The SVD (СВД; Russian: Снайперская Винтовка Драгунова, romanizedSnayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova, lit.'Dragunov Sniper Rifle'), GRAU index 6V1,[2] is a semi-automatic designated marksman rifle chambered in the fully-powered 7.62×54mmR cartridge, developed in the Soviet Union.

SVD with a wooden handguard/gas tube cover and skeletonized stock used before the change to synthetic black furniture
TypeDesignated marksman rifle
Sniper rifle
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1963–present
Used bySee Users
WarsSee Conflicts
Production history
DesignerYevgeny Dragunov
VariantsSee Variants
  • 4.30 kg (9.48 lb) (with scope and unloaded magazine)[1]
  • 4.68 kg (10.3 lb) (SVDS)
  • 4.40 kg (9.7 lb) (SVU)
  • 5.30 kg (11.7 lb) (SVDM)
  • 5.02 kg (11.1 lb) (SWD-M)
  • 1,225 mm (48.2 in) (SVD)[1]
  • 1,135 mm (44.7 in) stock extended / 875 mm (34.4 in) stock folded (SVDS)
  • 900 mm (35.4 in) (SVU)
  • 1,155 mm (45.5 in) stock extended / 875 mm (34.4 in) stock folded (SVDM)
  • 1,135 mm (44.7 in) (SWD-M)
Barrel length
  • 620 mm (24.4 in) (SVD, SWD-M)[1]
  • 565 mm (22.2 in) (SVDS)
  • 600 mm (23.6 in) (SVU)
  • 550 mm (21.7 in) (SVDM)

ActionGas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fireSemi-automatic
Muzzle velocity
  • 830 m/s (2,723 ft/s) (SVD)
  • 810 m/s (2,657.5 ft/s) (SVDS)
  • 800 m/s (2,624.7 ft/s) (SVU)
Effective firing range800 m (875 yd)
Feed system10-round detachable box magazine[1]
SightsPSO-1 telescopic sight, 1PN51/1PN58 night vision sights and iron sights with an adjustable rear notch sight

History Edit

The SVD was designed to serve a squad support role to provide precise long-range engagement capabilities to ordinary troops following the Warsaw Pact adoption of the 7.62×39mm intermediate cartridge and assault rifles as standard infantry weapon systems. At the time, NATO used battle rifles chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO as standard infantry weapon systems and had not yet adopted an intermediate cartridge and assault rifle of their own, allowing them to outrange their Warsaw Pact counterparts.[3]

It was developed through 1958–1963 and selected as the winner of a contest that included three competing groups of designers, led by Sergei Simonov (prototype rejected in April 1960), Aleksandr Konstantinov, and Yevgeny Dragunov. Extensive field testing of the rifles conducted in a wide range of environmental conditions (Konstantinov's competing 2B-W-10 prototype was simpler and cheaper but tested less accurate, durable and reliable) resulted in Dragunov's proposal being accepted into service in July 1963.[4] An initial pre-production batch consisting of 200 rifles was assembled for evaluation purposes, and from 1964 serial production was carried out by Izhmash, later called Kalashnikov Concern.

Since then, the SVD has become the standard squad support weapon of several countries, including those of the former Warsaw Pact. China produced a copy of the SVD through reverse-engineered samples captured during the Sino-Vietnamese War as the Type 79 and 85.[5] Iran also produced a clone, the Nakhjir 3, which was a direct copy of the Chinese Type 79.

Design Edit

The SVD bears a number of cosmetic similarities to the AK family of rifles but these similarities are for the purpose of standardizing manual of arms. This has occasionally led to misidentification of the SVD as an AK variant, and vice versa.

