Rhodesian Security Forces

(Redirected from Rhodesian Army)

The Rhodesian Security Forces were the military and security forces of the Rhodesian government. The Rhodesian Security Forces consisted of a ground force (the Rhodesian Army), the Rhodesian Air Force, the British South Africa Police, and various personnel affiliated to the Rhodesian Ministry of Internal Affairs. Despite the impact of economic and diplomatic sanctions, Rhodesia was able to develop and maintain a potent and professional military capability.[1]

Rhodesian Security Forces
Emblem of the Rhodesian Army. Following the declaration of a republic in 1970, St Edward's Crown was removed.
Service branches
Commander-in-ChiefSee list
Minister of DefenceSee list
Head of the Rhodesian Armed ForcesSee list
Related articles
HistoryRhodesian Bush War
RanksMilitary ranks

The Rhodesian Security Forces of 1964–80 traced their history back to the British South Africa Company armed forces, originally created during company rule in the 1890s. These became the armed forces of the British self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia on its formation in 1923, then part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland military in 1953. After the break-up of the Federation at the end of 1963, the security forces assumed the form they would keep until 1980.

As the armed forces of Rhodesia (as Southern Rhodesia called itself from 1964), the Rhodesian Security Forces remained loyal to the Salisbury government after it unilaterally declared independence from Britain on 11 November 1965. Britain and the United Nations refused to recognise this, and regarded the breakaway state as a rebellious British colony throughout its existence.

The security forces fought on behalf of the unrecognised government against the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army—the military wings of the Marxist–Leninist black nationalist Zimbabwe African National Union and Zimbabwe African People's Union respectively—during the Rhodesian Bush War of the 1960s and 1970s.

The Lancaster House Agreement and the return of Rhodesia to de facto British control on 12 December 1979 changed the security forces' role altogether; during the five-month interim period, they helped the British governor and Commonwealth Monitoring Force to keep order in Rhodesia while the 1980 general election was organised and held. After the internationally recognised independence of Zimbabwe in April 1980, the Rhodesian security forces, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army were integrated to form the new Zimbabwe Defence Forces. Around 5,000 white Rhodesian military and intelligence personnel were recruited by South Africa in 1980 as part of Operation Winter.

Rhodesian Army edit

Rhodesian Army
Flag of the Rhodesian Army, used during the late 1970s.
Disbanded18 April 1980
Country  Rhodesia
Allegiance  United Kingdom (1927–1965)
  Rhodesia (1965–70)
  Republic of Rhodesia (1970–79)
  Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979)
  United Kingdom (1979–80)
BranchGround forces
ColorsRifle green  
EngagementsWorld War I
World War II
Rhodesian Bush War
Shoulder flash & recruitment logo 
A re-enactor portrays a Rhodesian Light Infantry trooper, circa 1979. The primary infantry weapon of the Rhodesian Army was the FN FAL battle rifle, which was camouflaged as seen here.

The majority of the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers were disbanded in 1920 for reasons of cost, the last companies being disbanded in 1926. The Defence Act of 1927 created a Permanent Force (the Rhodesian Staff Corps) and a Territorial Force as well as national compulsory military training.[2] With the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers disbanded in 1927, the Rhodesia Regiment was reformed in the same year as part of the nation's Territorial Force. The 1st Battalion was formed in Salisbury with a detached "B" company in Umtali and the 2nd Battalion in Bulawayo with a detached "B" Company in Gwelo.[3] Between the World Wars, the Permanent Staff Corps of the Rhodesian Army consisted of only 47 men. The British South Africa Police were trained as both policemen and soldiers until 1954.[4]

About 10,000 white Southern Rhodesians (15% of the white population) mustered into the British forces during the Second World War, serving in units such as the Long Range Desert Group, the Rhodesian Armoured Corps, No. 237 Squadron RAF and the Special Air Service (SAS). Pro rata to population, this was the largest contribution of manpower by any territory in the British Empire, even outstripping that of Britain itself. Southern Rhodesia was in fact the first Commonwealth country to officially declare war on the Axis powers.[5]

