Psychedelic drug

  (Redirected from Psychedelic drugs)

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs whose primary effect is to trigger non-ordinary states of consciousness (known as psychedelic experiences or "trips" ) via serotonin 2A receptor agonism. This causes specific psychological, visual and auditory changes, and often a substantially altered state of consciousness. The "Classical" psychedelics, the psychedelics with the largest scientific and cultural influence, are mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT.

Synthetic Mescaline. Normally biosynthesized from peyote and some other cacti. Mescaline was the first psychedelic compound to be extracted and isolated.[1]

Most psychedelic drugs fall into one of the three families of chemical compounds: tryptamines, phenethylamines, or lysergamides. These chemicals all bind to serotonin 5-HT2A receptors,[2] which modulate the activity of key circuits in the brain involved with sensory perception and cognition, however the exact nature of how psychedelics induce changes in perception and cognition via the 5-HT2A receptor is still unknown, although reduced default mode network activity is likely a primary mechanism of action.[3][4] The psychedelic experience is often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as those experienced in meditation,[5][6] mystical experiences,[7][8] and near-death experiences.[8] The phenomenon of ego dissolution is often described as a key feature of the psychedelic experience.[5][6][8]

Many psychedelic drugs are illegal worldwide under the UN conventions, with occasional exceptions for religious use or research contexts. Despite these controls, recreational use of psychedelics is common.[9][10] Legal barriers have made the scientific study of psychedelics more difficult. Research has been conducted, however, and studies show that psychedelics are physiologically safe and do not lead to addiction.[11][12] Studies conducted using psilocybin in a psychotherapeutic setting reveal that psychedelic drugs may assist with treating depression and alcohol addiction, and possibly also nicotine addiction.[13][14] Although further research is needed, existing results are showing that psychedelics may be useful for treating certain forms of psychopathology.[15][16][10]

Origin of the termEdit

 
5-HT2A receptor

The term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή (psyche, "soul, mind") and δηλοῦν (deloun, "to manifest"), hence "mind manifesting", the implication being that psychedelics can develop unused potentials of the human mind.[17] The word was coined in 1956 by British psychiatrist Humphry Osmond; the term was loathed by American ethnobotanist Richard Schultes but championed by American psychologist Timothy Leary.[18]

Aldous Huxley had suggested his own coinage phanerothyme (Greek phaneroein- "visible" and Greek thymos "soul", thus "visible soul") to Osmond in 1956.[19] Recently, the term entheogenic has come into use to denote the use of psychedelic drugs, as well as various other types of psychoactive substances, in a religious, spiritual, and mystical context.[20]

ExamplesEdit

  • LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide, a.k.a. acid) is made from a substance found in ergot, which is a fungus that infects rye.
  • Psilocin is a naturally occurring substance found in psilocybin mushrooms and is found in many parts of the world.
  • O-Acetylpsilocin is believed to be a prodrug of psilocin.[21]
  • Mescaline is derived from the Mexican peyote and San Pedro cactus and produces similar effects to LSD.
  • DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) is structurally similar to psilocin, an alkaloid found in psilocybin mushrooms. It can be synthesised in the laboratory but is also a naturally occurring component of several plants.
  • DOM is a member of the DOx family of compounds which are known for their high potency, long duration, and mixture of psychedelic and stimulant effects.
  • 2C-B (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic drug first synthesised in 1974. 2C-B is considered both a psychedelic and a mild empathogen/entactogen. ‘Entactogen’ means ‘touching within’ and is a term used by psychiatrists to classify MDMA and related drugs.
  • Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is the most well-known and potent psychedelic cactus, although the smallest and slowest growing. Instead of growing upward to form a column, it grows as ‘buttons’ low to the ground. It has been used by Native Americans for over 5000 years.
  • 25-NBOMe (N-methoxybenzyl) is the name for a series of drugs that have psychedelics effects. Reports indicate that there are a number of different versions of NBOMe available – all with differing effects.

