San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
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San Fernando, officially the City of San Fernando, is the second most populous city in Trinidad and Tobago, after Chaguanas. It occupies 18 km² and is located in the southwestern part of the island of Trinidad. It is bounded to the north by the Guaracara River, the south by the Oropouche River, the east by the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway, and the west by the Gulf of Paria. The former borough was elevated to the status of a city corporation on November 18, 1988. The motto of San Fernando is: "Sanitas Fortis" - In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength. Many local Trinidadians refer to the city with the shortened name "Sando." San Fernando is called Trinidad and Tobago's "industrial capital" because of its proximity to the Pointe-a-Pierre oil refinery and many other petrochemical, LNG, iron and steel and aluminium smelters in places such as Point Lisas in Couva, Point Fortin, and La Brea.
|City of San Fernando|
Independence Avenue in Downtown San Fernando
|Motto(s): Sanitas Fortis
In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength.
|Country||Trinidad and Tobago|
|Jurisdiction||City of San Fernando|
|Incorporated (city)||November 18th, 1989|
|Named for||Saint Ferdinand III of Castile|
|• Mayor||Junia Regrello|
|• Total||18.64 km2 (7.20 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,570/km2 (6,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC-4)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not Observed (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||+ 1 (868) 652, 653, 657, 658, 697, 831|
|HDI The HDI for Trinidad and Tobago is 0.814, which gives the country a rank of 19th out of 177 countries with data (2007/2008) – high|
The Amerindians called the area Anaparima, which has been translated as either "single hill" or "without water". A single hill, San Fernando Hill, rises from the centre of the city. A town named San Fernando de Naparima was established by Spanish Governor Don José Maria Chacón in 1784, in honour of the heir to Spanish crown. With time, the "de Naparima" was dropped.
Following the 1783 Cedula of Population, many sugarcane plantations were established in the Naparima Plains surrounding San Fernando. The town grew as this part of the country came to dominate sugar production. This growth continued throughout the nineteenth century as consolidation in the sugar industry led to the construction of what was then the largest sugar refinery in the world, the Usine, Ste. Madeline factory a few miles east of the town. The development of cacao cultivation and the petroleum industry helped San Fernando grow since the town served as the gateway to these areas.
The growth of the town placed severe strains on the supply of water, especially during the dry season. Complaints by the burgesses of the town resulted in numerous reports by geologists and hydrologists throughout the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the problem was not solved until the Navet Dam was constructed in the 1930s.
The nearby oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre played an important role in San Fernando's development between World War II and the 1980s. The refinery was constructed by Trinidad Leaseholds Limited during World War II, and constituted one of the largest contributions to the war effort by a private company. The "oil boom" of the 1970s and '80s led to the growth of the suburbs of San Fernando, especially Marabella (to the north) and Gasparillo (to the east) of the Pointe-à-Pierre refinery. In 1991 the boundaries of the city were extended, bringing the refinery (the largest in the Caribbean) immediately adjacent to the City's northern boundary.
San Fernando has lost much of its history; most of its old buildings have been demolished, and perhaps the only section of the city that reminds one of its past is in the vicinity of the San Fernando Wharf and Harris Promenade.
The administration of San Fernando is done by San Fernando City Corporation. It is a corporate body, and the staff is instrumental in the exercise of the powers of the Corporation through the Council. Functions of this Corporation are delegated by the Central Government, and the Corporation itself is within the jurisdiction of the Minister of Local Government.
Local government administration started in 1845, when the Town Council was established and the Municipality of San Fernando came into being. Circa 1853, San Fernando was elevated to a Borough; the first Mayor was Robert Johnstone. From the simple start of a fishing village, San Fernando blossomed financially, and became "the Industrial Capital" of Trinidad and Tobago.
This crest incorporates the City motto, the sea, the hill, a fishing boat, sugar cane stalk, oil tank, house and two discs. The sea and boat represent the beginnings as a fishing village. The sugar cane stalk represents the sugar industry. The oil tank represents productivity and the oil industry. The house represents shelter for all races. The sun-like disks represent Steelpan and Tassa, as well as togetherness.
