List of designer drugs
Designer drugs are structural or functional analogues of controlled substances that are designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the parent drug while avoiding detection or classification as illegal. Some designer drugs (research chemicals) are structural analogues of psychoactive tryptamines or phenethylamines but there are many other chemically unrelated psychoactive substances that can be considered part of the designer drug group. Designer drugs also include analogues of controlled anabolic steroids. The pharmaceutical activities of these compounds might not be predictable based strictly upon structural examination. Many of the substances have common effects while structurally different or different effects while structurally similar due to SAR paradox. As a result of no real official naming for some of these compounds, as well as regional naming, this can all lead to potentially hazardous mix ups for users. The following list is not exhaustive.
A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception. Psychedelics tend to affect and explore the mind in ways that result in the experience being qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. The psychedelic experience is often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, yoga, religious ecstasy, dreaming and even near-death experiences.
- 4-AcO-DALT, Dalcetin
- 4-AcO-DET, Ethacetin
- 4-AcO-DiPT, Ipracetin
- 4-AcO-DMT, Psilacetin
- 4-AcO-DPT, Depracetin
- 4-AcO-EiPT, Ethipracetin
- 4-AcO-MET, Metacetin
- 4-AcO-MiPT, Mipracetin
- 4-HO-DALT, Dalocin
- 4-HO-DET, Ethocin
- 4-HO-DiPT, Iprocin
- 4-HO-DPT, Deprocin
- 4-HO-MET, Metocin
- 4-HO-MiPT, Miprocin
- 4-HO-MPMI, Lucigenol
- 4-HO-MPT, Meprocin
- 5-MeO-DiPT, Foxy Methoxy
- 5-MeO-MiPT, Moxy Methoxy
- 5-MeO-TMT, Indapex
- DALT, Diallyltryptamine
- DET, Diethyltryptamine
- DiPT, Diisopropyltryptamine
- DPT, Dipropyltryptamine
- 4-PO-DET, Ethocybin, CEY-19
- EiPT, Ethylisopropyltryptamine
- EPT, Ethylpropyltryptamine
- MiPT, Methylisopropyltryptamine
- McPT, Methylcyclopropyltryptamine
- MET, Methylethyltryptamine
2C-x class of psychedelics are 2,5-dimethoxy-phenethylamine derivatives.
The DOx family of psychedelics are also known as "substituted amphetamines" as they contain the amphetamine backbone but are substituted on the benzene ring. This gives rise to serotonin agonists similar to the 2C-X class but more resistant to elimination in the body.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogens which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self. This is done through reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances. Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine and/or opioid systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.
- 2-Fluorodeschloroketamine, 2-FDCK, Fluoroketamine, 2-Fluoroketamine
- 2'-Oxo-PCE, Eticyclidinone, O-PCE, Deschloroethylnorketamine, 2-DCNEK
- 2-Trifluoromethyldeschloroketamine, 2-TFMDCK
- 3-HO-PCE, Hydroxyeticyclidine
- 4-MeO-PCP, Methoxydine
- Deschloroketamine, 2'-Oxo-PCM, 2-DCK, DCK, O-PCM
- Eticyclidine, PCE, CI-400
- Methoxetamine, MXE, 3-MeO-2'-Oxo-PCE
- Methoxmetamine, MXM, MMXE, 3-MeO-2'-Oxo-PCM, E-MXE
- Methoxpropamine, MXPr, 3-MeO-2'-Oxo-PCPr
- Methoxyketamine, 2-MeO-2-Deschloroketamine, 2-MeO-Ketamine
- N-Ethylnorketamine, NENK, N-Ethylketamine
Diarylethylamines began to appear on grey markets only as recently as 2013.
- 3-Chlorophenylpiperazine, meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine, mCPP
- 4-Fluorophenylpiperazine, para-Fluorophenylpiperazine, pFPP, 4-FPP, Fluoperazine, Flipiperazine
- 4-Methoxyphenylpiperazine, para-Methoxyphenylpiperazine, MeOPP, pMPP, 4-MPP, Paraperazine
- Benzylpiperazine, BZP
- Dibenzylpiperazine, DBZP
- Difluoromethylenedioxybenzylpiperazine, DF-MDBP, DB-MDBP
- Methoxypiperamide, MEOP, MEXP
- Methylbenzylpiperazine, MBZP
- Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine, MDBZP, Piperonylpiperazine
- Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, TFMPP
Empathogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to those of MDMA . Users of empathogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others.
Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines (MDxx) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.
- 5-Methoxymethylone, βk-MMDMA, "2-A1MP"
- 5-Methylethylone, 5-Me-βk-MDEA, 5-ME
- Butylone, βk-MBDB
- Dibutylone, βk-DMBDB
- Difluoromethylenedioxyamphetamine, DiFMDA
- Dimethylone, βk-MDDMA, "M11"
- Dipentylone, βk-DMBDP
- EBDB, Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine
- EDMA, Ethylenedioxymethylamphetamine
- EFLEA, N-Hydroxy-EDMA
- Ethylone, βk-MDEA
- Eutylone, βk-EBDB, N-Ethyl-Butylone
- FLEA, Methylenedioxyhydroxymethamphetamine, MDHMA
- MBDP, Methylbenzodioxylpentanamine
- MBDB, Methylbenzodioxylbutanamine, "Eden"
- MDEA, Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, MDE, "Eve"
- Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine, MDOH
- Methylenedioxydeschlorobupropion, N-Tert-Butyl-Methylone
- Methylone, βk-MDMA
- MMDA, 5-MeO-MDA
- MMDA-2, 6-MeO-MDA
- Pentylone, βk-MBDP
- Putylone, βk-PDBD, N-Propylbutylone
Benzofurans are similar in structure to MD(M)A but differ in that the methylenedioxy groups have been modified, removing one of the two oxygens in the methylenedioxy ring to render a benzofuran ring.
Miscellaneous polycyclic phenethylaminesEdit
Only one non-tryptamine indole has been sold, 5-IT. It shows strong MAOI activity.
- 5-IT, 5-API, PAL-571
Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions.
- 4-BA, 4-Bromoamphetamine, PBA
- 4-CA, 4-Chloroamphetamine, PCA
- 4-CMA, 4-Chloromethamphetamine, PCMA
- 4-FA, 4-Fluoroamphetamine, PFA
- 4-FMA, 4-Fluoromethamphetamine, PFMA
- 4-MA, 4-Methylamphetamine, PAL-313
- 4-MeOA, 4-Methoxyamphetamine, PMA, 4-MeO-A, "Death"
- 4-MeOMA, 4-Methoxymethamphetamine, PMMA, 4-MeO-MA
- 4-MTA, 4-Methylthioamphetamine
- Methamnetamine, N-Methyl-PAL-287, Methylnaphetamine, MNT, MNA
- MMA, 3-Methoxy-4-Methylamphetamine
- 3-FEA, 3F-Ethamphetamine, 3-Fluoroethamphetamine
Stimulants produce a variety of different kinds of effects by enhancing the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects, which vary depending on the substance and dosage in question, may include enhanced alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, increased arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the perception of a diminished requirement for food and sleep.
Amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions.
Cathinones include some stimulants and entactogens, which are derivatives of cathinone. They feature a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon, and a ketone group attached to the beta carbon, along with additional substitutions.
- 2-Chloromethcathinone, 2-CMC
- 2-Fluoromethcathinone, 2-FMC
- 2-Methylethcathinone, 2-MEC
- 2-Methylmethcathinone, 2-MMC
- 2,4-Dimethylethcathinone, 2,4-DMEC
- 2,4-Dimethylmethcathinone, 2-Methylmephedrone, 2,4-DMMC
- 3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone, 3,4-DMMC
- 3,4-Dimethyl-N-ethylbuphedrone, 3,4-DMNEB
- 3,4-Dimethyl-N-ethylpentedrone, 3,4-DMNPD
- 3-Chloromethcathinone, 3-CMC, Metaclephedrone, Clophedrone
- 3-Ethylethcathinone, 3-EEC
- 3-Fluoromethcathinone, 3-FMC
- 3-Fluoro-4-methylmethcathinone, 3-Fluoromephedrone
- 3-Methoxymethcathinone, 3-MeOMC
- 3-Methylethcathinone, 3-MEC
- 3-Methylmethcathinone, 3-MMC
- 4-Bromomethcathinone, 4-BMC, Brephedrone
- 4-Bromoethcathinone, 4-BEC
- 4-Chlorobutylcathinone, 4-CBC
- 4-Chlorodimethylcathinone, 4-CDMC
- 4-Chloroethcathinone, 4-CEC
- 4-Chloroisopropylcathinone, 4-CiPC
- 4-Chloromethcathinone, 4-CMC, Clephedrone
