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Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, KBE, FBA (1 May 1929 – 17 June 2009) was a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and liberal politician. A class conflict theorist, Dahrendorf was a leading expert on explaining and analyzing class divisions in modern society, and is regarded as "one of the most influential thinkers of his generation."[1] Dahrendorf wrote multiple articles and books, his most notable being Class Conflict in Industrial Society (1959) and Essays in the Theory of Society (1968).


The Lord Dahrendorf

Professor R. G Dahrendorf, 1980.jpg
Ralf Dahrendorf in 1980
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
15 July 1993 – 17 June 2009
Life Peerage
European Commissioner for Research, Science and Education
In office
6 January 1973 – 5 January 1977
PresidentFrançois-Xavier Ortoli
Preceded byFritz Hellwig
Succeeded byGuido Brunner
European Commissioner for Trade
In office
1 July 1970 – 5 January 1973
PresidentSicco Mansholt
Franco Maria Malfatti
Preceded byJean-François Deniau
Succeeded byChristopher Soames
Parliamentary Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
22 October 1969 – 2 July 1970
ChancellorWilly Brandt
Preceded bynew appointment
Succeeded byKarl Moersch
Member of the Bundestag
In office
28 September 1969 – 2 July 1970
Personal details
Born(1929-05-01)1 May 1929
Hamburg, Weimar Republic
Died17 June 2009(2009-06-17) (aged 80)
Cologne, Germany
NationalityUnited Kingdom
Germany
Political partyLiberal Democrats (UK)
FDP (Germany)
Spouse(s)Vera Dahrendorf
Ellen Dahrendorf (née Ellen Joan Krug) (1980–2004)
Christiane Dahrendorf (2004–2009)
ChildrenNicola, Alexandra, and Daphne Dahrendorf
Alma materUniversity of Hamburg
London School of Economics
ProfessionSociologist
Ralf Dahrendorf
Known forProviding a new definition of class conflict based on authority relations
Scientific career
InfluencesMarx, Weber, Popper, Hayek, Kant

During his political career, he was a Member of the German Parliament, Parliamentary Secretary of State at the Foreign Office of Germany, European Commissioner for Trade, European Commissioner for Research, Science and Education and Member of the British House of Lords, after he was created a life peer in 1993. He was subsequently known in the United Kingdom as Lord Dahrendorf.[2]

He served as director of the London School of Economics and Warden of St Antony's College, University of Oxford. He also served as a Professor of Sociology at a number of universities in Germany and the United Kingdom, and was a Research Professor at the Berlin Social Science Research Center.

Contents

BiographyEdit

FamilyEdit

Dahrendorf was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1929, the son of Lina and Gustav Dahrendorf and brother of Frank Dahrendorf.[2]

Dahrendorf was known for strongly supporting anti-Nazi activities.[3] As a child, Ralf was a member of the Deutsches Jungvolk, the youngest branch of the Hitler Youth.[4] When Ralf was only a teenager, he and his father, an SPD member of the German Parliament, were arrested and sent to concentration camps for their anti-Nazi activities during the Nazi regime. After this, his family moved to Berlin. In 1944, during the last year of the Second World War he was arrested again for engaging in anti-Nazi activities and sent to a concentration camp in Poland. He was released in 1945.[5][6]

Marriages and childrenEdit

Dahrendorf was married three times. He married his first wife, Vera, in 1954. She was a fellow student at the London School of Economics. Together they had three daughters: Nicola, Alexandra and Daphne Dahrendorf. Nicola Dahrendorf has worked for the United Nations and as the West Africa Regional Conflict Adviser to the UK Government.

From 1980 to 2004, he was married to historian and translator Ellen Dahrendorf (née Ellen Joan Krug), the daughter of Professor James Krug. When he was created a peer in 1993, his wife became known as Lady Dahrendorf. Ellen Dahrendorf, who is Jewish, has served on the board of the Jewish Institute for Policy Research, been chair of the British branch of the New Israel Fund, and is a signatory of the Independent Jewish Voices declaration, which is critical of Israeli policies towards the Palestinians.[7][8][9]

Ralf Dahrendorf's first two marriages ended in divorce. In 2004 he married Christiane Dahrendorf, a Medical Doctor from Cologne.[10]

