upholding Ulbricht's conviction and life sentence in an opinion written by Judge Gerard E. Lynch.[40] In a 139-page opinion,[40][48] the court affirmed the district court's denial of Ulbricht's motion to suppress certain evidence, affirmed the district court's decisions on discovery and the admission of expert testimony, and rejected Ulbricht's argument that a life sentence was procedurally or substantively unreasonable.[40][47]

In December 2017, Ulbricht filed a petition for a certiorari with the United States Supreme Court, asking the Court to hear his appeal on evidentiary and sentencing issues.[49][50] Ulbricht's petition asked whether the warrantless seizure of an individual's internet traffic information, without probable cause, violated the Fourth Amendment, and whether the Sixth Amendment permits judges to find facts necessary to support an otherwise unreasonable sentence.[51] Twenty-one amici filed five amicus curiae briefs in support of Ulbricht, including the National Lawyers Guild, American Black Cross, Reason Foundation, Drug Policy Alliance, and Downsize DC Foundation.[52] The U.S. government filed a response in opposition to Ulbricht's petition.[52][53] On June 28, 2018, the Supreme Court denied the petition, declining to consider Ulbricht's appeal.[54]

Motion to vacate or reduce the sentenceEdit

In 2019, Ulbricht attempted to vacate his life sentence, based on a claim of ineffective assistance of counsel by his defense lawyers. Though this attempt was initially rejected in August 2019 due to a procedural error,[55] the motion was refiled and is still pending.

In a 2020 Vanity Fair article Nick Bilton wrote that, according to investigators and attorneys involved in the case, Ulbricht had been offered a favorable plea deal which would have likely given him a decade-long sentence, but he turned it down. Bilton wrote, "(Ulbricht) believed that he was smarter than everyone in the room, and that he could beat them all."[56] Assistant US Attorney Timothy Howard, who was co-responsible for prosecuting the case, testified that the plea offer was made before Ulbricht's indictment and carried a mandatory minimum of 10 years to a maximum of life imprisonment, and that the United States sentencing guideline was life imprisonment.[57]

Potential Presidential clemencyEdit

In 2020, President Trump reportedly considered commuting Ulbricht's sentence before leaving office,[58][56] but did not do so.[59]

After the convictionEdit

IncarcerationEdit

During his trial, Ulbricht was incarcerated at the Metropolitan Correctional Center, New York.[60] Starting in July 2017, he was held at USP Florence High.[61] His mother Lyn moved to Colorado so she could visit him regularly.[62] Ulbricht has since been transferred to USP Tucson.[63][64]

Restitution paid from seized assetsEdit

In 2021, Ulbricht's prosecutors and defense agreed that Ulbricht would relinquish any ownership over a newly discovered fund of 50,676 Bitcoin (worth nearly $3.4 billion in 2021) seized from a hacker in November 2021.[65] The Bitcoins had been stolen from Silk Road in 2013. Ulbricht had been unsuccessful in getting them back. The U.S. government ultimately succeeded in tracing and seizing the stolen bitcoin. Ulbricht and the government agreed the fund would be used to pay off Ulbricht's $183 million debt in his criminal case, while the Department of Justice would take ultimate custody over the bitcoins.[66][67]

Documentaries and filmsEdit

Deep Web is a 2015 documentary film chronicling events surrounding Silk Road, bitcoin, and the politics of the dark web, including the trial of Ulbricht. Silk Road – Drugs, Death and the Dark Web is a documentary covering the FBI operation to track down Ulbricht and close Silk Road. The documentary was shown on UK television in 2017 in the BBC Storyville documentary series.[68]

A film titled Silk Road was released on February 19, 2021. It was directed by Tiller Russell and follows Ulbricht's creation of the website, followed by the subsequent investigation by the FBI and DEA. Ulbricht was portrayed by American actor Nick Robinson.[69]