Operating Mechanism Edit

The barrel breech is locked through a rotating bolt (left rotation) and uses three locking lugs to engage corresponding locking recesses in the barrel extension. The rifle has a hammer-type striking mechanism and a manual lever safety selector. In addition to the trigger disconnect, the fire control mechanism has a second disconnector which does not allow the hammer to fall until the bolt has been closed, similar to a sear in a select-fire weapon. However, the SVD was only designed for semi-automatic fire. The firing pin in the SVD is not retained, i.e. "free-floating", and it is therefore possible for accidental discharge to occur as the bolt pushes an unfired cartridge into the chamber, should there be an obstruction in the firing pin channel resulting from poor maintenance or extreme cold.

The firearm is operated by a short-stroke gas piston system with a two-position gas regulator. The gas regulator can be set with the help of the rim of a cartridge. Position #1 leaves a gas escape port opened, whereas position #2 closes the gas escape port and directs extra gas to the piston, increasing the recoil velocity of the gas-piston system and is used for resolving reliability issues which arise from fouling in the gas port/action, extreme cold, high altitude, or using under-powered ammunition.

The rifle is fed from a detachable curved box magazine with a 10-round capacity and the cartridges are double-stacked in a staggered zigzag pattern. After discharging the last cartridge from the magazine, the bolt carrier and bolt are held back on a bolt catch that is released by pulling the cocking handle to the rear.

The rifle's receiver is machined to improve precision by adding torsional strength.

Barrel Edit

The barrel profile is relatively thin to save weight. Its bore is chrome-lined for increased corrosion resistance and features four right-hand grooves. Originally, the twist rate was 320 mm (1:12.6 in), as it had been designed for use with heavier civilian ammunition. In 1975 the twist rate was increased to the standard 240 mm (1:9.4 in), which reduced the precision with the 7N1 sniper cartridge by 19% but allowed for the use of standard "light" ball steel core LPS Gzh (57-N-323S), as well as its variations (incendiary, tracer, armour-piercing) with acceptable precision.[6] The front part of the barrel features the front sight assembly and a bayonet lug. The muzzle is equipped with a permanently affixed long-slotted flash hider.

In order to pass inspections at the factory, these rifles must not produce more than a 0.7 MOA median deviation from the expected point of impact in three 10-shot groups using 7N1 (approximately 3 MOA).

Ammunition Edit

To enable the desired precision of the SVD, new "sniper" ammunition, designated 7N1, was designed by V. M. Sabelnikov, P. P. Sazonov and V. M. Dvorianinov in 1966 to meet the new standards. 7N1 sniper cartridges should not produce more than 1.24 MOA extreme vertical spread with 240 mm twist rate barrels and no more than 1.04 MOA extreme vertical spread with 320 mm twist rate barrels in a 5-shot group. The precision requirements demanded of the SVD with 7N1 is similar to the American M24 Sniper Weapon System with M118SB cartridges (1.18 MOA extreme vertical spread) and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System with M118LR ammunition (1.27 MOA extreme vertical spread).

7N1 differed from the standard LPS Gzh (57-N-323S) cartridge in its use of finely extruded propellant and a modified projectile containing a void inside of the jacket at the tip which improved terminal ballistics and a bimetal lead and mild steel core. With standard 57-N-323S cartridges, the precision of the SVD is reduced to 2.21 MOA extreme vertical spread. This ammunition was later replaced by 7N14 in 1999, which replaced the mild steel penetrator with a hardened steel penetrator in response to the development of infantry body armour.

Sights Edit

The PSO-1's unique reticle. The rangefinder is in the lower left, chevrons for distances beyond 1,000 m (1,094 yd) are found in the middle, and stadia marks for windage are to the left and right of the center reticule. The reticle is illuminated by a small battery-powered lamp.

The rifle features adjustable iron sights with a sliding tangent rear sight, graduated from 100 to 1,200 m (109 to 1,312 yd) in 100 m (109 yd) increments. The iron sights can be used with or without the standard issue optical sight in place. This is possible because the scope mount does not block the area between the front and rear sights.