Education and careerEdit

Ralf Dahrendorf studied philosophy, classical philology, and sociology at Hamburg University between 1947 and 1952. After completing his doctorate in sociology at the London School of Economics in 1954, he returned to Germany where, from 1958, he held a succession of Chairs in Sociology, culminating in Konstanz University in 1969.[11] At this early stage in Dahrendorf's academic career, he took an interest in Marxist theory and wrote his PhD thesis on Karl Marx's theory of justice.[12] Starting in the late 1950s, Dahrenforf, like Coser, argued for a "conflict theory approach to sociology."[13] He continued his academic research at London School of Economics under Karl Popper as a Leverhulme Research Scholar in 1953–1954, gaining a PhD degree in sociology in 1956. He was a professor of sociology in Hamburg (1957–1960), Tübingen (1960–1964) and Konstanz (1966–1969).[2]

From 1957 to 1959, Dahrendorf talked about "this ability to organize as the principle between quasi-groups and interest groups." Quasi-groups are defined as "those collectives that have latent identical role interests but do not experience a sense of "belongingness". Interest groups, on the other hand, "have a structure, a form of organization, a program or goal, and a personnel of members."[14] In 1960, he became a visiting professor of Sociology at Columbia University in New York.[15]

From 1968 to 1969, Dahrendorf was a member of the Parliament of Baden-Württemberg, and also in 1968, his links with Harvard University began.[15] Dahrendorf decided to become a member of the Bundestag in 1969 during the time when Brandt formed his first SPD-FDP coalition government. After joining, he was appointed parliamentary secretary to the foreign minister. Because he was placed third on the ladder of command in the foreign ministry, he did not enjoy the experience.[15] From 1969 to 1970 he was a member of the German parliament for the Free Democratic Party (the German liberals). From 1969 to 1970 he was also a Parliamentary Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1970 he became a Commissioner in the European Commission in Brussels. He was dedicated to the EU as a guarantor of human rights and liberty.[15]

In 1974, the BBC invited him to present the annual Reith Lectures. In this series of six radio talks, entitled The New Liberty, he examined the definition of freedom.

From 1974 to 1984, Dahrendorf was director of the London School of Economics, when he returned to Germany to become Professor of Social Science, Konstanz University (1984–86).

From 1967 to 1970, he was Chairman of the German Sociological Association (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie), resigning it when he took up his office at Brussels. Between 1976 and 1979 he led the educational sub-committee of the Benson Commission.[16]

In 1986, Ralf Dahrendorf became a Governor of the London School of Economics. From 1987 to 1997, he was Warden of St Antony's College at the University of Oxford, succeeding the historian Sir Raymond Carr.[2]

In 1982, Dahrendorf was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 1988, he acquired British citizenship.[15] and became known as Sir Ralf Dahrendorf (as only KBEs who are British subjects are entitled to use that title). In 1993, he was granted a life peerage and was named Baron Dahrendorf of Clare Market in the City of Westminster. Clare Market is near the London School of Economics, and is also used for car parking by LSE staff. Dahrendorf chose this name to honor the School in this way, and also as a sign of his liberal humor. He sat in the House of Lords as a cross-bencher.

Between 2000 and 2006, Dahrendorf served as Chairman of the Judging Panel of the FIRST Award for Responsible Capitalism.[17] He received the FIRST Responsible Capitalism lifetime Achievement Award in 2009. Dahrendorf insisted that even the most basic civil rights, including equality and freedom of expression, be given constitutional legitimacy.[15] On 11 July 2007, he was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Social Studies.

In January 2005, he was appointed a Research Professor at the Social Science Research Center in Berlin (WZB).[18]

Dahrendorf held dual citizenship in the UK and Germany. After retiring, he lived partially in Germany and partially in the United Kingdom, with one home in London and one in Bonndorf in south-western Germany. When asked which city he considered his home, he once said, "I am a Londoner".[19] He also once said that his life was marked by a conflict between the obligation he felt to the country of his birth, Germany and the attraction he felt for Britain.[6]

DeathEdit

Dahrendorf died in Cologne, Germany, aged 80, on 17 June 2009, after suffering from cancer.[20]

He was survived by his third wife, three daughters, and one grandchild.[5]

Dahrendorf's conceptsEdit

Class and Class Conflict in Industrial SocietyEdit

In 1959, Dahrendorf published in his most influential work on social inequality, Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Despite later revisions and affirmations of his work, this book still remains as his first detailed and most influential account of the problem of social inequality in modern, or post-capitalist societies.[21]

In analyzing and evaluating the arguments of structural functionalism and Marxism, Dahrendorf believed that neither theory alone could account for all of society. Marxism did not account for evidence of obvious social integration and cohesion. Structural functionalism, on the other hand, did not focus enough on social conflict.[21][22] He also asserted that Karl Marx defined class in a narrow and historically-specific context. During Marx's time, wealth was the determining factor in attaining power. The wealthy and therefore the powerful ruled, leaving no way for the poor to gain any power or increase their position in society.