Southern Rhodesia's own units, most prominently the Rhodesian African Rifles (made up of black rank-and-filers and warrant officers, led by white officers; abbreviated RAR), fought in the war's East African Campaign and in Burma.[6] During the war, Southern Rhodesian pilots proportionally earned the highest number of decorations and ace appellations in the Empire. This resulted in the Royal Family paying an unusual state visit to the colony at the end of the war in thanks to the efforts of the Rhodesian people.[citation needed]

The Southern Rhodesia Air Force (SRAF) was re-established in 1947 and, two years later, Prime Minister Sir Godfrey Huggins appointed a 32-year-old South African-born Rhodesian Spitfire pilot, Ted Jacklin, as air officer commanding tasked to build an air force in the expectation that British African territories would begin moving towards independence, and air power would be vital for land-locked Southern Rhodesia. The threadbare SRAF bought, borrowed or salvaged a collection of vintage aircraft, including six Tiger Moths, six North American Harvard trainers, an Avro Anson freighter and a handful of De Havilland Rapide transport aircraft, before purchasing a squadron of 22 Mk. 22 war surplus Supermarine Spitfire from the Royal Air Force (RAF) which were then flown to Southern Rhodesia.[7]

In April 1951, the defence forces of Southern Rhodesia were completely reorganised.[8] The Permanent Force included the British South Africa Police as well as the Southern Rhodesia Staff Corps, charged with training and administering the Territorial Force. The SRAF consisted of a communication squadron and trained members of the Territorial Force as pilots, particularly for artillery observation. During the Malayan Emergency of the 1950s, Southern Rhodesia contributed two units to the Commonwealth's counter-insurgency campaign: the newly formed Rhodesian SAS served a two-year tour of duty in Malaya starting in March 1951,[9] then the Rhodesian African Rifles operated for two years from April 1956.[10]

The colony also maintained women's auxiliary services (later to provide the inspiration for the Rhodesia Women's Service), and maintained a battalion of the RAR, officered by members of the Staff Corps. The Territorial Force remained entirely white and largely reproduced the Second World War pattern. It consisted of two battalions of the Royal Rhodesia Regiment, an Armoured Car Regiment, Artillery, Engineers, Signal Corps, Medical Corps, Auxiliary Air Force and Transport Corps. In wartime the country could also draw on the Territorial Force Reserve and General Reserve. Southern Rhodesia, in other words, reverted more or less to the organisation of the Second World War.

Matters evolved greatly over twenty years. The regular army was always a relatively small force, but by 1978–79 it consisted of 10,800 regulars nominally supported by about 40,000 reservists. While the regular army consisted of a professional core drawn from the white population (and some units, such as the Rhodesian SAS and the Rhodesian Light Infantry, were all-white), by 1978–79 the majority of its complement was actually composed of black soldiers. The army reserves, in contrast, were largely white.[11]

The Rhodesian Army HQ was in Salisbury and commanded over four infantry brigades and later an HQ Special Forces, with various training schools and supporting units. Numbers 1,2, and 3 Brigade were established in 1964 and 4 Brigade in 1978.[12]

  • 1 Bde – Bulawayo with area of responsibility in Matabeleland
  • 2 Bde – Salisbury with area of responsibility in Mashonaland
  • 3 Bde – Umtali with area of responsibility in Manicaland
  • 4 Bde – Fort Victoria with area of responsibility in Victoria province

During the Bush War, the army included:

