Suleiman II of the Ottoman Empire

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Suleiman II (15 April 1642 – 22 June 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.

Suleiman II
Amir al-Mu'minin
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Ottoman Caliph
Süleyman II.jpg
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
Reign8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
PredecessorMehmed IV
SuccessorAhmed II
Born15 April 1642
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died22 June 1691(1691-06-22) (aged 49)
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Burial
ConsortsHatice Kadın[1]
Behzad Kadın[1]
İvaz Kadın[1]
Süğlün Kadın[1]
Şehsuvar Kadın[1]
Zeyneb Kadın[1]
Names
Suleiman bin Ibrahim
DynastyOttoman
FatherIbrahim
MotherSaliha Dilaşub Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraSuleiman II's signature

Early lifeEdit

Suleiman II was born on 15 April 1642 at Topkapı Palace in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ibrahim and Aşub Sultan, a Serb woman originally named Katarina.[2][3][4] Suleiman was only 3 months younger than his half-brother Mehmed IV, who was born on 2 January 1642. After the deposition and execution of his father in 1648, Suleiman's half-brother Mehmed came to the throne. On 21 October 1649, Suleiman along with his brothers Mehmed and Ahmed were circumcised.[5]

In 1651, Suleiman was confined in the Kafes, a luxurious prison for royal princes within Topkapı Palace. This was done to avoid a rebellion. He stayed there for 36 years until he took the throne in 1687.

ReignEdit

 
The mausoleum of Suleiman II is located inside the türbe of Suleiman the Magnificent. (In the above picture, his tomb is seen at the center between Ahmed II and Suleiman the Magnificent).

Shortly before he assumed the throne, the Ottomans suffered a major defeat at the second Battle of Mohács in 1687. In 1688, Suleiman II urgently requested the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for assistance against the rapidly advancing Austrians, during the Ottoman–Habsburg War, but most Mughal forces were engaged in the Deccan Wars and Aurangzeb ignored Suleiman's request to commit to any formal assistance to their desperate Ottoman allies.[6]

The previous ban on alcohol (which was publicly flouted in Istanbul and Galata) was energized under Suleiman, where he managed to demolish several alcohol shops, but this just led to owners bringing in more alcohol.[7]

Suleiman II appointed Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha as his Grand Vizier in 1689, leading to the reconquest of Belgrade in 1690. Later, the threat from the Russian Empire was renewed when they joined in an alliance with other European powers, while the Ottomans had lost the support of their Crimean vassals, who were forced to defend themselves from several Russian invasions. Under Köprülü's leadership, the Ottomans halted an Austrian advance into Serbia and crushed an uprising in Macedonia and Bulgaria until Köprülü was killed in the Battle of Slankamen by Austrian forces.

FamilyEdit

Suleiman II elevated six known concubines to the rank of consort, with the title of Kadin, used for the first time as a title rather than a rank.[8][9][10]

He gave them various jewels and precious objects that belonged to Muazzez Sultan, one of her father's Haseki Sultan. These gifts were requisitioned when Ahmed II, son of Muazzez, succeeded Suleiman II on the throne.

The know consorts of Suleiman II were:

  • Hatice Kadın. BaşKadin (first consort).
  • Behzad Kadın. She received a brooch and a diamond ring that belonged to Muazzez Sultan.
  • Süğlün Kadın. She received a pair of pearl earrings, a pair of diamonds and a pendant set with 83 pearls.
  • Şehsuvar Kadın. She received a pearl-encrusted ablution bowl and a pair of earrings.
  • Zeyneb Kadın. She received jewelry as a gift in 1691.
  • İvaz Kadın. She received jewelry as a gift in 1691.

Despite his six consorts, Suleiman II remained childless. It is not known whether this was due to his sterility, lack of sexual interest, his precarious health conditions, which forced him to bed for the last half of his short reign or others.

DeathEdit

Suleiman II had fell into a coma and was later brought to Edirne on 8 June 1691. He died on 22 June 1691 and his body was buried in Suleiman the Magnificent's tomb at Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul. His brother Ahmed succeeded him as Sultan.[11]

GalleryEdit

SourcesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f M. Çağatay Uluçay, Padişahların Kadınları ve Kızları, Ötüken Publications, p. 113.
  2. ^ "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  3. ^ Günseli İnal; Semiramis Arşivi (2005). Semiramis: Sultan'ın gözünden şenlik. YKY. p. 27. ISBN 978-975-08-0928-6. Siileyman'in annesi Sirp Katrin yani Dilasiip Hatun
  4. ^ Ali Kemal Meram (1977). Padişah anaları: resimli belgesel tarih romanı. Öz Yayınları. p. 325.
  5. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 271.
  6. ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ... - Naimur Rahman Farooqi - Google Boeken. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  7. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 276.
  8. ^ M. Çağatay Uluçay, Padişahların Kadınları ve Kızları, Ötüken Publications, p. 113.
  9. ^ Previously, Kadin was the rank reserved for women who had given at least a child to the sultan, but the associated title was simply "Hatun", meaning woman
  10. ^ Although some documents refer to some of the concubines of Mehmed IV, the previous sultan, such as Kadin , historians agree that this class of concubines was institutionalized by Suleiman II
  11. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 279.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to Suleiman II at Wikimedia Commons


Suleiman II of the Ottoman Empire
Born: 15 April 1642 Died: 22 June 1691[aged 49]
Regnal titles
Preceded by Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Succeeded by
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Succeeded by