Drawing on aspects of both Marxism and structural functionalists to form his own beliefs, Dahrendorf highlighted the changes that have occurred in modern society. Dahrendorf believed in two approaches to society, Utopian and Rationalist. Utopian is the balance of values and solidity and Rationalist is the dissension and disagreement. While he believes that both are social perspectives, the Utopian approach is most apparent in modern-day society, leaving Dahrendorf to create a balance between the two views.[23] Dahrendorf discusses literary utopias to show that the structural-functionalists idea of the social system is utopians in itself because it possess all the necessary characteristics.[13] Specifically, with democracy came voting for political parties, and increased social mobility. He believes that the struggle for authority creates conflict.[24] Money, political power, and social status were all controlled by the same group – the capitalist – which gave the workders little incentive to accept the status quo.[25]

Furthermore, he believes that traditional Marxism ignores consensus and integration in modern social structures.[21] Dahrendorf's theory defined class not in terms of wealth like Marx, but by levels of authority.[24] Dahrendorf combines elements from both of these perspectives to develop his own theory about class conflict in post-capitalist society. Dahrendorf agrees with Marx that authority, in the 19th century, was based on income, and thus the rich bourgeoisie ruled the state. Yet things have changed then, where workers formed trade unions and allowed them to negotiate with the capitalist.[13]

Class conflict theoryEdit

Dahrendorf developed, cultivated, and advanced his theory of class conflict. He proposes a symbolic model of class conflict with authority as the generic form of domination, combined with a strong systematic view of society and the structuration of class relationships.[11] This new theory is said to have taken place in reaction to structural functionalism and in many ways represents its antithesis. The conflict theory attempts to bring together structural functionalism and Marxism.

According to Dahrendorf, functionalism is beneficial while trying to understand consensus while the conflict theory is used to understand conflict and coercion. In order to understand structural functionalism, we study three bodies of work: Davis and Moore, Parsons, and Merton.[26][27] Dahrendorf states that capitalism has undergone major changes since Marx initially developed his theory on class conflict. This new system of capitalism, (known as post-capitalism), is characterized by diverse class structure and a fluid system of power relations. Thus, it involves a much more complex system of inequality than Marx originally outlined.[21] Dahrendorf contends that post-capitalist society has institutionalized class conflict into state and economic spheres.[21] For example, class conflict has been habituated through unions, collective bargaining, the court system, and legislative debate. In effect, the severe class strife typical of Marx's time is not longer relevant. Dahrendorf's theory often took the opposite view of functionalists.

Conflict theorists, like Dahrendorf, often took the exact opposite view of functionalists. Whereas functionalists believe that society was oscillating very slightly, if not completely static, conflict theorists said that "every society at every point is subject to process of change".[27] He believes that there is "dissension and conflict at every point in the social system" and "many societal elements as contributing to disintegration and change".[28] They believe order comes from coercion from those at the top. They believe that power is an important factor in social order. Dahrendorf believes that both conflict theory and consensus theory are necessary because they reflect the two parts of society.

In developing his conflict theory, Dahrendorf recognized consensus theory was also necessary to fully reflect society. Consensus theory focuses on the value integration into society, while conflict theory focuses on conflicts of interest and the force that holds society together despite these stresses. In the past, structural functionalism was the commanding theory in sociology, until the conflict theory came along as its major challenger. However, both structural functionalism and the conflict theory have received major criticisms. In fact, Dahrendorf asserted that there has to be consensus to have conflict, as he said that the two were prerequisites for each other.[29] The opposite is also true, he believed –– conflict can result in cohesion and consensus.[28] However, Dahrendorf did not believe the two theories could be combined into one cohesive and comprehensive theory. Instead, Dahrendorf's thesis was "the differential distribution of authority invariably becomes the determining factor of systematic social conflicts".[28] "In the end, conflict theory should be seen as a litte more than a transitional development in the history of sociological theory. Although the theory failed because it didn't go far in the direction of Marxian theory, it was still early in the 1950s and 1960s for American sociology to accept a full-fledged Marxian approach. However, conflict theory was helping in setting the stage for the beginning of the acceptance by the late 1960s".[29]