  • Army Headquarters
  • The Rhodesian Light Infantry
  • C Squadron (Rhodesian) SAS (in 1978 became 1 (Rhodesian) Special Air Service Regiment)
  • Selous Scouts
  • The Rhodesian Armoured Car Regiment (The Black Devils)
  • Grey's Scouts
    Eland-90 armoured cars of the Rhodesian Armoured Corps.
  • The Rhodesian African Rifles
  • The Rhodesia Regiment (eight battalions, numbered 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10); also National Service independent companies numbered 1–6 and, briefly, 7), though at times one or more of these independent companies were attached to the RAR during the Bush War.[13] [14]
  • Psychological Action Group (Psyac)
  • The Rhodesian Defence Regiment (two battalions)
  • The Rhodesian Intelligence Corps
  • The Rhodesian Artillery (one depot, one field regiment)
  • Six Engineer Squadrons (numbered 2, 3, 4, 6, 7) 1 Engr Sqn
  • 5 Engineer Support Squadron
  • 1 Brigade[15]
    • Headquarters Abbreviation: HQ 1 Bde
    • Signals Squadron Abbreviation: 1(Bde) Sig Sqn
  • 2 Brigade[15]
    • Headquarters Abbreviation: HQ 2 Bde
    • Signals Squadron Abbreviation: 2(Bde) Sig Sqn
      • 12 Signals Squadron Abbreviation: 2(Bde) 12 Sig Sqn[16]
        • Located: Llewellyn Barracks
  • 3 Brigade[15]
    • Headquarters Abbreviation: HQ 3 Bde
    • Signals Squadron Abbreviation: 3(Bde) Sig Sqn
  • 4 Brigade[15]
    • Headquarters Abbreviation: HQ 4 Bde
    • 41 Troop, Signals Squadron Abbreviation: 41 Tp 4(Bde) SigSqn
  • Two Services Area HQs (Matabeleland and Mashonaland)
  • Two Ordnance and Supplies Depots (Bulawayo, Salisbury)
  • Two Base Workshops (Bulawayo, Salisbury)
  • 1 Air Supply Platoon
  • Three Maintenance Companies (numbered 1 to 3)
  • Three Medical Companies (1, 2, 5) and the Army Health Unit
  • Tsanga Lodge
  • Five Provost Platoons (numbered 1 to 5) and the Army Detention Barracks
  • Six Pay Companies (numbered 1 to 5, 7)
  • Rhodesian Army Education Corps
  • Rhodesian Corps of Chaplains
  • Army Records, and Army Data Processing Unit
  • Rail Transport Organisation Platoon
  • 1 Military Postal Platoon
  • Training establishments: School of Infantry, 19 Corps Training Depot, School of Military Engineering, School of Signals, Services Training School, Services Trade Training Centre, Medical Training School, School of Military Police, Pay Corps Training School, School of Military Administration.

Ranks edit

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
  Rhodesian Army[17]
Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
  Rhodesian Army[17]
            No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1 Warrant Officer Class 2 Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance Corporal Private
(or equivalent)

Rhodesian Air Force edit

The Royal Rhodesian Air Force (RRAF), as it was named in 1954, was never a large air force. In 1965, it consisted of only 1,200 regular personnel. It was renamed as the Rhodesian Air Force (RhAF) in 1970. At the peak of its strength during the Bush War, it had a maximum of 2,300 personnel of all races, but of these, only 150 were pilots actively involved in combat operations. These pilots, however, were rotated through the various squadrons partly to maintain their skills on all aircraft and partly to relieve fellow pilots flying more dangerous sorties.

Ranks edit

Rank group General/Flag/Air officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
  Rhodesian Air Force[17][18]
Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Air Lieutenant Air Sub-Lieutenant
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
  Rhodesian Air Force[17][18]
Warrant officer class 2 Master Technician Master Sergeant
          No insignia
Station warrant officer Warrant officer class 1 Flight sergeant Sergeant Corporal Senior aircraftman Leading aircraftman Aircraftman

British South Africa Police edit

The police force of Rhodesia was the British South Africa Police. They were the main first line of defense in both Southern Rhodesia and, later, Rhodesia, with the specific responsibility of maintaining law and order in the country.[12]

BSAP units:

  • British South Africa Police ('The Regiment')
    • Police Anti-Terrorist Unit (PATU)
    • Support Unit (the 'Black Boots')
    • Special Branch
      • SB-Scouts
    • Police Mounted Unit
    • Urban Emergency Unit (SWAT)
    • Police Reserve

Rhodesian Ministry of Internal Affairs edit

While not a part of the Security Forces, Rhodesian Ministry of Internal Affairs officers were heavily involved in implementing such civic measures as the protected villages programme during the Bush War. The INTAF consisted by District Assistants and District Security Assistants, and led by District Commissioners.