- 4-Ethylethcathinone, 4-EEC
- 4-Ethylmethcathinone, 4-EMC
- 4-Fluoroethcathinone, 4-FEC
- 4-Fluoromethcathinone, Flephedrone, 4-FMC
- 4-Fluoro-NiPP, 4F-IVP, 4-Fluoro-N-Isopropylpentedrone, 4-Fluoro-α-Isopropylamino-Valerophenone, 4-Fluoro-iPAVP, 4-Fluoro-NPP
- 4-Fluoropentedrone, 4-FPD
- 4-Methyl-α-Ethylaminopentiophenone, 4-MEAPP, N-Ethyl-4-Methylpentedrone
- 4-Methylbuphedrone, 4-MeMABP, BZ-6378
- 4-Methylcathinone, 4-MC, Normephedrone
- 4-Methyldimethcathinone, 4-MDMC
- 4-Methylethcathinone, 4-MEC
- 4-Methylpentedrone, 4-MPD
- 4-Methylpropylcathinone, 4-MPC
- Benzedrone, 4-MBC
- Buphedrone, α-Methylamino-Butyrophenone, MABP
- DL-4662, Dimethoxyethylpentedrone, VEVP
- Ephylone, N-Ethylpentylone, βk-Ethyl-K, βk-EBDP
- Ethcathinone, EC
- Hexedrone, α-Methylamino-Caprophenone
- 4-Methylmethcathinone, Mephedrone, 4-MMC, 4-Methylephedrone, "MCAT"
- 4-Methoxymethcathinone, Methedrone, βk-PMMA, 4-Methoxyephedrone, 4-MeoMC
- N,N-Diethyl-4-Methcathinone, N,N-DEMC
- N-Ethylbuphedrone, NEB
- N-Ethylhexedrone, NEH, "Hexen"
- N-Ethylpentedrone, NEP
- 4-Fluoro-N-Ethylbuphedrone, 4-Fluoro-NEB, 4-FNEB
- NiPH, N-Isopropylnorhexedrone
- NiPP, α-Isopropylamino-Valerophenone, iPAVP, N-Isopropylnorpentedrone, NPP
- Pentedrone, α-Methylamino-Valerophenone, MAVP, PD
- α-Ethylaminopentiophenone, EAPP, N-Ethylpentedrone
- βk-IBP, Indanyl-N-ethylbuphedrone
- βk-IVP, Indanyl-N-ethylpentedrone
Pyrrolidines and PyrrolidinophenonesEdit
- Diphenylprolinol, D2PM
- 2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine, Desoxy-D2PM
- α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone, α-PPP
- 2',4'-Dimethyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, DMPPP, 2,4-DM-α-PPP
- 3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, MDPPP, 3,4-MD-α-PPP
- 4'-Chloro-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 4-Chloro-α-PPP
- 4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, MOPPP, 4-MeO-α-PPP
- 4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 4-MePPP, MPPP, MαPPP
- α-Pyrrolidinobutiophenone, α-PBP
- 3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, MDPBP, 3,4-MD-α-PBP
- 4'-Fluoro-α-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone, 4-Fluoro-α-PBP
- 4-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone, 4-MeO-α-PBP
- 4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, MPBP, 4-Me-α-PBP
- 5-PPDI, Indanyl-α-PBP
- TH-PBP, Cyclohexane-α-PBP
- α-Pyrrolidinobutiothiophenone, α-PBT
- α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone, α-PVP, βk-Prolintane, O-2387
- 3-Methyl-4-fluoro-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 3-M-4-F-α-PVP, 4F-3M-α-PVP, MFPVP
- 3',4'-Dimethoxy-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 3,4-DMPV
- 3',4'-Dimethyl-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 3,4-DMPV
- 4'-Bromo-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 4-Bromo-α-PVP
- 4'-Chloro-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 4-Chloro-α-PVP
- 4'-Fluoro-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 4-Fluoro-PVP, 4-Fluoro-α-PVP
- 4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone, 4-MeO-α-PVP, 4-MeO-PVP, MOPVP
- 5-DBFPV, 5-Dihydrobenzofuranpyrovalerone, 3-Desoxy-MDPV
- Pyrovalerone, 4-Me-α-PVP, Centroton, Thymergix, O-2371
- Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, MDPV
- Naphyrone, Naphthylpyrovalerone, O-2482
- Pyrophenidone, α-Phenyl-Pyrovalerone
- Indapyrophenidone, Indanyl-α-Phenyl-α-PVP
- TH-PVP, Cyclohexane-α-PVP
- α-Pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone, α-PVT