AuthorityEdit

Dahrendorf opposed those who were on an individual level. Dahrendorf believed that Marx's theory could be updated to reflect modern society and Roman society. He rejects Marx's two-class system as too simplistic and overly focused on property ownership.[28] Due to the rise of the joint stock company, ownership does not necessarily reflect control of economic production in modern society.[21] Instead of describing the fundamental differences of class in terms of property, Dahrendorf claims that we must "replace the possession, or non-possession, of effective private property by the exercise of, or exclusion from, authority as the criterion of class formation".[22] A crucial component to Dahrendorf's conflict theory is the idea of authority. Although it initially appears to be an individual issue and psychological, Dahrendorf argues that authority is related to positions and not to individuals.[28] In this way, subordination and authority are products of expectation specified by society, and if those roles are not adhered to, sanctions are imposed. Dahrendorf expands on this idea with the notion that roles of authority may conflict when in different positions that call for different things. According to Dahrendorf, these different defined areas of society where people's roles may be different are called imperatively coordinated associations.[30] The groups of society in different associations are drawn together by their common interests. Dahrendorf explains that latent interests are natural interests that arise unconsciously in conflict between superordinates and subordinates. He defines manifest interests as latent interests when they are realized. In conclusion, Dahrendorf believes that understanding authority to be the key to understanding social conflict.

Dahrendorf, like Merton, looked at latent and manifest interests and further classified them as unconscious and conscious interests. He found the connection between these two concepts to be problematic for the conflict theory.[29] Dahrendorf believed that the basis of class conflict was the division of three groups of society: quasi groups, interest groups, and conflict groups.[30] Thus, society can be split up into the "command class" and the "obey class". The command class exercises authority, while the obey class not only has no authority, and but is also subservient to that of others. With a clear interplay between both class types class conflict theory sought to explain that interplay.[31] Quasi groups are "aggregates of incumbents of positions with identical role interests".[30] Interest groups are derived from the quasi groups and they are organized with members, an organization, and a program or goal. The main difference between quasi groups and interest groups are that interest groups are able to organize and have a sense of "belonging" or identity.[32] Darhendorf acknowledged that other conditions like politics, adequate personnel, and recruitment would play a role along with the groups. He also believed that, under ideal circumstances, conflict could be explained without reference to other variables.[29] Unlike Marx, however, he did not believe that random recruitment into the quasi group, it would not start a conflict group. In contrast to Lewis Coser's ideas that functions of conflict maintained the status quo, Dahrendorf believed that that conflict also leads to change (in social structure) and development.[33] His belief in a changing society separated Dahrendorf's ideas from Marx who supported the concept of a utopia.[2]

Marx and Dahrendorf's perspectives on class formationEdit

Marx believed history to be defined as class struggle. Marx defined class as the difference between the dominating class and those who dominate. He believed that in modern society there were three types of classes: Capitalists, workers and petite bourgeoisie. The proletariat and the bourgeoisie are the pillars in the formation of classes. Marx believed that the battle between the different classes formed the concept of class phenomenon.

Marx understood that there are two classes: the rulers who control the means of production, and the ruled who worked with the means of production. Every society needs both. The conflicts between them causes a destruction of the existing societal order so that it can be replaced by a new one.

On the other hand, Dahrendorf believed that the formation of classes was the organization of common interests. This further means that people who are in positions of authority are supposed to control subordination, meaning that sanctions could be put into effect against people who fail to obey authority commands, resulting in fines and further punishments. Dahrendorf argues that society is composed of multiple units that are called imperatively coordinated associations. He saw social conflict as the difference between dominating and subject groups in imperatively coordinated associations.[32]

Marx believed that class formation was based on the ownership of private property. On the contrary, Dahrendorf argued that class formation was always based on authority. He defined authority as a facet of social organizations and as a common element of social structures. There is also another difference between Marx and Dahrendorf concerning the structure of societies. Dahrendorf believed that society had two aspects: consensus and conflict, static and change, order and dissension, cohesion and the role of power, integration and conflict, and lastly consensus and constraint. He saw them all as equally the double aspects of society. On this point, Dahrendorf asserted that society could not survive without both consensus and conflict. He felt this way because without conflict, there can be no consensus, and although consensus leads to conflict, conflict also leads to consensus.