  • Administrative Reinforcement Unit (ARU)

Prison services edit

The Rhodesia Prison Service was the branch of the Rhodesian Security Forces responsible for the administration of Rhodesian prisons.

Guard Force edit

This was the fourth arm of the Rhodesian Security Forces. It consisted of both black and white troops whose initial role was to provide protection for villagers in the Protected Village system. During the latter stages of the Bush War they provided a role in the protection of white-owned farmland, tribal purchase lands and other strategic locations. They also raised three infantry Battalions and provided troops in every facet of the war in each of the Operational Areas. It was a large component of the Security Forces, with a strength of over 7,200 personnel. Its headquarters were in North Avenue, Salisbury. Its training establishment was based at Chikurubi in Salisbury.

The guard force cap badge was a castle on top of a dagger, below the castle was a scroll reading 'Guard Force'

Auxiliary Army (Pfumo reVanhu) edit

Combined operations edit

Map showing operational areas of the Rhodesian Security Forces during the Bush War.[19][20]

The Rhodesian Bush War required that each of the security forces work in a combined effort to combat the enemy. Therefore, it became essential to establish an organisation known as Combined Operations Headquarters (COMOPS) in Salisbury to co-ordinate the efforts of each service. The Rhodesian army took the senior role in Combined Operations and was responsible for the conduct of all operations both inside and outside Rhodesia. COMOPS had direct command over the Joint Operational Centres (JOCs) deployed throughout the country in each of the Operational Areas. There was a JOC per Operational Area.[12]

The operational areas were known as:

  • Operation Hurricane – North-east border, started in December 1972
  • Operation Thrasher – Eastern border, started in February 1976
  • Operation Repulse – South-east border, started in May 1976
  • Operation Tangent – Matabeleland, started in August 1976
  • Operation Grapple – Midlands, started in August 1977
  • Operation Splinter – Kariba, started in June 1977
  • Salops – Operations in and around Salisbury, started in 1978

Senior military officials in Rhodesia edit

Source: original regiments.org (T.F. Mills) via webarchive.

Military equipment of Rhodesia edit

Small arms edit

Name Type Country of origin Notes
Browning Hi-Power[24] Semi-Automatic Pistol   Belgium
Enfield revolver Revolver   United Kingdom Enfield No. 2 Mk I Revolver.
Mamba Semi-Automatic Pistol   Rhodesia
Star[25] Semi-Automatic Pistol   Spain Model 1920, 1921, 1922, Star Model BM.
Walther PP[25] Semi-Automatic Pistol   West Germany Captured.
American 180[26][27] Submachine gun   United States Issued to SAS
Austen[28] Submachine gun   Australia Austen "Machine Carbine" Mk I.
Sanna 77 Submachine gun   Rhodesia Issued primarily to Rhodesian Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Northwood R-76 Submachine gun   Rhodesia
Owen Gun[28] Submachine gun   Australia
Sa 25 (vz. 48b) Submachine gun   Czechoslovakia Some of local manufacture.
Sten[28] Submachine gun   United Kingdom Mk II.
Sterling[24] Submachine gun   United Kingdom
Uzi[29] Submachine gun   Israel Some of local manufacture.
AK-47[30] Automatic Rifle   Soviet Union Captured.
AKM[31] Automatic Rifle   Soviet Union Captured and used by Rhodesian Armoured Corps.
FN FAL[25] Battle Rifle   Belgium Belgian FNs, South African R1s.
Heckler & Koch G3[25] Battle Rifle   West Germany G3A3, received from Portugal.
L1A1[25] Battle Rifle   United Kingdom Issued primarily to reservists.
Lee–Enfield[32] Bolt-action rifle   United Kingdom Some converted into sniper rifles.
M16A1[24] Automatic rifle   United States Used very late in the war.
Mini-14 Semi-Automatic rifle   United States Smuggled from U.S.
SKS Semi-automatic rifle   Soviet Union Captured.
Bren Light machine gun   United Kingdom Mk 3.
Browning M2 Heavy machine gun   United States
Browning M1919[25] Medium machine gun   United States Helicopter-mounted weapon.
Degtyaryov 1938/46[33] Light machine gun   Soviet Union Captured.
FN MAG[25] General purpose machine gun   Belgium MAG-58.
KPV Heavy machine gun   Soviet Union Captured.
PKM General purpose machine gun   Soviet Union Captured.
RPD[25] Light machine gun   Soviet Union Captured.
RPK Light machine gun   Soviet Union Captured.
Browning Auto-5[25] Shotgun   United States
Ithaca 37 Shotgun   United States
Dragunov Sniper rifle   Soviet Union Captured.
Armscor M963 Fragmentation grenade   South Africa Sourced via South Africa,
Derived from INDEP's licence-made M26 grenade
STRIM 32Z[34][35][36] Anti-tank rifle grenade   France Sourced via South Africa?
STRIM 28R[35][37][38] Rifle grenade   France Sourced via South Africa?
PRB 424 Rifle grenade   Belgium
Armscor 42 Zulu Rifle grenade   South Africa Sourced via South Africa,
Derived from PRB 424
Mecar ENERGA Anti-tank Rifle grenade   Belgium Latterly sourced via South Africa
M18 Claymore[24] Anti-personnel mine   United States
Mine G.S. Mk V Anti-tank mine   United Kingdom
Bazooka Anti-tank weapon   United States M20 Super Bazooka.
M72 LAW Anti-tank weapon   United States [citation needed]
RPG-2[39] Anti-tank weapon   Soviet Union Captured.
RPG-7[24] Anti-tank weapon   Soviet Union Captured.