UsesEdit

TraditionalEdit

Psychedelics have a long history of use in traditional medicine and traditional religion, for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are often known as entheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti (most notably peyote, San Pedro, and Peruvian torch) have reported success in treating alcoholism, and Mazatec practitioners routinely use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing. The psychoactive brew Ayahuasca contains the psychedelic DMT alongside a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which makes it orally active,[22] is used in Peru and other parts of South America for spiritual and physical healing as well as in religious festivals.[23]

Psychedelic therapyEdit

Many of the currently known psychedelics are classified as having no accepted medical use in the United States.[24] However, in 2018 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted breakthrough therapy designation for psilocybin-assisted therapy for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.[25] In 2019, the FDA also granted breakthrough therapy designation for psilocybin therapy treating major depressive disorder more generally.[26][27]

RecreationalEdit

Recreational use of psychedelics is common.[9][10]

MicrodosingEdit

Psychedelic microdosing is the practice of using sub-threshold doses (microdoses) of psychedelics in an attempt to improve creativity, boost physical energy level, emotional balance, increase performance on problems-solving tasks and to treat anxiety, depression and addiction.[28][29] The practice of microdosing has become more widespread in the 21st century with more people claiming long-term benefits from the practice.[30][31]

PharmacologyEdit

Psychedelics are 5-HT2A receptor agonists (serotonin 2A receptor agonists).[32][33]

TryptaminesEdit

Tryptamine, along with other trace amines, is found in the central nervous system of mammals. It is hypothesized to play a role as a neuromodulator on classical monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine (epinephrine). Tryptamine acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist to activate serotonin receptors, and a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA) to release more monoamine neurotransmitter, with a preference for evoking serotonin and dopamine release over norepinephrine (epinephrine) release.[34][35][36] Psychedelic tryptamines found in nature include psilocin, DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, and tryptamines that have been synthesized in the laboratory include 4-HO-MET and 5-MeO-DALT.[37]

PhenethylaminesEdit

Phenethylamine is also a trace amine but to a lesser extent acts as a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system (CNS). Phenethylamine instead regulates monoamine neurotransmission by binding to trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), which plays a significant role in regulating neurotransmission in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin neurons in the CNS and inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in monoamine neurons.[38][39] When VMAT2 is inhibited monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine cannot be released into the synapse via typical release mechanisms.[40] Mescaline is a naturally occurring psychedelic protoalkaloid of the substituted phenethylamine class.

LysergamidesEdit

Amides of lysergic acid are collectively known as lysergamides, and include a number of compounds with potent agonist and/or antagonist activity at various serotonin and dopamine receptors. LSD is one of many lysergamides. A wide range of lysergamides have emerged in recent years, inspired by existing scientific literature. Others, have appeared from chemical research.[41] 1P-LSD is a derivative and functional analogue of LSD and a homologue of ALD-52. It modifies the LSD molecule by adding a propionyl group to the nitrogen molecule of LSD's indole.[42]

Psychedelic experiencesEdit

Although several attempts have been made, starting in the 19th and 20th centuries, to define common phenomenological structures of the effects produced by classic psychedelics, a universally accepted taxonomy does not yet exist.[43][44] At lower doses, features of psychedelic experiences include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, and color variations. Users often report intense colors that they have not previously experienced, and repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions.[45]

Classic psychedelics are considered to be those found in nature like psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, and LSD which is derived from naturally occurring ergotamine, and non-classic psychedelics are considered to be newer analogs and derivatives of pharmacophore lysergamides, tryptamine, and phenethylamine structures like 2C-B. Many of these psychedelics cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, many users report that the three major families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have extremely tight "dose curves", meaning the difference in dose between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be very slight. There can also be very substantial differences between the drugs; for instance, 5-MeO-DMT rarely produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics.[citation needed] Tryptamines are well documented to cause classic psychedelic states, such as increased empathy, visual distorsions (drifting, morphing, breathing, melting of various surfaces and objects), auditory hallucinations, ego dissolution or ego death with high enough dose, mystical and spiritual experiences, closed eye hallucinations and complete detachment from reality with a high enough dose.[46]

Potential adverse effectsEdit

Despite the contrary perception of much of the public, psychedelic drugs are not addictive and are physiologically safe.[11][12][13] As of 2016, there have been no known deaths due to overdose of LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.[13]