CriticismEdit

The theory takes only a macrosociological perspective. The theory fails to address much of social life.[33] In increasingly modern, multicultural societies, the contested concept and construct of identity received growing emphasis, and was the focus of many debates. As a consequence of the debates over identity, and inevitably in a globalising, modern, multicultural world, the issues of citizenship came into play. Specifically, the discussions analysed the ways in which citizenship contributed to the formation and construction of identities. Dahrendorf's adherence to Marxian seemingly prevented him from participating in these debates. Absent from Dahrendorf's theory were any significant discussions of culture, and therefore, citizenship and identity.[34]

Relationship to other classical theorists and perspectivesEdit

Unlike many of the other works published by social theorists in the 1950s, Dahrendorf's work acknowledges the same class interests that worried Marx. Like Marx, Dahrendorf agreed that conflict is still a basic fact of social life. Dahrendorf believed that class conflict could have beneficial consequences for society, such as progressive change.[21] Dahrendorf is recognised for being one of the best departures from the structural functionalist tradition of the 1950s. Dahrendorf criticised and wanted to challenge the "false, utopian representation of societal harmony, stability, and consensus by the structural functionalist school."[35] Nevertheless, Dahrendorf still shares key ideas with structural functionalists, such as a general faith in the efficacy of political and economic institutions. Like Weber, Dahrendorf criticises Marx's view that the working class will ultimately become a homogeneous group of unskilled machine operators. Dahrendorf points out that in postcapitalist society there are elaborate distinctions regarding income, prestige, skill level, and life chances. Dahrendorf's pluralist view of class and power structures and belief that hierarchies of authority are inevitable in modern societies also reflect Weberian ideas.[21]

Further readingEdit

  • Marius Strubenhoff, 'Materialist Method, Agonistic Liberalism: Revisiting Ralf Dahrendorf's Political Thought', in History of Political Thought 39 (2018), 541-567
  • Julie Smith, Ralf Dahrendorf (Lord Dahrendorf) in Brack et al. (eds.) Dictionary of Liberal Biography; Politico's 1998 pp. 89–90
  • Julie Smith, Ralf Dahrendorf in Brack & Randall (eds.) Dictionary of Liberal Thought; Politico's 2007 pp83–85
  • Edward G. Grabb, "Theories of Social Inequality: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives." Ontario: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1997

Publications in printed in other languagesEdit

Works available in EnglishEdit

  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959) Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1968) Essays in the Theory of Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1967) Society and Democracy in Germany. New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company
  • "The Modern Social Conflict". University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf (1974) The New Liberty BBC Radio Reith Lectures
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1975) The Crisis of Democracy, Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission.Excerpts of remarks by Ralf Dahrendorf on the governability study. NY: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1364-5
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf (1990) Reflections on the Revolution in Europe: In a letter intended to have been sent to a gentleman in Warsaw. New York: Random House
  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1979) Life chances: Approaches to Social and Political Theory. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77682-7

Works available in FrenchEdit

  • Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1972) Classes et conflits de classes dans la société industrielle. (Introduction by Raymond Aron), Paris: Gallimard

Works available in GermanEdit

  • Gesellschaft und Freiheit: Zur soziologischen Analyse der Gegenwart. Piper, München 1961
  • Die angewandte Aufklärung: Gesellschaft u. Soziologie in Amerika. Piper, München 1962
  • Homo Sociologicus: ein Versuch zur Geschichte, Bedeutung und Kritik der Kategorie der sozialen Rolle. Westdeutscher Verlag, Köln/Opladen 1965
  • Gesellschaft und Demokratie in Deutschland. Piper, München 1965
  • Konflikt und Freiheit: auf dem Weg zur Dienstklassengesellschaft. Piper, München 1972, ISBN 3-492-01782-7
  • Pfade aus Utopia: Arbeiten zur Theorie und Methode der Soziologie. Piper, München 1974, ISBN 3-492-00401-6
  • Lebenschancen: Anläufe zur sozialen und politischen Theorie. Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch, Frankfurt a.M. 1979, ISBN 3-518-37059-6
  • Die neue Freiheit: Überleben und Gerechtigkeit in einer veränderten Welt. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M. 1980, ISBN 3-518-37123-1
  • Die Chancen der Krise: über die Zukunft des Liberalismus. DVA, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-421-06148-3
  • Fragmente eines neuen Liberalismus. DVA, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-421-06361-3
  • Der moderne soziale Konflikt: Essay zur Politik der Freiheit. DVA, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-421-06539-X
  • Die Zukunft des Wohlfahrtsstaats. Verl. Neue Kritik, Frankfurt a.M. 1996
  • Liberale und andere: Portraits. DVA, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-421-06669-8
  • Liberal und unabhängig: Gerd Bucerius und seine Zeit. Beck, München 2000, ISBN 3-406-46474-2
  • Über Grenzen: Lebenserinnerungen. Beck, München 2002, ISBN 3-406-49338-6
  • Auf der Suche nach einer neuen Ordnung: Vorlesungen zur Politik der Freiheit im 21. Jahrhundert. Beck, München 2003, ISBN 3-406-50540-6
  • Der Wiederbeginn der Geschichte: vom Fall der Mauer zum Krieg im Irak; Reden und Aufsätze. Beck, München 2004, ISBN 3-406-51879-6
  • Werner Bruns, Döring Walter (Hrsg): Der selbstbewusste Bürger. Bouvier Verlag
  • Engagierte Beobachter. Die Intellektuellen und die Versuchungen der Zeit, Wien: Passagen Verlag 2005
  • Versuchungen der Unfreiheit. Die Intellektuellen in Zeiten der Prüfung . München 2006, ISBN 3-406-54054-6