Missiles and Recoilless Rifles edit

Name Type Country of Origin Notes
MILAN Anti-tank missile   France/  West Germany 9 launchers, 75 missiles.[citation needed]
M40 Anti-tank weapon   United States
B-11 Anti-tank weapon   Soviet Union Captured late in the war.[40]

Vehicles edit

Name Type Country of Origin In Service Notes
Scout & reconnaissance cars
BRDM-2 Scout Car   Soviet Union Captured.
Eland[29] Reconnaissance car   South Africa 34
Ferret[41] Scout Car   United Kingdom 28 Mk 2/2.
Marmon-Herrington[41] Reconnaissance car   South Africa
T17E1 Staghound[41] Reconnaissance car   United States 20 Combat ineffective for the Bush War
Utility trucks
Mercedes-Benz L1517[41] Utility Truck   West Germany
Mercedes-Benz LA911B[41] Utility Truck   West Germany
Mercedes-Benz LA1113/42[41] Utility Truck   West Germany
Bedford MK[41] Utility truck   United Kingdom
Bedford RL[41] Utility truck   United Kingdom
Unimog 416[25] Utility Truck   West Germany
Armoured personnel carriers
Buffel Wheeled Personnel Carrier   South Africa
Bullet[41] Infantry Fighting Vehicle   Rhodesia 1
Crocodile[41] Wheeled Personnel Carrier   Rhodesia 130
MAP75[41] Wheeled Personnel Carrier   Rhodesia 200–300
MAP45[41] Wheeled Personnel Carrier   Rhodesia 100–200
Leopard[41] MPAV   Rhodesia
Mine Protected Combat Vehicle[41] Infantry Fighting Vehicle   Zimbabwe Rhodesia 60
Pookie Mine Detection and Removal (by Contact) vehicle   Rhodesia Built on Volkswagen Kombi chassis.[41]
Hippo[29] Wheeled Personnel Carrier   South Africa
Shorland[41] Armoured Car   United Kingdom 2 Custom hulls and Ferret turrets.
Thyssen Henschel UR-416[42] Armoured Personnel Carrier   West Germany 2
Universal Carrier[41] Armoured Personnel Carrier   United Kingdom 30 Improved Universal Bren carrier.
T-34[43] Medium Tank   Soviet Union 5–10 Captured from Mozambique.
T-55[41] Main Battle Tank   Poland/  Soviet Union 8 Polish T-55LD tanks provided by South Africa.
4×4 light vehicles
Mazda B1600[41] Light truck   Japan 300 Fitted with machine gun turret.
Land Rover 4×4 Vehicle   United Kingdom Mine-resistant variant designated Armadillo.[41]
Willys MB Jeep   United States M38.