Risks do exist during an unsupervised psychedelic experience, however. Ira Byock wrote in 2018 in the Journal of Palliative Medicine that psilocybin is safe when administered to a properly screened patient and supervised by a qualified professional with appropriate set and setting. However, he called for an "abundance of caution" because in the absence of these conditions a range of negative reactions are possible, including "fear, a prolonged sense of dread, or full panic." He notes that driving or even walking in public can be dangerous during a psychedelic experience because of impaired hand-eye coordination and fine motor control.[47] In some cases, individuals taking psychedelics have performed dangerous or fatal acts because they believed they possessed superhuman powers.[13]

The usage of psilocybin entails a risk of eliciting lasting flashbacks of the drug experience (see hallucinogen persisting perception disorder).[48] Psilocybin-induced states of mind share features with states experienced in psychosis, and while a causal relationship between psilocybin and the onset of psychosis has not been established as of 2011, researchers have called for investigation of the relationship.[48] A population study on associations between psychedelic use and mental illness published in 2013 found no evidence that psychedelic use was associated with increased prevalence of any mental illness.[49]

Potential therapeutic effectsEdit

Psychedelic substances which may have therapeutic uses include psilocybin, LSD, and mescaline.[16] During the 1950s and 1960s, lack of informed consent in some scientific trials on psychedelics led to significant, long-lasting harm to some participants.[16] Since then, research regarding the effectiveness of psychedelic therapy has been conducted under strict ethical guidelines, with fully informed consent and a pre-screening to avoid people with psychosis taking part.[16] Although the history behind these substances has hindered research into their potential medicinal value, scientists are now able to conduct studies and renew research that was halted in the 1970s. Some research has shown that these substances have helped people with such mental disorders as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcoholism, depression, and cluster headaches.[10]

It has long been known that psychedelics promote neurite growth and synaptic plasticity.[50][51][52] Psychedelics have also been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory activity and therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory diseases including asthma,[53] and cardiovascular disease and diabetes.[54]

Legal statusEdit

Many psychedelics are classified under Schedule I of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 as drugs with the greatest potential to cause harm and no acceptable medical uses.[55] In addition, many countries have analogue laws; for example, in the United States, the Federal Analogue Act of 1986 automatically forbids any drugs sharing similar chemical structures or chemical formulas to illicit or prohibited substances if sold for human consumption.[citation needed]

Surrounding cultureEdit

Psychedelic culture includes manifestations such as psychedelic music,[56] psychedelic art,[57] psychedelic literature,[58] psychedelic film,[59] and psychedelic festivals.[60] An example of psychedelic music is that of the rock band Grateful Dead.[61]