The SVD was originally issued with a detachable PSO-1 optical sight (now PSO-1M2) which mounts to a Warsaw Pact rail on the left side of the receiver.[7] The PSO-1 elevation turret features bullet drop compensation (BDC) in 50 metres (55 yd) or 100 metres (109 yd) increments for engaging point and area targets at ranges from 100 metres (109 yd) up to 1,000 metres (1,094 yd). At longer distances the shooter must use the chevrons that would shift the trajectory by 100 metres (109 yd) per each chevron. The BDC feature must be tuned at the factory for the particular ballistic trajectory of a particular combination of rifle and cartridge at a predefined air density. With increasing range, inevitable BDC-induced errors will occur when the environmental and meteorological circumstances deviate from the predefined circumstances for which the BDC was calibrated. Marksmen can be trained to understand the main forces acting on the projectile and their effect on their particular gun and ammunition, and the effects of external factors at longer ranges to counter these errors. The PSO-1 sight enables area targets to be engaged at ranges upwards of 1,300 m (1,422 yd); effective ranges in combat situations have been stated at between 600 and 1,300 m (656 and 1,422 yd), depending on the nature of the target (point or area target) quality of ammunition and skill of the shooter.[8][9]

Several military issue alternative telescopic sights with varying levels of magnification and reticles are available for the SVD. Rifles designated SVDN come equipped with a night sight, such as the NSP-3, NSPU, PGN-1, NSPUM or the Polish passive PCS-5. Rifles designated SVDN-1 can use the passive night sight NSPU-3 (1PN51)[10] and rifles designated SVDN2 can use the passive night sight NSPUM (1PN58).[11]

Commercial non military issue mounts that attach to the Warsaw Pact rail mount can allow use of Picatinny rail-mounted optics.[12]

Stock Edit

The original SVD had a birch plywood laminate two-piece handguard/gas tube cover and a skeletonized thumbhole stock equipped with a detachable cheek rest; the latter is removed when using iron sights. Beginning in the 80's, wooden parts were replaced with synthetic parts made of a black polymer – the handguard and gas tube cover are more or less identical in appearance, while the thumbhole stock is of a different shape.

Accessories Edit

Russian PSO-1M2 military issue 4×24 telescopic sight with the Warsaw Pact rail mounting system.

A number of accessories are issued with the rifle, including a blade-type bayonet (AKM clipped point or the AK-74 spear point bayonet), four spare magazines, a leather or nylon sling, magazine pouch, cleaning kit and an accessory/maintenance kit for the telescopic sight. Also included is a cold weather battery case with a "shirt clip", with a permanently attached cord [approximately 24" long] ending with another battery case cap that has an extension to press against the internal contact in lieu of the battery to complete the circuit. Placing the external battery case into the shooters' clothing close to the body keeps it from freezing; using the clip ensures it remains in place. The clamp-style bipod attaches to machined-out reliefs near the front of the receiver, it literally grabs the two cut out areas and securely mounts with a large round sized head on the clamp bolt able to tightly attach the bipod. The legs are individually adjustable [as opposed to fixed length found on many rifles and LMG's] and can be folded and stowed in a forward position negating the need to remove the bipod before placing the rifle into the canvas carrying case. The two legs are held close together with a "J" shaped clamp attached to one leg and swung over the other leg. Original Soviet/Russian SVD bipods fetch a very high price when they rarely appear on the market.

Variants Edit

Russian-made SVD (top) and SVDS (shortened variant with folding stock) rifles featuring modern synthetic furniture
Russian SVDM sniper rifle

SVDN (6V1N) – A series of variants of the original SVD which were issued with various night vision optics.

SVDS (6V3) – Attempts to reduce the length of the rifle for use by marines, mechanised infantry, and paratroopers began in 1978 by adding a folding buttstock and a separate pistol grip. Initially, pre-existing stock designs were used (such as the one from the AKS-74), but ergonomic problems necessitated the design of a unique folding stock.[13] The final design was chosen out of a variety of prototypes and adopted in 1995, which had a metal stock which folded to the right as to not be interfered by the optic mount and also had a shortened barrel. The stock included a rubber shoulder pad and cheek riser. The barrel was also given a heavier profile, the receiver housing was strengthened, the gas cylinder block was improved and a ported, and a shorter conical flash suppressor was adopted. The SVDSN (6V3N) variants, much like the SVDN variants, are simply equipped with various night vision devices.