Artillery edit

Name Type Country of Origin In Service Notes
BL 5.5[29] 140mm Howitzer   United Kingdom 4
BM-21 Grad 122mm Multiple Rocket Launcher   Soviet Union Captured.
L16[29] 81mm Mortar   United Kingdom 30
M101[44] 105mm Howitzer   United States 6
Ordnance QF 25 pounder[29] 87mm Howitzer   United Kingdom 18
OTO Melara Mod 56 105mm Howitzer   Italy 18

Air Defence edit

Name Type Country of Origin In Service Notes
37mm Gun M1 Anti-aircraft gun   United States
Oerlikon 20 mm cannon[33] Anti-aircraft gun    Switzerland 1 Captured.
Zastava M55 20mm autocannon[45] Anti-aircraft gun   Yugoslavia Captured.
Strela 2 Surface-To-Air Missile System   Soviet Union 15 Captured.
ZPU[44] Anti-aircraft gun   Soviet Union 10 Captured.
ZU-23-2 Anti-aircraft gun   Soviet Union Captured.

Air force equipment edit

Name Type Country of Origin In Service Notes
Aermacchi AL-60[29] Utility Aircraft   Italy 9 AL-60F-5 "Trojan".
Aermacchi SF.260[29] Trainer Aircraft/Light Attack Aircraft   Italy 17 SF.260C and SF.260W "Genet".
SNIAS Alouette-II[29] Light Transport Helicopter   France 10
Aérospatiale Alouette III[29] Helicopter   France 27 Several supplied by the SAAF.
Beechcraft Baron[46] Transport Aircraft   United States 1 Baron 95 C-55.
Bell UH-1 Iroquois[29] Helicopter   United States 10 Agusta-Bell 205A.
Used very late in the war.
Britten-Norman Islander[29] Transport Aircraft   United Kingdom 6
Canadair North Star Transport Aircraft   Canada 4 C-4 Argonaut.
Cessna 185 Utility Aircraft   United States 17
Cessna 421 Transport Aircraft   United States 1
Cessna Skymaster[29] Light Attack Aircraft   United States 10 Reims-Cessna FTB 337G 'Lynx'.
de Havilland Vampire[46] Fighter   United Kingdom 12
Douglas C-47 Dakota[29] Transport Aircraft   United States 12
Douglas DC-7 Transport Aircraft   United States 2
English Electric Canberra[29] Bomber   United Kingdom 7
Hawker Hunter[29] Fighter   United Kingdom 13 Hunter FGA 9.
North American T-6 Texan Trainer Aircraft   United States 21 AT-6 Harvard, sold to South Africa.
Percival Pembroke Transport Aircraft   United Kingdom 2 Percival Pembroke C.1
Percival Provost[46] Trainer Aircraft   United Kingdom 8 Provost Mk 52.
Supermarine Spitfire[47] Fighter   United Kingdom 22 Mk 22.
Golf[48] General-purpose bomb   Rhodesia
Alpha Cluster bombs   Rhodesia The Canberra carried 300 Alpha bombs in groups of 50 inside six hoppers fitted to the bomb bay[49]
SNEB 68mm Aircraft rockets   France