San Fernando is divided into nine electoral districts, each represented by a Councillor. Three appointed Aldermen sit on the Council, which is chaired by the Mayor, currently Junia Regrello.
The Electoral Districts are:
|Les Efforts West/La Romaine|
|Les Efforts East/Cipero|
San Fernando can be divided into the main town, which is located on the flanks of San Fernando Hill and the adjacent Alexander Hill, and the newer suburbs to the north, west and south.
- San Fernando proper, which can be divided into
- Downtown - between King's Wharf and Library Corner
- Les Effort East and Les Effort West
- Mon Repos
- The Old Suburbs
- St. Joseph Village
- Cross Crossing
- Southern suburbs
- Cross Crossing, including Green Acres
- Union Hall Gardens
- Coconut Drive
- La Romain
- Gulf View
- Bel Air
- Northern suburbs
- Marabella, including Gopaul Lands
San Fernando is a coastal city. It is bounded by the Guaracara River to the north, the Solomon Hochoy Highway to the east, the Southern Main Road to the southeast, and the Oropouche River to the south. The city proper is located on the flanks of two hills - San Fernando Hill (formerly known as Naparima Hill) and Alexander Hill. Several mansions on the pinnacle of Alexander Hill house some of the more prominent San Fernando families. The Cipero, Vistabella, Marabella and the Godineau Rivers all enter the sea within the city limits.
San Fernando has a seasonal tropical climate with a wet season lasting from June to December and a dry season lasting from January to May.
San Fernando is known as the Industrial Capital. Its economy is heavily dependent on the oil fields of southern Trinidad and the refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre. San Fernando serves as a shopping centre for much of southern Trinidad. Gulf City Mall located in La Romain as well as High Street are the two largest shopping areas in all of Southern Trinidad.
|South Asian (Indo-Trinidadian)||30.3%|
|Dougla (South Asian and Black)||8.2%|
|West Asian (Chinese)||0.6%|
|Native American (Amerindian)||0.08%|
San Fernando serves as an important educational centre serving the surrounding areas of south Trinidad and attracting students from as far away as Point Fortin, Rio Claro and Couva. Prominent schools in San Fernando include Presentation College, Naparima Girls' High School, Naparima College, St. Joseph's Convent, San Fernando Central Secondary School, ASJA Boys' College, ASJA Girls' College, San Fernando TML Primary School, Grant Memorial Presbyterian School and St. Benedict's College. San Fernando Technical Institute (UTT). Ste.Madeleine Government Primary School was first established in 1943 to serve the communities of Petit Morne, Corinth and Palmyra. It initially had upward of five hundred and a staff of twenty-five teachers. There were initial challenges and obstacles and the quality of the social and physical environment negatively influenced the efforts of the staff and administrators of the school. The wooden structure began to deteriorate and in January 2002, the school population was relocated to the Petite Morne community community centre. With the development of NHA, in St. Clements, Cocoyea, Ste. Madeleine and Taradale and also Pleasentville development coming on stream, in 2017 the school now has a new building commissioned by the honourable Minister of Education in 2002. This new building was completed on October 25, 2004. Individual classrooms are used by teachers with a functioning Science room, Art and Craft Room, I.T.lab, Library, and conference room and a large Auditorium and cafeteria. A playground at the back of the school and 24 hour surveillance by M.T.S. officers. ( (Roger Samai MEd 2017).
In terms of scenery, the major attraction is San Fernando Hill. The park at the top of the hill gives a view of much of western Trinidad. Venezuela, on the South American mainland, is visible on clear days.