See alsoEdit

CategoriesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Peyote San Pedro Cactus – Shamanic Sacraments". D.M.Taylor.
  2. ^ Basic neurochemistry : molecular, cellular and medical aspects. Siegel, George J. (7th ed.). Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-08-047207-2. OCLC 123438340.CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Smigielski, Lukasz; Scheidegger, Milan; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X. (August 2019). "Psilocybin-assisted mindfulness training modulates self-consciousness and brain default mode network connectivity with lasting effects". NeuroImage. 196: 207–215. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.009.
  4. ^ Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C.; Tofoli, Luis F.; Santos, Antonio C.; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Araujo, Draulio B. de (2015-02-18). "The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0118143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118143. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4334486. PMID 25693169.
  5. ^ a b Letheby, Chris; Gerrans, Philip (2017). "Self unbound: ego dissolution in psychedelic experience". Neuroscience of Consciousness. 3 (1): nix016. doi:10.1093/nc/nix016. PMC 6007152. PMID 30042848. The connection with findings about PCC deactivation in ‘effortless awareness’ meditation is obvious, and bolstered by the finding that acute ayahuasca intoxication increases mindfulness-related capacities.
  6. ^ a b Millière, Raphaël; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Roseman, Leor; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva (2018). "Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1475. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01475. PMC 6137697. PMID 30245648.
  7. ^ R. R. Griffiths; W. A. Richards; U. McCann; R. Jesse (7 July 2006). "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance". Psychopharmacology. 187 (3): 268–283. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5. PMID 16826400. S2CID 7845214.
  8. ^ a b c Timmermann, Christopher; Roseman, Leor; Williams, Luke; Erritzoe, David; Martial, Charlotte; Cassol, Héléna; Laureys, Steven; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2018). "DMT Models the Near-Death Experience". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1424. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01424. PMC 6107838. PMID 30174629.
  9. ^ a b Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan (28 March 2013). "Over 30 million psychedelic users in the United States". F1000Research. 2: 98. doi:10.12688/f1000research.2-98.v1. PMC 3917651. PMID 24627778.
  10. ^ a b c d Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Kersgaard, Brennan; Addy, Peter H. (August 2016). "Clinical applications of hallucinogens: A review". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 24 (4): 229–268. doi:10.1037/pha0000084. PMC 5001686. PMID 27454674.
  11. ^ a b Le Dain, Gerald (1971). The Non-medical Use of Drugs: Interim Report of the Canadian Government's Commission of Inquiry. p. 106. Physical dependence does not develop to LSD
  12. ^ a b Lüscher, Christian; Ungless, Mark A. (14 November 2006). "The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs". PLOS Medicine. 3 (11): e437. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437. PMC 1635740. PMID 17105338.
  13. ^ a b c d Nichols, D. E. (3 February 2016). "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478. PMC 4813425. PMID 26841800.
  14. ^ Rich Haridy (24 October 2018). "Psychedelic psilocybin therapy for depression granted Breakthrough Therapy status by FDA". newatlas.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  15. ^ Friedman, Harris (2006). "The Renewal of Psychedelic Research: Implications for Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology". The Humanistic Psychologist. 34 (1): 39–58. doi:10.1207/s15473333thp3401_5. ISSN 1547-3333.
  16. ^ a b c d Tupper, Kenneth W.; Wood, Evan; Yensen, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W. (2015-10-06). "Psychedelic medicine: a re-emerging therapeutic paradigm". CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (14): 1054–1059. doi:10.1503/cmaj.141124. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 4592297. PMID 26350908.
  17. ^ A. Weil, W. Rosen. (1993), From Chocolate To Morphine: Everything You Need To Know About Mind-Altering Drugs. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 93
  18. ^ W. Davis (1996), "One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest". New York, Simon and Schuster, Inc. p. 120.
  19. ^ iia700700.us.archive.org
  20. ^ Nichols DE (February 2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–81. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. PMID 14761703.
  21. ^ Bauer, Barbara E. (2019-09-18). "The State of the Art of Psilacetin (4-AcO-DMT)". Psychedelic Science Review. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  22. ^ Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J. (July 2003). "Human Pharmacology of Ayahuasca: Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Monoamine Metabolite Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 306 (1): 73–83. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.049882. ISSN 0022-3565.