- α-Pyrrolidinoisohexaphenone, α-PiHP
- α-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone, α-PHP, PV-7
- 3',4'-Dimethoxy-α-PHP, 3,4-DMPHP
- 4'-Fluoro-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 4-Fluoro-α-PHP
- 4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, MPHP, 4-Me-α-PHP, PV-4
- 4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 4-MeO-α-PHP
- TH-PHP, Cyclohexane-α-PHP
- 5-BPDI, Indanyl-α-PHP
- Methylenedioxypyrrolidinohexiophenone, MDPHP
- α-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone, PV-8, α-PHPP
- 4'-Fluoro-α-pyrrolidinoheptiophenone, 4-Fluoro-PV-8, 4-Fluoro-α-PHPP
- 4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinoheptiophenone, 4-MeO-PV-8, 4-MeO-α-PHPP
- α-Pyrrolidinooctanophenone, PV-9, α-POP
- 4'-Fluoro-α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone, 4-Fluoro-PV-9, 4-Fluoro-α-POP
- 4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone, 4-MeO-PV-9, 4-MeO-α-POP
- α-Pyrrolidinononanophenone, PV-10, α-PNP
Thiophenes are stimulant drugs which are analogues of amphetamine or cathinone where the phenyl ring has been replaced by thiophene.
Tropanes and PiperidinesEdit
Tropane alkaloids occur in plants of the families erythroxylaceae (including coca). Piperidine and its derivatives are ubiquitous building blocks in the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.
- 2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine, Desoxy-D2PM, 2-Benzhydrylpyrrolidine
- 3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate, 3,4-CTMP
- 4'-Fluorococaine, 4'-FC
- 4-Benzylpiperidine, 4-PMPD
- 4-Fluoroethylphenidate, 4F-EPH, 4-FEPH
- 4-Fluoromethylphenidate, 4F-MPH, 4-FMPH
- 4-Methylmethylphenidate, 4-Me-TMP, 4-MMPH
- Benocyclidine, BTCP
- Desoxypipradrol, 2-DPMP, 2-Diphenylmethylpiperidine
- Dichloropane, RTI-111, O-401
- Ethylphenidate, EPH
- HDEP-28, Ethylnaphthidate
- HDMP-28, Methylnaphthidate
- Isopropylphenidate, IPH, IPPD
- Nitracaine, 4-Nitro-Dimethocaine
- Pipradrol, Meratran
- Propylphenidate, PPH
- Troparil, WIN 35,065-2, β-CPT
Oxazolidines are a five-membered ring compounds consisting of three carbons, a nitrogen, and an oxygen. The oxygen and NH are the 1 and 3 positions, respectively. In oxazolidine derivatives, there is always a carbon between the oxygen and the nitrogen.
- 4,4'-Dimethylaminorex, 4,4'-DMAR, "Serotoni"
- Isophenmetrazine, PAL-730
- 2-Hydroxy-4'-Ethylphenmetrazine, 2-HO-4'-EPM, 2-Hydroxyphenmetetrazine, N-Ethylphenmetrazol
- 3,4-Methylenedioxyphendimetrazine, MDMPM
- 3-Fluorophenetrazine, 3-FPE
- 3-Fluorophenmetrazine, 3-FPM, PAL-593
- 3-Methylphenmetrazine, 3-MPM, PAL-773
- N-Ethylphenmetrazine, Phenmetetrazine
- 4-Methylphenmetrazine, 4-MPM
- 6-Methylphenmetrazine, 6-MPM
- PDM-35, 5-Methylphenmetrazine, 5-MPM
- Phenetrazine, PE
- 1,3-Dimethylbutylamine, 1,3-DMBA, "AMP-Citrate"
- 2-MPPP, 2-methyl-1-phenyl-3-(piperidin-1-yl)propan-1-one
- Amfonelic acid, AFA, WIN 25,978
- CRL-40,940, Bisfluoromodafinil
- CRL-40,941, Fladrafinil, Fluorafinil
- Diclofensine, Ro 8-4650
- Dimethocaine, Larocaine
- Mephtetramine, MTTA
- Methylhexanamine, DMAA
- Modafiendz, Methyldifluoromodafinil
Sedatives are substances that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses they may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect. Sedatives can be misused to produce an overly-calming effect. In the event of an overdose or if combined with another sedative, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death.