SVDM – A modernised variant of the SVDS which entered service in 2018.[14] Compared to its predecessor, the SVDM was notably designed with a thicker (and 550 mm long) barrel, new furniture, and a picatinny rail mount on the new, hinged, dust cover. The variable power 1P88-4 (1П88-4) telescopic sight is used as the standard day optic. The SVDM rifle can be used with a detachable bipod, and with a quick-detachable suppressor. The iron sight line features a simplified rear sight element and a new front sight element located above the gas block. The SVDM has a length of 1,135 mm (44.7 in) (975 mm (38.4 in) with the stock folded) and weighs 5.3 kg (12 lb).[15]

OTs-03 SVU – A variant of the TKB-0172 which began serial production in 1991 for the MVD. The rifle was also equipped with an improved muzzle brake as well as a rear aperture sight, much like the original SVD prototype. Many were not new production rifles, but instead, retrofitted SVDs. A select-fire variant (OTs-03A(S) SVU-A) was also produced in small quantities to serve as an automatic rifle, but the automatic fire capability was later removed from the design. The original shortened barrel was also later replaced with a full-length barrel in the design.

Prototypes Edit

Pair of Dragunovs imported to the U.S. as Tigers. The top rifle has a cheek pad, two 10-round magazines, and a flash suppressor. The bottom rifle was marketed as a hunting "carbine". It has no cheek pad, two 5-round magazines, and no flash suppressor.

SSV-58 – The prototype submitted to trials by Dragunov. The design lacked the fixed flash hider and bayonet lug which was added to the rifle prior to adoption. The rear sights were mounted to the dust cover and were aperture sights instead of the standard notch sight.

TKB-0172 – An early bullpup design of the SVD developed by the Tula Sporting and Hunting Weapons Design Bureau in the 80's. This rifle also had a significantly shortened barrel to reduce length.

V-70 – A prototype automatic rifle developed in 1968. It involved the development of a new bipod, a thicker and shorter barrel with a new muzzle device, and 15/20-round magazines. The detachable bipod designed for this project would be used in subsequent models of SVD.

AF – A prototype automatic rifle developed in the mid 70's. The prototypes were chambered in 5.45x39mm and made compatible with AK-74 magazines (specifically, the 45-round magazine also compatible with the RPK-74).

SVDG (6V1-10) – A smoothbore SVD with a 10mm bore developed alongside the modern intermediate cartridge program to use the experimental 3 mm APFSDS projectile, originally designed for use in standard machine guns. The design was not implemented due to the poor terminal ballistics of the projectile and the complexity of the new weapon.

SSV-6 (6V1-6) – Chambered in the experimental 6mm cartridge developed in the 80's. The weapon was not adopted due to the poor effectiveness of the cartridge.

SVDK (6V9) – An experimental Russian variant chambered for the 9.3×64mm 7N33 cartridge, based on the civilian Tigr design.

Civilian variants Edit

Tigr – A civilian variant of the SVD, lacking a bayonet lug, first produced in the 1970s. Serial production for began in 1992.[16] For export into the United States, the sear which prevented out-of-battery discharge had to be removed to comply with the National Firearms Act. As of the writing of this article, Tiger rifles are available with shortened (520 mm) and full length (620 mm) barrels, different stocks (including an SVDS-style folding stock), and are chambered in 7.62×54mmR, .308 Winchester, .30-06 Springfield or 9.3×64mm Brenneke.

Foreign variants Edit

SWD-M – A modernised Polish variant of the SVD adopted in 1998 which uses a heavy barrel, bipod (mounted to the forearm) and LD-6 (6×42) telescopic sight.