NFT saleEdit

Ulbricht's family raised money for efforts to release him from jail via a decentralized autonomous organization FreeRossDAO which accepts donations from the public. In December 2021 the family auctioned a collection of his personal writings and artwork as an NFT, which FreeRossDAO bought for 1,442 Ethereum, or about $6.27 million at the time.[70][63]

See alsoEdit

  • Variety Jones and Smedley – pseudonyms of individuals reported to have been closely involved with the founding of Silk Road
  • USBKill – kill-switch software created in response to circumstances of Ulbricht's arrest
  • Kevin Mitnick

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ross Ulbricht, A/K/A "Dread Pirate Roberts," Sentenced In Manhattan Federal Court To Life In Prison".
  2. ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator". Federal Bureau of Prisons. United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2018. BOP Register Number: 18870-111
  3. ^ Raymond, Nate (February 4, 2015). "Accused Silk Road operator convicted on U.S. drug charges". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 27, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Mullin, Joe (May 29, 2015). "Sunk: How Ross Ulbricht ended up in prison for life". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  5. ^ a b Leger, Donna Leinwand (May 15, 2014). "How FBI brought down cyber-underworld site Silk Road". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  6. ^ "Jury Verdict". Docket Alarm. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  7. ^ "Silk Road founder loses his appeal, will serve a life sentence for online crimes". Techcrunch.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  8. ^ "Certiorari Denied" (PDF). Supreme Court of the United States. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  9. ^ "Judgment in a Criminal Case (Sentencing)". Docket Alarm. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  10. ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator". Federal Bureau of Prisons. United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2018. Register Number: 18870-111
  11. ^ "Silk Road's Ross Ulbricht: Drug 'kingpin' or 'idealistic' Boy Scout? Archived December 5, 2020, at the Wayback Machine" CNN/Money. May 28, 2015. Retrieved on June 15, 2015.
  12. ^ a b Segal, David. "Eagle Scout. Idealist. Drug Trafficker? Archived April 14, 2021, at the Wayback Machine" The New York Times. January 18, 2014. Retrieved on June 10, 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d e "The Untold Story of Silk Road, Part 1". Wired. April 2015. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  14. ^ a b "Man with Austin ties charged with running vast underground drugs website" (Archive). Austin American-Statesman. October 2, 2013. Retrieved on June 14, 2015.
  15. ^ a b Dewey, Caitlin. "Everything we know about Ross Ulbricht, the outdoorsy libertarian behind Silk Road Archived May 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine". Washington Post. October 3, 2013. Retrieved on June 15, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Greenburg, Andy (April 29, 2013). "Collected Quotations Of The Dread Pirate Roberts, Founder Of Underground Drug Site Silk Road And Radical Libertarian". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Mullin, Joe (January 21, 2015). ""I have secrets": Ross Ulbricht's private journal shows Silk Road's birth". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  18. ^ "Ex-girlfriend of dark web mastermind on dating a man wanted by the FBI". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  19. ^ Popper, Nathaniel (May 24, 2015). ""We are up to something big": Silk Road discovers Bitcoin". Salon. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  20. ^ Pagliery, Jose (February 5, 2015). "Bitcoin fallacy led to Silk Road founder's conviction". cnn.com. CNN Money. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  21. ^ Greenburg, Andy (February 9, 2015). "Ross Ulbricht Didn't Create Silk Road's Dread Pirate Roberts. This Guy Did". Wired. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  22. ^ Koebler, Jason (December 1, 2016). "Someone Accessed Silk Road Operator's Account While Ross Ulbricht Was in Jail". Motherboard. Archived from the original on March 8, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  23. ^ McAleenan, Trevor (November 7, 2022). "U.S. v. Ross Ulbricht S1 14 Cr. 68 (LGS), exhibit 5: affidavit in support of government's forfeiture motion".