- 2-Fluoroviminol, 2F-Viminol
- 3-Methylbutyrfentanyl, 3-MBF
- 3-Methylfentanyl, 3-MF
- 4-Chloroisobutyrfentanyl, 4-CliBF, p-CliBF
- 4-Fluorobutyrfentanyl, 4-FBF, p-FBF
- 4-Fluoroisobutyrfentanyl, 4-FiBF, p-FiBF
- 4-Methoxybutyrfentanyl, 4-MeO-BF, p-MeO-BF
- 4-Fluorofentanyl, 4-FF, p-FF
- Acetylfentanyl, AF
- Acetoxymethylketobemidone, O-AMKD
- α-Methylfentanyl, "China White"
- BDPC, Bromadol
- Bucinnazine, AP-237
- Butyrfentanyl, BF
- Bromadoline, U-47931E
- Cyclopentylfentanyl, CP-F
- Desmethylprodine, MPPP
- Etazene, Desnitroetonitazene
- Furanylfentanyl, Fu-F
- N-Desmethyl-BDPC, Norbromadol
- Tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, THF-F
- Valerylfentanyl, VF
- Bromazolam, 2'-Desfluoroflubromazolam, 8-Bromodeschloroalprazolam
- Clonazolam, 8-Nitrodeschlorotriazolam, Clonitrazolam
- Cloniprazepam, 1-Cyclopropylmethylclonazepam
- Desmethylflunitrazepam, Fonazepam
- Diclazepam, 2'-Chlorodiazepam
- Flualprazolam, Fludiazolam
- Flunitrazolam, 2'-Fluorodeschloroclonazolam
- Meclonazepam, 3-Methylclonazepam
- N-Desalkylflurazepam, Norflurazepam
- Nimetazepam, 3-Hydroxynimetazepam
- Nifoxipam, 3-Hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam
- Ro5-4864, 4'-Chlorodiazepam
Agonists of the central cannabinoid receptor type 1 mimic the behavioral effects of cannabis.
Indazole containing cannabinoid receptor agonists include:
- 4F-ADB, 4F-MDMB-PINACA
- 4CN-ADB, 4CN-MDMB-PINACA
- 5C-APINACA, 5C-AKB48
- 5F-ADB, 5F-MDMB-PINACA
- 5F-APINACA, 5F-AKB48
- 5F-CUMYL-PINACA, SGT-25, C-Liquid
- 5F-EMB-PINACA, 5F-AEB
- AB-FUBINACA, PX-4
- ADB-CHMINACA, MAB-CHMINACA, "MA-CHMINACA"
- ADB-FUBINACA, MAB-FUBINACA
- ADB-PINACA, MAB-PINACA
- AMB-CHMINACA, "MA-CHMINACA"
- AMB-FUBINACA, FUB-AMB, MMB-FUBINACA
- APINACA, AKB48
- APP-BINACA, APP‐BUTINACA
- APP-FUBINACA, PX-4
- CUMYL-4CN-BINACA, SGT-78
- CUMYL-PINACA, SGT-24
- CUMYL-THPINACA, SGT-42
- EMB-FUBINACA, FU-AEB
- FUB-APINACA, FUB-AKB48
- MDMB-CHMINACA, MDMB(N)-CHM
- MDMB-FUBINACA, MDMB(N)-Bz-F, MDMB-Bz-F, FUB-MDMB
- PX-2, 5F-APP-PINACA, FU-PX, PPA(N)-2201
- PX-3, APP-CHMINACA
Indole containing cannabinoid receptor agonists include:
- 5C-MN-24, 5C-NNEI
- 5F-AMB-PICA, I-AMB, MMB-2201
- 5F-NNE1, 5F-NNEI, 5F-MN-24
- ADBICA, ADB-PICA
- APICA, SDB-001, 2NE1
- AMB-CHMICA, MMB-CHMICA, "MA-CHMINACA"
- CUMYL-PEGACLONE, SGT-151
- FDU-NNE1, FDU-NNEI, FDU-MN-24
- FUB-144, FUB-UR-144
- MDMB-CHMICA, incorrectly known as MMB-CHMINACA
- NNE1, NNEI, MN-24
- Org 28611, SCH-900,111
- PX-1, 5F-APP-PICA, SRF-30
- STS-135, 5F-APICA
- XLR-11, 5F-UR-144
Androgenic anabolic steroids have approved medical uses as well as used illicitly as performance-enhancing drugs to build muscle mass and strength. Anabolic steroids that have been designed to evade detection in sport doping tests are known as "designer steroids".