See also edit

Notes and references edit

  1. ^ Rogers 1998, p. 41
  2. ^ Wilson, Graham Cap badges of the Rhodesian Security Forces Sabretache, June 2000
  3. ^ p.46 Radford
  4. ^ "Ex-Service Contingent – Allied Forces". ABC Western Australia. 18 July 2002. Archived from the original on 18 July 2002.
  5. ^ Gale 1973, pp. 88–89; Young 1969, p. 11
  6. ^ Binda 2007, pp. 41–42, 59–77
  7. ^ Moss (n.d.); Petter-Bowyer (2003) p. 16
  8. ^ Extracted from 'The Development of Southern Rhodesia's Military System, 1890–1953 by L. H. Gann, M.A., B.Litt., D.Phil.'
  9. ^ Binda 2007, p. 127; Shortt & McBride 1981, pp. 19–20
  10. ^ Binda 2007, pp. 127–128
  11. ^ Lohman & MacPherson 1983, chpt. 3
  12. ^ a b c Combined Operations – Brothers in Arms Archived 22 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Rhodesia Regiment
  14. ^ "6TH INDEPENDENT COMPANY: A BRIEF HISTORY by G.D.P Morgan". Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  15. ^ a b c d "Rhodesian Army Order of Seniority as at 26th February 1979". rhodesianforces.org. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  16. ^ unconfirmed
  17. ^ a b c d Bridger, Peter, ed. (1973). Encyclopaedia Rhodesia. Salisbury. pp. 441–444. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  18. ^ a b Brent, W. A. (1988). Rhodesian Air Force – A Brief History 1947–1980. Freeworld Publications. p. 35.
  19. ^ Abbott & Botham 1986, p. 7
  20. ^ Cilliers 1984, p. 29
  21. ^ Salt, Beryl (2000). A Pride of Eagles: A History of the Rhodesian Air Force. Covos Day Books. p. 301. ISBN 0-620-23759-7. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  22. ^ Waters, Jonathan (31 December 2011). "Obituary: Peter Garlake 1934–2011". Zimbabwefood. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  23. ^ Grundy, Trevor (5 December 2007). "Sam Putterill". The Herald Scotland. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e Moorcraft, Paul L.; McLaughlin, Peter (April 2008) [1982]. The Rhodesian War: A Military History. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 978-1-84415-694-8.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chris Cocks (3 April 2002). Fireforce: One Man's War in the Rhodesian Light Infantry (1 July 2001 ed.). Covos Day. pp. 31–141. ISBN 1-919874-32-1.
  26. ^ Steyn, Douw; Söderlund, Arné (2015). Iron Fist From The Sea: South Africa's Seaborne Raiders 1978-1988. Helion and Company. pp. 96, 102. ISBN 978-1909982284.
  27. ^ Special Weapons on Rhodesia by Dana Drenkowski, A Wide Variety of Unique Weapons are used in Rhodesia's fight against terrorism, Soldier of Fortune
  28. ^ a b c Small Arms (Museum exhibit), Saxonwold, Johannesburg: South African National Museum of Military History, 2012
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Nelson, Harold. Zimbabwe: A Country Study. pp. 237–317.
  30. ^ Rod Wells (2011). Part-Time War (2011 ed.). Fern House. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-902702-25-4.
  31. ^ "Operation Quartz – Rhodesia 1980". Archived from the original on 7 April 2023.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ Croukamp, Dennis (2007). "Chapter 10 Border Control & More Operations". Bush War in Rhodesia. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-992-9. Rifle Grenade Used as a Hammer: 'While I had been away on leave [in 1969], a new piece of ordnance had arrived. This was a 32Z anti-tank rifle grenade that fitted over the end of a rifle barrel and was propelled by a ballistic cartridge. As everyone else had fired a practice 32Z grenade, I thought it would be a really good idea for me to fire one.'
  35. ^ a b Baxter, Peter; Bomford, Hugh; van Tonder, Gerry, eds. (2014). Rhodesia Regiment 1899–1981. Johannesburg: 30 Degrees South Publishers. pp. 471–488. ISBN 978-1-92014-389-3. The Rhodesian rifle grenade manual (for the 32Z and 28R) was the source
  36. ^ "Military Surplus Virtual Museum – French 40mm STRIM AP Type 32ZA Rifle Grenade". buymilsurp.com. 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 25 September 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  37. ^ Walsh, Toc (2014). Mampara: Rhodesia Regiment Moments of Mayhem by a Moronic, Maybe Militant, Madman. Johannesburg: 30 Degrees South Publishers. pp. 74, 140. ISBN 978-1-92821-130-3. There is a photo on page 120 of a Rhodesian 28R rifle grenade attached to a rifle