  24. ^ Greenberg, Andy (September 5, 2014). "The FBI Finally Says How It 'Legally' Pinpointed Silk Road's Server". Wired. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  25. ^ a b Popper, Nathaniel (December 25, 2015). "The Tax Sleuth Who Took Down a Drug Lord". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  26. ^ "Silk Road: Google search unmasked Dread Pirate Roberts". BBC News. August 19, 2017. Archived from the original on August 19, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  27. ^ "Dark net marketplace Silk Road 'back online'". BBC. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  28. ^ Mac, Ryan (October 2, 2013). "Who Is Ross Ulbricht? Piecing Together The Life Of The Alleged Libertarian Mastermind Behind Silk Road [Page 2]". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
  29. ^ a b c d e f "Silk Road founder Ross William Ulbricht denied bail". The Guardian. November 21, 2013. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  30. ^ a b Bertrand, Natasha (May 29, 2015). "The FBI staged a lovers' fight to catch the kingpin of the web's biggest illegal drug marketplace". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
  31. ^ "Trial Transcript, Day 2, page 856" (PDF). January 21, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 7, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
  32. ^ "Ross Ulbricht Indictment" (PDF). U.S District Court Southern District of New York. February 4, 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 7, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  33. ^ "Accused Silk Road Operator Ross Ulbricht Convicted on All Counts". NBC News. February 4, 2015. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  34. ^ Thielman, Sam (May 29, 2015). "Silk Road operator Ross Ulbricht sentenced to life in prison". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  35. ^ Greenberg, Andy (November 7, 2013). "After Ross Ulbricht's First NY Court Appearance, His Lawyer Says He's Not The FBI's Dread Pirate Roberts". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2015. Dratel said Ulbricht is now being held at the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn[...]
  36. ^ Greenberg, Andy (May 29, 2015). "Silk Road Creator Ross Ulbricht Sentenced to Life in Prison". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved October 24, 2022.
  37. ^ "Ross Ulbricht, aka Dread Pirate Roberts, sentenced to life in federal prison for creating, operating 'Silk Road' website" (Press release). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. May 29, 2015.
  38. ^ Alan Klasfeld, Silk Road Murder Threat Shown as Case Nears End Archived January 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Courthouse News Service (January 29, 2015): "Silk Road founder Ross Ulbricht is not charged with murder for hire in his New York trial, but federal prosecutors have long accused him of hiring a hit-man to kill those who threatened his underground online drug empire. Minutes before the second week of Ulbricht's trial ended on Thursday, a jury saw email records supporting this allegation."
  39. ^ Patrick Howell O'Neill (October 22, 2014). "The mystery of the disappearing Silk Road murder charges". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Andy Greenberg (May 31, 2017). "Silk Road Creator Ross Ulbricht Loses His Life Sentence Appeal". Wired. Archived from the original on May 31, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  41. ^ Joseph Cox, 'Murdered' Silk Road Employee Sentenced to Time Served Archived September 20, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Vice (January 26, 2016).
  42. ^ Doherty, Brian (July 25, 2018). "Ross Ulbricht's Murder-for-Hire Charges Dropped by U.S. Attorney". Reason.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  43. ^ United States District Court for the District of Maryland. "Motion to Dismiss Indictment and Superseding Indictment" (PDF). Archived from the original on August 27, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  44. ^ Greenberg, Andy (January 12, 2016). "In Silk Road Appeal, Ross Ulbricht's Defense Focuses on Corrupt Feds". Wired. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  45. ^ Stempel, Jonathan (May 31, 2017). "Silk Road website founder loses appeal of conviction, life sentence". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 31, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  46. ^ Greenberg, Andy (October 6, 2016). "Judges Question Ross Ulbricht's Life Sentence in Silk Road Appeal". Wired. Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  47. ^ a b United States v. Ulbricht Archived August 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, 858 F.3d 71 (2d. Cir. 2017)