- 1-Testosterone, Dihydroboldenone
- Desoxymethyltestosterone, Madol, "DMT"
- Dihydrotestosterone, DHT
- Drostanolone, Masteron
- Mesterolone, Proviron
- Metenolone enanthate, Primobolan
- Methasterone, Superdrol, Methasteron, Methyldrostanolone
- Methyl-1-testosterone, M1T
- Oxandrolone, Anavar
- Oxymetholone, Anadrol
- Prostanozol, prodrug for Stanozolol
- Stanozolol, Winstrol
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands. They are intended to maintain the desirable muscle building effects of anabolic steroids while reducing undesirable androgenic actions (e.g., increased risk of prostate cancer). SARMs that are more selective in their action potentially could be used for a wider range clinical indications than the relatively limited legitimate uses that anabolic steroids are currently approved for.
Growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonistsEdit
Agonists of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor regulate energy homeostasis and body weight.
PDE5 inhibitors are typically used to treat erectile dysfunction and improve sexual stamina.
Central nervous system stimulants Edit
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical human research using low doses of certain central nervous system stimulants found that these drugs enhance cognition in healthy people. In particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both types of receptor in the prefrontal cortex. Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.
- Amphetamine – systematic reviews and meta-analyses report that low-dose amphetamine improves cognitive functions (e.g., inhibitory control, episodic memory, working memory, and aspects of attention) in healthy people and in individuals with ADHD. A 2014 systematic review noted that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to improved recall of information in non-ADHD youth. It also improves task saliency (motivation to perform a task) and performance on tedious tasks that required a high degree of effort.
- Methylphenidate – a benzylpiperidine that improves working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control, aspects of attention, and planning latency in healthy people. It also may improve task saliency and performance on tedious tasks. At above optimal doses, methylphenidate has off–target effects that decrease learning.
- Eugeroics (armodafinil and modafinil) – are classified as "wakefulness-promoting agents"; modafinil increases alertness, particularly in sleep-deprived individuals, and facilitates reasoning and problem solving in non-ADHD youth. In a systematic review of small, preliminary studies where the effects of modafinil were examined, when simple psychometric assessments were considered, modafinil intake enhanced executive function. Modafinil may not produce improvements in mood or motivation in sleep deprived or non-sleep deprived individuals.
- Caffeine – a meta-analysis found an increase in alertness and attentional performance.
- Nicotine – a meta-analysis of 41 clinical studies concluded that nicotine administration or smoking improves alerting and orienting attention and episodic and working memory and slightly improves fine motor performance.
Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, phenylpiracetam, and aniracetam, are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. A recent study found that piracetam supplements sold in the United States were inaccurately labeled. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property is not well established. The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms, although piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.
According to the US Food and Drug Administration,
"Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by humans to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. [...] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. § 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. § 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling."
Some of the most widely-used nootropic substances in the world are the cholinergics. These are typically compounds and analogues of choline. Choline is an essential nutrient, essential nutrient; it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine (the brain's primary executive neurotransmitter), and phosphatidylcholine (a structural component of brain cell membranes). Because of this duel function, raising choline levels in the brain is a key goal of nootropics users. Cholinergics are known to raise choline availability in the brain far more efficiently than choline itself, as the basic compound does not easily cross the blood-brain barrier.
- Citicoline - Also known as CDP-Choline, this is a compound consisting of choline and cytidine. Citicoline is generally considered by nootropics users to be one of the most powerful cholinergics, as well as the most reliable, although this has not been confirmed by independent investigation. Clinical trials have found that Citicoline supplementation acutely improves focus, working memory, and learning in cases of mild cognitive impairment. Other trials have shown that Citicoline consumption improves both episodic and composite memory in otherwise healthy adults.
- Choline bitartrate - Choline bitartrate is a tartaric acid salt containing choline; it is 41.1% choline by molecular weight. While this means it contains more choline by weight than other cholinergics, the evidence seems to indicate that this is a substandard cholinergic which produces only modest improvements in cognitive function. Furthermore, in some users choline bitartrate fails to produce any meaningful improvements in cognitive function whatsoever.