Al-Kadesih – An Iraqi variant of the SVD, not to be confused with the Tabuk rifle. Although the design is very similar to the SVD, many parts are not interchangeable due to its unique dimensions and design characteristics. For example, the receiver is not milled and is slightly longer than that of the SVD, and the barrel is pinned to the receiver instead of being threaded. The rifle is also issued magazines with an ornamental palm tree relief.[17][18]

Type 79/85 – A Chinese variant of the SVD. Although the design is nearly identical to the original SVD, some parts are not interchangeable, as the dimensions are slightly different from Soviet production rifles. A small quantity were also chambered in .308 Winchester for export. Exported rifles are often referred to as the NDM-86 or EM-351.

CS/LR19 or NSG-85 – A modernised Chinese variant of the Type 85 adopted by the PLA in 2014.

Doctrine Edit

Soldier on the left displaying the clamp-style bipod

The SVD was used by designated marksmen deployed in the Soviet Army at the basic motorized infantry rifle platoon level.[19] For this purpose, the rifle was designed to be much lighter than more conventional precision rifles, making it better suited for use by infantry, and the rifle is autoloading in order to prioritize volume of fire over precision. It was thought that a relatively small number of marksmen armed with 7.62×54mmR fully powered cartridge chambered arms could assist conventional troops armed with 7.62×39mm intermediate cartridge chambered arms by suppressing/harassing valuable targets and assets (such as officers, radio operators, vehicle crews, other marksmen, machine gun teams, anti-tank warfare teams, etc.) with greater precision and at much greater ranges.[20]

Once the rifle had been produced in sufficient numbers, every infantry platoon of Warsaw Pact troops included at least one SVD-equipped marksman. In the German Democratic Republic arsenals, there were almost 1,750.[21] The marksmen were often chosen from personnel who displayed exceptional rifle marksmanship while members of DOSAAF. Such marksmen were estimated to have a 50% probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 800 m (875 yd), and an 80% probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 500 m (547 yd). To attain this level of accuracy the sniper could not engage more than two such targets per minute. For distances not exceeding 200 m (219 yd) the probability was estimated to be well above 90% regardless of time taken.[22]

Users Edit

A United States Marine receives instruction on the SVD.
Gold plated Al Kadesiah rifle found in one of Saddam Hussein's palaces, on display at the Parachute Regiment exhibition of the Imperial War Museum in Duxford. Gold-plated Al Kadesiah were a common gift for VIPs of the Ba'athist-era Iraqi regime.