  23. ^ Ismael Eduardo Apud Peláez. (2020). Ayahuasca: Between Cognition and Culture. Publicacions Universitat Rovira i Virgili. ISBN 978-84-8424-834-7. OCLC 1229544084.
  24. ^ Anderson, Brian (2006). "Psychedelic Psychotherapy The Ethics of Medicine for the Soul" (PDF). Penn Bioethics Journal. 2: 9–12.
  25. ^ "COMPASS Pathways Receives FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Psilocybin Therapy for Treatment-resistant Depression – COMPASS". compasspathways.com. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
  26. ^ "FDA grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to Usona Institute's psilocybin program for major depressive disorder". www.businesswire.com. 2019-11-22. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  27. ^ "How to prepare for a PSYCHEDELIC TRIP?". psychedelicsofficial.com. 2019-11-22. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  28. ^ Fadiman J (2016-01-01). "Microdose research: without approvals, control groups, double blinds, staff or funding". Psychedelic Press. XV.
  29. ^ Brodwin E (30 January 2017). "The truth about 'microdosing,' which involves taking tiny amounts of psychedelics like LSD". Business Insider. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  30. ^ Dahl H (7 July 2015). "A Brief History of LSD in the Twenty-First Century". Psychedelic Press UK. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  31. ^ Webb M, Copes H, Hendricks PS (August 2019). "Narrative identity, rationality, and microdosing classic psychedelics". The International Journal on Drug Policy. 70: 33–39. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.04.013. PMID 31071597.
  32. ^ Aghajanian, G (August 1999). "Serotonin and Hallucinogens". Neuropsychopharmacology. 21 (2): 16S–23S. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00135-3. PMID 10432484.
  33. ^ "Crystal Structure of LSD and 5-HT2AR Part 2: Binding Details and Future Psychedelic Research Paths". Psychedelic Science Review. 2020-10-05. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  34. ^ Wölfel, Reinhard; Graefe, Karl-Heinz (February 1992). "Evidence for various tryptamines and related compounds acting as substrates of the platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 345 (2): 129–136. doi:10.1007/BF00165727. ISSN 0028-1298. PMID 1570019. S2CID 2984583.
  35. ^ Shimazu, Seiichiro; Miklya, Ildikó (May 2004). "Pharmacological studies with endogenous enhancer substances: β-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, and their synthetic derivatives". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 28 (3): 421–427. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2003.11.016. PMID 15093948. S2CID 37564231.
  36. ^ Blough, Bruce E.; Landavazo, Antonio; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H.; Decker, Ann M.; Page, Kevin M.; Rothman, Richard B. (2014-06-12). "Hybrid Dopamine Uptake Blocker–Serotonin Releaser Ligands: A New Twist on Transporter-Focused Therapeutics". ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 5 (6): 623–627. doi:10.1021/ml500113s. ISSN 1948-5875. PMC 4060932. PMID 24944732.
  37. ^ Shulgin, Alexander T. (Alexander Theodore) (1997). Tihkal : the continuation. Shulgin, Ann. (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9. OCLC 38503252.
  38. ^ Miller, Gregory M. (2010-12-16). "The emerging role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in the functional regulation of monoamine transporters and dopaminergic activity". Journal of Neurochemistry. 116 (2): 164–176. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07109.x. ISSN 0022-3042. PMC 3005101. PMID 21073468.
  39. ^ Grandy, Gina (2020-04-23). "Guest editorial". Gender in Management. 35 (3): 257–260. doi:10.1108/GM-05-2020-238. ISSN 1754-2413.
  40. ^ Little, Karley Y.; Krolewski, David M.; Zhang, Lian; Cassin, Bader J. (January 2003). "Loss of Striatal Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Protein (VMAT2) in Human Cocaine Users". American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.47. ISSN 0002-953X. PMID 12505801.
  41. ^ Brandt, Simon D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Westphal, Folker; Stratford, Alexander; Odland, Anna U.; Klein, Adam K.; Dowling, Geraldine; Dempster, Nicola M.; Wallach, Jason; Passie, Torsten; Halberstadt, Adam L. (2020-04-20). "Return of the lysergamides. Part VI: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐cyclopropanoyl‐ d ‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1CP‐LSD)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 12 (6): 812–826. doi:10.1002/dta.2789. ISSN 1942-7603. PMID 32180350.
  42. ^ Grumann, Christina; Henkel, Kerstin; Brandt, Simon D.; Stratford, Alexander; Passie, Torsten; Auwärter, Volker (2020). "Pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of 1P-LSD in humans after oral and intravenous administration". Drug Testing and Analysis. 12 (8): 1144–1153. doi:10.1002/dta.2821. ISSN 1942-7611. PMID 32415750.