  48. ^ Cassye M. Cole & Harry Sandick, A Long Journey Through "Silk Road" Appeal: Second Circuit Affirms Conviction and Life Sentence of Silk Road Mastermind Archived February 1, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler LLP, Lexology (June 8, 2017): "At trial, the government presented evidence that Ulbricht conspired to engage in multiple murders for hire to protect Silk Road's anonymity. Ulbricht was not charged with these offenses. ... At sentencing, in its Pre-Sentence Investigation Report, the U.S. Probation Office referenced the five commissioned murders, as well as six drug-related deaths connected with Silk Road. On May 29, 2015, the district court sentenced Ulbricht to life in prison, pursuant to the guidelines advisory sentence range, and based on the recommendation of the U.S. Probation Office. ... While the Court recognized that a life sentence for selling drugs was rare and could be considered harsh, the facts of this case involved much more than routine drug dealings—namely that Ulbricht commissioned at least five murders for hire and did not challenge those murders on appeal."
  49. ^ "The Supreme Court is Silk Road founder Ross Ulbricht's last hope". VICE News. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  50. ^ Ulbricht, Ross (December 22, 2017). "Ulbricht v. U.S." (PDF). SupremeCourt.Gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  51. ^ Ulbricht, Ross (December 22, 2017). "Ulbricht v. U.S." (PDF). SupremeCourt.Gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  52. ^ a b "Ulbricht v. United States". SCOTUSblog. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  53. ^ Francisco, Noel (March 7, 2018). "Ulbricht v. U.S." (PDF). SupremeCourt.Gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  54. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court turns away Silk Road website founder's appeal". Reuters. June 28, 2018. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  55. ^ Saul, Emily (August 12, 2019). "Silk Road mastermind Ross Ulbricht attempts to vacate life sentence". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  56. ^ a b Bilton, Nick (December 18, 2020). "'You Are a Criminal': The Double Standard of a Trump Pardon for Silk Road Founder Ross Ulbricht". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  57. ^ "AFFIDAVIT of AUSA Timothy T. Howard". Court Listener. Ulbricht v. United States, Docket 1:19-cv-07512. U.S. District Court, S.D. New York. April 9, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  58. ^ Rawnsley, Asawin; Suebsaeng, Adam (December 15, 2020). "Trump Is Considering Clemency for Silk Road Founder". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  59. ^ Thubron, Rob (January 20, 2021). "No Trump pardon for Assange or Silk Road's Ross Ulbricht, clemency for Anthony Levandowski". Techspot.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  60. ^ Bilton, Nick (2017). American Kingpin: The Epic Hunt for the Criminal Mastermind Behind the Silk Road. Portfolio/Penguin. p. 300.
  61. ^ "Ross Ulbricht Loses His Appeal. Here's What Happens Next". Corbett Report. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  62. ^ Mangu-Ward, Katherine (July 2018). "Ross Ulbricht Is Serving a Double Life Sentence". Archived from the original on May 31, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  63. ^ a b Mak, Aaron (January 25, 2022). "The Crypto Obsessives Trying to Save a Notorious Internet Criminal From Prison". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  64. ^ Ulbricht, Lyn. "Trump's visit to Phoenix gives people hope. Mine is he commutes my son's life sentence". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
  65. ^ Ramey, Corinne (November 7, 2022). "Justice Department Announces Seizure of Bitcoin Once Valued at $3.36 Billion". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  66. ^ Greenberg, Andy (April 22, 2022). "A $3 Billion Silk Road Seizure Will Erase Ross Ulbricht's Debt". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
  67. ^ Smith, Andrew (April 24, 2022). "Silk Road Founder Ross Ulbricht To Forfeit $3 billion worth of BTC To The US Government". The Coin Republic: Cryptocurrency , Bitcoin, Ethereum & Blockchain News. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
  68. ^ Gibbings-Jones, Mark (August 21, 2017). "Monday's best TV: Storyville: Silk Road – Drugs, Death and the Dark Web". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 11, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  69. ^ Dujsik, Mark. "Silk Road". rogerebert.com. RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  70. ^ "NFT of Silk Road founder's art sells for more than $6 million". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 9, 2022. Retrieved January 9, 2022.

Further readingEdit