- Alpha-GPC - L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, or Alpha-GPC as it is more commonly known, is a widely-used ingredient in pre-made nootropic supplements. Of all the cholinergics, Alpha-GPC arguably has the most robust scientific backing; clinical trials have found that Alpha-GPC supplementation reliably improves a broad array of cognitive functions. One study found that Alpha-GPC was effective at improving cognitive performance in people with mild Alzheimer's disease.
- Tolcapone – a systematic review noted that it improved verbal episodic memory and episodic memory encoding.
- Levodopa – a systematic review noted that it improved verbal episodic memory and episodic memory encoding.
- Atomoxetine – may improve working memory and attention when used at certain doses.
- Desipramine – may improve working memory and attention when used at certain doses.
- Nicergoline may improve human cognitive performance, including concentration, psychomotor performance, attention, reaction times, and other indicators of brain function.
- Pramipexole – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.
- Guanfacine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.
- Clonidine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.
- Fexofenadine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.
Psychedelic microdosing is the novel practice of using sub-threshold doses (microdoses) of psychedelic drugs in an attempt to improve mood and cognition. The efficacy of this has not been verified. In a study examining the qualitative reports of 278 microdosers the researchers found that there were mixed results among users. While some users reported positive effects such as improved mood and cognition, others paradoxically reported negative effects such as physiological discomfort and anxiety. In one of the only double-blind, randomized studies to date, those given microdoses of LSD did not perform better than those given the placebo on cognitive tasks.
- "EMCDDA–Europol 2013 Annual Report on the information exchange, risk assessment and control of new psychoactive substances (implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA)". EMCDDA. July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "EMCDDA–Europol 2012 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA (New drugs in Europe, 2012)". EMCDDA. May 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "EMCDDA–Europol 2011 Annual Report on the (information exchange, risk assessment and control of new psychoactive substances) implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA". EMCDDA. April 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "EMCDDA–Europol 2010 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA". EMCDDA. May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Shimizu E, Watanabe H, Kojima T, Hagiwara H, Fujisaki M, Miyatake R, et al. (January 2007). "Combined intoxication with methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 31 (1): 288–91. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.06.012. PMID 16876302.
- "4-AcO-DPT". PubChem.
- "4-HO-DALT". Isomerdesign.
- PubChem. "5-Chloro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "5-MeO-MET". Isomerdesign.
- "5-MeO-NiPT". Isomerdesign.
- PubChem. "N-[2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl]-N-methylcyclopropanamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Trachsel D, Lehmann D, Enzensperger C (2013). Phenethylamine Von der Struktur zur Funktion. Nachtschatten Verlag AG. ISBN 978-3-03788-700-4.
- Glennon, Richard A.; Bondarev, Mikhail L.; Khorana, Nantaka; Young, Richard; May, Jesse A.; Hellberg, Mark R.; McLaughlin, Marsha A.; Sharif, Najam A. (November 2004). "β-Oxygenated Analogues of the 5-HT2ASerotonin Receptor Agonist 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 47 (24): 6034–6041. doi:10.1021/jm040082s. ISSN 0022-2623. PMID 15537358.
- Beta-hydroxyphenylalkylamines and their use for treating glaucoma
- Morris H, Wallach J (2014). "From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7–8): 614–32. doi:10.1002/dta.1620. PMID 24678061.
- PubChem. "Difluoromethylenedioxybenzylpiperazine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "Dimethylone". Forendex. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "N,N-Dimethylpentylone". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- PubChem. "N-[1-(2,3-Dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)propan-2-yl]-N-methylhydroxylamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Uchiyama N, Shimokawa Y, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Demizu Y, Goda Y, Hakamatsuka T (1 July 2015). "N-OH-EDMA, and a cathinone derivative dimethoxy-α-PHP, newly identified in illegal products". Forensic Toxicology. 33 (2): 244–259. doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0268-7. PMC 4525202. PMID 26257833.