  43. ^ Preller, Katrin H.; Vollenweider, Franz X. (2016). "Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States". In Adam L. Halberstadt; Franz X. Vollenweider; David E. Nichols (eds.). Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 36. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 221–256. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_459. ISBN 978-3-662-55878-2. PMID 28025814.
  44. ^ Swanson, Link R. (2018-03-02). "Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9: 172. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00172. ISSN 1663-9812. PMC 5853825. PMID 29568270.
  45. ^ Luke, David (28 November 2013). "Rock Art or Rorschach: Is there More to Entoptics than Meets the Eye?". Time and Mind. 3 (1): 9–28. doi:10.2752/175169710x12549020810371. S2CID 144948636.
  46. ^ Berry, Mark D. (July 2004). "Mammalian central nervous system trace amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators". Journal of Neurochemistry. 90 (2): 257–271. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02501.x. ISSN 0022-3042. PMID 15228583. S2CID 12126296.
  47. ^ Byock, Ira (2018). "Taking Psychedelics Seriously". Journal of Palliative Medicine. 21 (4): 417–421. doi:10.1089/jpm.2017.0684. PMC 5867510. PMID 29356590.
  48. ^ a b van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim (2011). "Harm potential of magic mushroom use: A review". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 59 (3): 423–429. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.01.006. PMID 21256914.
  49. ^ Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Lu, Lin (19 August 2013). "Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e63972. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...863972K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063972. PMC 3747247. PMID 23976938.
  50. ^ Jones, K.A.; Srivastave, D.P.; Allen, J.A.; Roth, B.L.; Penzes, P. (2009). "Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (46): 19575–19580. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905884106. PMC 2780750. PMID 19889983.
  51. ^ Yoshida, H.; Kanamaru, C.; Ohtani, A.; Senzaki, K.; Shiga, T. (2011). "Subtype specific roles of serotonin receptors in the spine formation of cortical neurons in vitro". Neurosci Res. 71 (3): 311–314. doi:10.1016/j.neures.2011.07.1824. hdl:2241/114624. PMID 21802453. S2CID 14178672.
  52. ^ Ly, Calvin; Greb, Alexandra C.; Cameron, Lindsay P.; Wong, Jonathan M.; Barragan, Eden V.; Wilson, Paige C.; Burbach, Kyle F.; Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Sina; Sood, Alexander; Paddy, Michael R.; Duim, Whitney C.; Dennis, Megan Y.; McAllister, A. Kimberley; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M.; Gray, John A.; Olson, David E. (June 2018). "Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity". Cell Reports. 23 (11): 3170–3182. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022. PMC 6082376. PMID 29898390.
  53. ^ Nau, F.; Miller, J.; Saravia, J.; Ahlert, T.; Yu, B.; Happel, K.I; Cormier, S.A; Nichols, C.D. (2015). "Serotonin 5-HT₂ receptor activation prevents allergic asthma in a mouse model". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 308 (2): 191–198. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00138.2013. PMC 4338939. PMID 25416380.
  54. ^ Flanagan, T.W.; Sebastian, M.N.; Battaglia, D.M.; Foster, T.P.; Maillet, E.L.; Nichols, C.D. (2019). "Activation of 5-HT2 Receptors Reduces Inflammation in Vascular Tissue and Cholesterol Levels in High-Fat Diet-Fed Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice". Sci. Rep. 9 (1): 13444–198. Bibcode:2019NatSR...913444F. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-49987-0. PMC 6748996. PMID 31530895.
  55. ^ Rucker, James J. H. (2015). "Psychedelic drugs should be legally reclassified so that researchers can investigate their therapeutic potential". British Medical Journal. 350: h2902. doi:10.1136/bmj.h2902. S2CID 46510541.
  56. ^ Hicks, Michael (15 January 2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 0-252-06915-3.
  57. ^ Krippner, Stanley (2017). "Ecstatic Landscapes: The Manifestation of Psychedelic Art". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 57 (4): 415–435. doi:10.1177/0022167816671579. S2CID 151517152.
  58. ^ Dickins, Robert (2013). "Preparing the Gaia connection: An ecological exposition of psychedelic literature 1954-1963". European Journal of Ecopsychology. 4: 9–18. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.854.6673. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  59. ^ Gallagher, Mark (2004). "Tripped Out: The Psychedelic Film and Masculinity". Quarterly Review of Film and Video. 21 (3): 161–171. doi:10.1080/10509200490437817. S2CID 191583864.
  60. ^ St John, Graham. "Neotrance and the Psychedelic Festival." Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture, 1(1) (2009).
  61. ^ Hirschfelder, Adam (Jan 14, 2016). "The Trips Festival explained". Experiments in Environment: The Halprin Workshops, 1966-1971.