Former users Edit

Conflicts Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  2. ^ "Первая в мире. Снайперская винтовка Драгунова | Оружейный журнал «КАЛАШНИКОВ»" (in Russian). 2023-07-05. Retrieved 2023-07-28.
  3. ^ Kjellgren, G. L. M. "The Practical Range of Small Arms" (PDF). The American Rifleman. pp. 40–44. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2015.
  4. ^ The SWD-M Replacement for Poland: New 7,62×51 mm marksman rifle
  5. ^ "Chinese Sniper Rifles Have a Troubled History". 4 June 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  6. ^ Evgeniy Dragunov: Creator of Firepower (abstracts from a forthcoming book) Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "PSO-1 Manual" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
  8. ^ " discussion on the SVD effective range by sniper instructors/users". Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  9. ^ "UN judgement dealing with sniping during the Yugoslav wars" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  12. ^ "SVDM - Dragunov Sniper Rifle Scope Mount". FAB Defense. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  13. ^ Снайперская винтовка СВД-С // журнал "Военный вестник", № 2, 1992. стр.93-94
  14. ^ "Russian Southern Military District receives upgraded large caliber rifles, automatic guns, Retrieved 3 July 2018". Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  15. ^ "Sniper rifle SVDM, Kalashnikov Group. Retrieved 2 July 2018". Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  16. ^ И. Дерюшев. Охотничий карабин «Тигр» // журнал «Охота и охотничье хозяйство», № 5, 1993. стр.24
  17. ^ "Iraqi Al Kadesiah (also known as Al Kadesih) Sniper Rifle 7.62×54mmR". Archived from the original on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  18. ^ "The Iraqi Al Kadesiah Rifle". Archived from the original on 2012-12-14. Retrieved 30 Dec 2012.
  19. ^ US Army, FM 100-2-3 The Soviet Army: Troops, Organization and Equipment, 4-3
  20. ^ Po, Enrico: Dragunov, RID Magazine June 1997 p.49-52
  21. ^ "List of GDR weapons". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  22. ^ Isby, David C. (1981). Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-531-03732-0.
  23. ^ a b Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  24. ^ Neville, Leigh (25 Aug 2016). Modern Snipers. General Military. Osprey Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 9781472815347.
  25. ^ a b Neville 2016, p. 192.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  27. ^ The World Defence Almanac 2006, page. 95, Mönch Publishing Group, Bonn 2006
  28. ^ a b Bonn International Center for Conversion; Bundeswehr Verification Center. "Dragunov SVD". SALW Guide: Global distribution and visual identification. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  29. ^ "UNROCA original report Bangladesh 2007". Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  30. ^ FirearmsWorld (2015-02-17). "" 79/85式狙击步枪 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  31. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8. Archived from the original on 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  32. ^ Letter dated 26 June 2014 from the Panel of Experts on the Central African Republic established pursuant to Security Council resolution 2127 (2013) addressed to the President of the Security Council (PDF). 1 July 2014. p. 81. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  33. ^ a b Type 79/85 Sniper Rifle. Archived 2008-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
  34. ^ a b 7.62 mm SNIPPING RIFLE. Retrieved on September 29, 2008. Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ NDM-86. Archived 2008-10-04 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
  36. ^ NDM86. Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on September 29, 2008.
  37. ^ "NORINCO NSG-85 / CS/LR19 Sniper Rifle (China)". Modern Firearms. 26 May 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  38. ^ a b Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009–2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 897. ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  39. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2010-02-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Combat units take over new CZ BREN 2 PPS precision shooting rifles". Defence Industry News. 2022-01-25. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  41. ^ "Bojové jednotky přebírají nové pušky pro přesnou střelbu CZ BREN 2 PPS".
  42. ^ a b Katz, Sam (24 Mar 1988). Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars (2). Men-at-Arms 128. Osprey Publishing. pp. 39, 42. ISBN 9780850458008.
  43. ^ "The Finnish Defence Forces 7.62 TKIV Dragunov". Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  44. ^ Singh, Lieutenant General R.K. Jasbir (2007). Indian Defence Yearbook. India: Natraj Publishers. pp. 388–391. ISBN 978-81-86857-11-3.
  45. ^ Editorial Team. "8 Pictures Of Indian Army Sniper Team Will Give You Goosebumps". SSB Crack. Archived from the original on 2017-08-09. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  46. ^ Manu Pubby (2016-12-08). "Indian Army Looking For A Deadlier Sniper Rifle To Replace Ageing Draganov". India Times. Archived from the original on 2017-08-09. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  47. ^ "Defence News, Air Force, Navy, ArmyIndian Army will get new sniper rifles by January 20, says General Bipin Rawat". Defence Archived from the original on 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2019-02-10.