Harris Promenade, named after Lord Harris (Governor of Trinidad 1845–54), houses City Hall, the Magistrates Court, Supreme Court, Police Station, Anglican, Roman Catholic and Methodist churches and three schools, St. Joseph's Convent, San Fernando San Fernando Boys' R.C and St. Gabriel's Girls R.C. School. There is also a bandstand, a statue of Mahatma Gandhi and the famous "last train" engine - the last train that was run in Trinidad. Usually referred to as simply "The Promenade", this area plays an important role in the life of the city. It runs parallel to the main shopping district (High Street), but lacks the busy throngs of people. It also serves as an important judging point for the J'ouvert portion of Trinidad and Tobago Carnival. The eastern end of The Promenade is known as "Library Corner" after the Carnegie Free Library (a gift from Andrew Carnegie) which was opened in 1919.
Skinner Park was given to the people of San Fernando for recreational purposes such as football, cricket and other athletic events and training. It is also an important part of Carnival, where historically bands are judged and has been the site of the Semi-Finals of the Calypso Monarch celebrations. In a historical move, the National Steelband Panorama Finals were held here on 17 February 2007. This was the first time that the event was held somewhere other than the Queen's Park Savannah in Port of Spain, as that location was unavailable due to planned construction of a Carnival Complex on its grounds. The role of "The Park" as a sporting venue has largely been supplanted by newer Manny Ramjohn Stadium in Marabella, on the northern end of town and by Guaracara Park in Pointe-à-Pierre.
The San Fernando General Hospital serves as a major Health care service for the County of Victoria and the rest of southern Trinidad. Located west of the San Fernando Police station, east of the kings wharf, south of the shopping mall Gulf City and north of Marabella. The hospital is the third largest by size in the country of Trinidad and Tobago. With sixteen wards in the hospital and a newly built state-of-the-art emergency room and Helicopter landing area,the Hospital has four wards that female patients occupy. With state-of-the-art health equipment the hospital is one of the best in the Caribbean.
Previous railways are all defunct, but due to serious road traffic congestion a new Rapid Rail system was proposed for 2008 but never implemented There is a ferry ('Water Taxi') service operating between Port of Spain and San Fernando. The san Fernando flyover from the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway is one of the most congested flyovers in the country.
Electric generation is mostly handled by Powergen, while electrical distribution is handled by the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission (T&TEC). Powergen has natural gas-fired generation plants at Point Lisas, Penal and Wrightson Road in Port of Spain. Additional power can be supplied from power generation facilities controlled by Trinity Power at Dow Village.
Telecommunications are regulated by the Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (TATT). It has been working to de-monopolise the industry, granting several new licences in 2005. Fixed-line telephone service is a monopoly controlled by Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago (TSTT). Licences have been granted for competition in this area, but start-up is a while away. Wireless telephony is currently shared by TSTT's mobile branch Bmobile and Digicel, both of whom provide competitive rates for wireless service in Trinidad and Tobago and the greater Caribbean.
Water and sewerage are under the purview of the Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA).
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
Prominent San FernandiansEdit
- Stephen Ames, PGA Tour golfer
- Eugene Chen (Chen Youren) (1878-1944) Foreign Minister of China.
- Hasely Crawford, Olympic gold medalist (1976)
- Hedy Fry, PC, MP (born August 6, 1941) is a Trinidadian-born Canadian politician and physician.
- Noor Hassanali, President of Trinidad and Tobago (1987–97)
- Rikki Jai, chutney and chutney soca artist
- Patrick Manning, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1991–95, 2002–2010)
- Sir Trevor McDonald, news reporter
- Dr. Romesh Mootoo first mayor of the City of San Fernando
- Basdeo Panday, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1995–2002)
- Manny Ramjohn, long-distance runner; first person to win a gold medal for Trinidad and Tobago at a major athletics event.
- Jean Ramjohn-Richards, First Lady of Trinidad and Tobago (2003-2013)
- George Maxwell Richards, President of Trinidad and Tobago (2003-2013)
- Adrian Cola Rienzi (Krishna Deonarine Tiwari)
- Sullivan Walker, film and television actor
- Mishael Morgan, TV Actress
- Central Statistical Office. "NON-INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION BY SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC GROUP AND MUNICIPALITY" (PDF).
- Felmine, Kevon (2012-03-03). "San Fernando farewell to actor Sullivan Walker". Trinidad Guardian. Retrieved 2012-03-03.