  38. ^ "Armas utilizadas en la guerra de Rhodesia 1964–1979" [Weapons used in the war of Rhodesia 1964–1979] (in Spanish). 5 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 January 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  39. ^ Anthony Trethowan (2008). Delta Scout: Ground Coverage operator (2008 ed.). 30deg South Publishers. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-920143-21-3.
  40. ^ Gerry van Tonder (1 May 2012). "Operation Aztec: 28 May 1977" (PDF). rhodesianservices.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Weaponry included 81mm mortars and a Russian B19[sic] recoilless rifle.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Peter Locke, David Cooke. Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia 1965–80. pp. 5–152.
  42. ^ "WAR SINCE 1945 SEMINAR AND SYMPOSIUM, Chapter 3". Ohio State University. n.d. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  43. ^ "Rhodesian Armoured Car Regiment Uncovered". rhodesianforces.org. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  44. ^ a b John Keegan, page 589 World Armies, ISBN 0-333-17236-1
  45. ^ Photos of a Zastava M55 autocannon captured by the Rhodesian Security Forces in Mozambique, September 1979.
  46. ^ a b c Rhodesia. Deadline Data on World Affairs, 1979 Volume, Issue October 1 p. 1-5.
  47. ^ "Supermarine Spitfire Registry – A Warbirds Resource Group Site". Archived from the original on 13 January 2020.
  48. ^ "RhAF The Armament Story · 1951 – 1980". ourstory.com/orafs. Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  49. ^ "Air Force Weapons: Alpha Bomb". Dean Wingrin. Archived from the original on 12 April 2023. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
Journal articles
  • Abbott, Peter; Botham, Philip (June 1986). Modern African Wars: Rhodesia, 1965–80. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-728-5.
  • Binda, Alexandre (November 2007). Heppenstall, David (ed.). Masodja: The History of the Rhodesian African Rifles and its forerunner the Rhodesian Native Regiment. Johannesburg: 30° South Publishers. ISBN 978-1920143039.
  • Cilliers, Jakkie (December 1984). Counter-Insurgency in Rhodesia. London, Sydney & Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-3412-7.
  • Gale, William Daniel (1973). The years between 1923–1973: half a century of responsible government in Rhodesia. Salisbury: H. C. P. Andersen.
  • Locke, Peter G; Cooke, Peter D F (1995). Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia 1965–80. Wellington: P & P Publishing. ISBN 978-0-47302-413-0. OCLC 40535718.
  • Rogers, Anthony (1998). Someone Else's War: Mercenaries from 1960 to the Present. Hammersmith: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-472077-7.
  • Shortt, James; McBride, Angus (1981). The Special Air Service. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-396-8.
  • Young, Kenneth (1969). Rhodesia and Independence: a study in British colonial policy. London: J. M. Dent & Sons.

Further reading edit

  • Cross, Glenn (2017). Dirty War: Rhodesia and Chemical Biological Warfare, 1975–1980. Solihull, UK: Helion & Company. ISBN 978-1-911512-12-7.
  • Hickman, A.S., Rhodesia Served the Queen. Rhodesian Forces in the Boer War, 1899–1902, Volume I, Government Printers, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1970.
  • Hickman, A.S., Rhodesia Served the Queen. Rhodesian Forces in the Boer War, 1899–1902, Volume II, Government Printers, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1975.
  • Lovett, John, Contact: A Tribute to Those Who Serve Rhodesia, Galaxie Press, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1977.
  • MacDonald, J.F., The War History of Southern Rhodesia 1939–45, Volume I. Government of Southern Rhodesia, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, 1947.
  • MacDonald, J.F. The War History of Southern Rhodesia 1939–45, Volume II, Rhodesiana Reprint Library, Silver Series Volume 11, Books of Rhodesia, Bulawayo, 1976 reprint.
  • Wood, J.R.T. (ed.), The War Diaries of Andre Dennison, Ashanti Press, Gibraltar, 1989.

External links edit