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-02-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0-89689-241-7.
  50. ^ "Iran's Army Unveils New Gear in War Game". Tasnim News Agency. 12 December 2016. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  51. ^ Iraqi Al Kadesiah. Archived 2009-01-02 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  52. ^ "Small Arms (Infantry Weapons) used by the Anti-Coalition Insurgency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-09. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
  53. ^ Neville 2016, p. 185.
  54. ^ Neville 2016, p. 163.
  55. ^ Neville 2016, p. 186.
  56. ^ Puxton, Matteo (30 August 2017). "Kataib al-Imam Ali, cette puissante milice chiite qui se bat à la fois en Irak et en Syrie". France Soir (in French). Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  57. ^ Anders, Holger (June 2014). Identifier les sources d'approvisionnement: Les munitions de petit calibre en Côte d'Ivoire (PDF) (in French). Small Arms Survey and United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire. p. 15. ISBN 978-2-940-548-05-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  58. ^ Neville 2016, p. 196.
  59. ^ Krott, Robb (April 1999). "OMEGA'S SMALL ARMS: Latvia's Hostage Rescue Team Weaponry". Small Arms Review. Vol. 2, no. 7. Archived from the original on 2018-11-19. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  60. ^ Berman, Eric G. (March 2019). Beyond Blue Helmets: Promoting Weapons and Ammunition Management in Non-UN Peace Operations (PDF). Small Arms Survey/MPOME. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2019.
  61. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Persistent Instability: Armed Violence and Insecurity in South Sudan" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8. Archived from the original on 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  62. ^ Touchard, Laurent (11 June 2014). "Défense : où en sont les Forces armées maliennes ?". Jeune Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  63. ^ Savannah de Tessières (January 2018). At the Crossroads of Sahelian Conflicts: Insecurity, Terrorism, and Arms Trafficking in Niger (PDF) (Report). Small Arms Survey. p. 58. ISBN 978-2-940548-48-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  64. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ Rottman, Gordon (2010). Panama 1989-90. Elite. Vol. 37. Osprey Publishing. pp. 14, 15, 57, 62, 63. ISBN 9781855321564.
  66. ^ Morallo, Audrey (2017-06-28). "China exploring joint military drills with Philippines vs terrorism". Archived from the original on 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  67. ^ Karabin wyborowy SWD-M - zapomniana modernizacja Archived 2015-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ The SWD-M Replacement for Poland: New 7,62×51 mm marksman rifle
  69. ^ "NCBiR będzie finansowało MSBS-5,56 - Altair Agencja Lotnicza". Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  70. ^ Neville 2016, p. 229.
  71. ^ "EFS : Formation " tireur embarqué " au profit de l'armée de l'Air sénégalaise". (in French). 23 June 2016. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  72. ^ "El Ejército asesora a Senegal". (in Spanish). 28 August 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  73. ^ "Снајперисти се спремају за нове успехе на такмичењу у Белорусији".
  74. ^ "Úvodná stránka :: Ministerstvo obrany SR". Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  75. ^ Scarlata, Paul (April 2011). "Military rifle cartridges of the Sudan from the Khartoum to Darfur". Shotgun News. Archived from the original on 2018-11-24. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  76. ^ "SLAHLAR". Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  77. ^ Chávez’s Bid for Russian Arms Pains U.S. Archived 2017-06-26 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
  78. ^ "Sniper Rifle in PAVN (Vietnamese)". Archived from the original on 2016-06-12. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  79. ^ Staff Reporter (30 March 2016). "Church blames ZANU-PF for economic turmoil". The Zimbabwean. Johannesburg, Gauteng. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  80. ^ Military and Paramilitary Vehicles and Weapons of East Germany
  81. ^ Neville 2016, pp. 188–190.
  82. ^ Ruční zbraně AČR
  83. ^ "Weapons corner: sniper rifles then and now". Infantry Magazine. 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  84. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-11. Retrieved 2016-12-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. ^ Campbell, David (30 Nov 2017). Soviet Paratrooper vs Mujahideen Fighter: Afghanistan 1979–89. Combat 29. Osprey Publishing. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9781472817648.
  86. ^ Մարտական գործողություն` նկարահանված Հայաստանի և Ադրբեջանի կողմից [Military action made by Armenia and Azerbaijan] (in Azerbaijani, Armenian, and Russian). Azerbaijan. c. 1990. Event occurs at 9:03. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 15 Jun 2015.
  87. ^ Touchard, Laurent (18 June 2013). "Armée malienne : le difficile inventaire". Jeune Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  88. ^ "sniper team equipped with Mosin Nafgant and SVD rifles firing at SAA check point in Latakia". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
  89. ^ Yemen War 2015 - Heavy Clashes On The Saudi Border As Houthi Rebels Attack Saudi Military Outposts (in Arabic). Yemen. 2015. Event occurs at 9:46. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.

External links Edit