Awards and honoursEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Grimes, William. "Ralph Dahrendorf, Sociologist, Dies at 80 ", The New York Times, 22 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009.
  4. ^ Stern, Fritz. "Five Germanys I have Known", pg. 225.
  5. ^ a b Grimes, William. "Ralph Dahrendorf, Sociologist, Dies at 80 ", The New York Times, 22 June 2009. Accessed 22 June 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Lord Dahrendorf". The Daily Telegraph. London. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  7. ^ "A time to speak out". The Guardian. London. 5 February 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ http://www.ijv.org.uk/
  10. ^ Pick, Hella. "Lord Dahrendorf, German sociologist and politician who became director of the LSE and a life peer ", The Guardian, 19 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009.
  11. ^ a b Cashmore, Ellis; Rojek, Chris (1999). Dictionary of Cultural Theorist. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 109–111.
  12. ^ Turner, Bryan (26 April 2010). Citizenship Studies. 14 (2): 237. doi:10.1080/13621021003594973. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ a b c Mann, Douglas. Understanding Society: A Survey of Modern Social Theory. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-19-542184-2.
  14. ^ Allan, Kenneth. Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds. Pine Forge Press. p. 164. ISBN 1-4129-1362-4.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Pick, Hella. "Lord Dahrendorf". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Emerald: Article Requests: Indefinite articles". Emerald Group Publishing. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  17. ^ "The FIRST International Award for Responsible Capitalism".[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ WZB website Archived 1 August 2009 at Archive.today
  19. ^ http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4406145,00.html
  20. ^ "German sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf dead". EarthTimes / DPA. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Grabb, Edward G. "Theories of Social Inequality." Ontario: Harcourt Brace & Company. 1997
  22. ^ a b Dahrendorf, Ralf."Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society." Stanford CA: Stanford University. 1959
  23. ^ Rummer, R.J. "Understanding Conflict and War: Vol. 3: Conflict In Perspective". Marxism and Class Conflict. Sage Publications, 1977. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  24. ^ a b Mann, Douglas (2008). A Survey of Modern Social Theory. Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press. p. 43.
  25. ^ Mann, Douglas (2008). Understanding Society: A Survey of Modern Social Theory. Canada: Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43.
  26. ^ Ritzer, George. Sociological Theory. Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-811167-9.
  27. ^ a b Ritzer, George (2008). Sociological Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 265.
  28. ^ a b c d e Ritzer, George (2008). Sociological Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 266.
  29. ^ a b c d Ritzer, George (2010). Sociological theory (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-811167-9.
  30. ^ a b c Ritzer, George (2008). Sociological Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 268.
  31. ^ Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan (1979). "Class as Conceived by Marx and Dahrendorf: Effects on Income Inequality and Politics in the United States and Great Britain". American Sociological Review. 44 (1): 38–58. JSTOR 2094817.
  32. ^ Allan, Kenneth (2006). Contemporary Socialand Sociological Theory. California: Pine Forge Press. p. 164.
  33. ^ a b Ritzer, George (2008). Sociological Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 269.
  34. ^ Turner, Bryan (26 April 2010). Citizenship Studies. 14 (2): 241. doi:10.1080/13621021003594973. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ Grabb, Edward G. "Theories of Social Inequality." Toronto: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston of Canada. 1984
  36. ^ http://www.bath.ac.uk/ceremonies/hongrads/

External linksEdit