- "2-FMC" (PDF). SWGDRUG. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "2-Methylethcathinone". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "2-MMC" (PDF). SWGDRUG. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- PubChem. "2,4-Dimethylethcathinone". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- PubChem. "2,4-Dimethylmethcathinone". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Kaizaki-Mitsumoto A, Noguchi N, Yamaguchi S, Odanaka Y, Matsubayashi S, Kumamoto H, et al. (January 2016). "Three 25-NBOMe-type drugs, three other phenethylamine-type drugs (25I-NBMD, RH34, and escaline), eight cathinone derivatives, and a phencyclidine analog MMXE, newly identified in ingredients of drug products before they were sold on the drug market". Forensic Toxicology. 34 (1): 108–114. doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0293-6. ISSN 1860-8965.
- "3-Ethylethcathinone". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "3-MeOMC". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "3-MEC" (PDF). SWGDRUG. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- PubChem. "CID 82100370". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Harm S (11 April 1967). "US Patent 3313687 - Appetite-suppressing and weight reducing composition".
- "4F-IVP". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "4-FPD". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Uchiyama N, Matsuda S, Kawamura M, Shimokawa Y, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Aritake K, et al. (October 2014). "Characterization of four new designer drugs, 5-chloro-NNEI, NNEI indazole analog, α-PHPP and α-POP, with 11 newly distributed designer drugs in illegal products". Forensic Science International. 243: 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.03.013. PMID 24769262.
- "4-methyl-N,N-DMC". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Weiß JA, Taschwer M, Kunert O, Schmid MG (March 2015). "Analysis of a new drug of abuse: cathinone derivative 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)pentan-1-one". Journal of Separation Science. 38 (5): 825–8. doi:10.1002/jssc.201401052. PMID 25545103.
- PubChem. "N-Isopropylpentedrone". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- PubChem. "1-(2,3-Dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)pentan-1-one". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Gaspar H, Bronze S, Ciríaco S, Queirós CR, Matias A, Rodrigues J, et al. (July 2015). "4F-PBP (4'-fluoro-α-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone), a new substance of abuse: Structural characterization and purity NMR profiling". Forensic Science International. 252: 168–76. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.05.003. PMID 26005857.
- Shintani-Ishida K, Nakamura M, Tojo M, Idota N, Ikegaya H (May 2015). "Identification and quantification of 4′-methoxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (4-MeOPBP) in human plasma and urine using LC–TOF-MS in an autopsy case". Forensic Toxicology. 33 (2): 348–354. doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0281-x.
- PubChem. "1-(2,3-Dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylbutan-1-one". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "α-PBT". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- PubChem. "1-(2,3-Dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylhexan-1-one". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "3,4-MDPHP". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "PV-8". Forendex. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "4-MeO-PV-9". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "PV-10". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- PubChem. "5-Methyl-2-phenylmorpholine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "3-Fluorophenetrazine Hydrochloride". www.trc-canada.com.
- PubChem. "4-Ethyl-3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- McLaughlin G, Baumann MH, Kavanagh PV, Morris N, Power JD, Dowling G, et al. (September 2018). "Synthesis, analytical characterization, and monoamine transporter activity of the new psychoactive substance 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM), with differentiation from its ortho- and meta- positional isomers" (PDF). Drug Testing and Analysis. 10 (9): 1404–1416. doi:10.1002/dta.2396. PMID 29673128.
- PubChem. "3-Ethyl-2-phenylmorpholine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Power JD, Scott KR, Gardner EA, Curran McAteer BM, O'Brien JE, Brehon M, et al. (January 2014). "The syntheses, characterization and in vitro metabolism of nitracaine, methoxypiperamide and mephtetramine". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7–8): 668–75. doi:10.1002/dta.1616. PMID 24574100.
- PubChem. "2-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methylsulfinyl]-N-methylacetamide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Vandeputte, Marthe M.; Cannaert, Annelies; Stove, Christophe P. (July 2020). "In vitro functional characterization of a panel of non-fentanyl opioid new psychoactive substances". Archives of Toxicology. doi:10.1007/s00204-020-02855-7. ISSN 1432-0738. PMID 32734307.
- Oldenhof S, Ten Pierick A, Bruinsma J, Eustace S, Hulshof J, van den Berg J, Hoitink M (January 2020). "Identification of a novel fentanyl analog: p-Hydroxy-butyrylfentanyl". Drug Testing and Analysis. 12 (1): 152–155. doi:10.1002/dta.2695. PMID 31518047.
- Kennedy NM, Schmid CL, Ross NC, Lovell KM, Yue Z, Chen YT, et al. (October 2018). "Optimization of a Series of Mu Opioid Receptor (MOR) Agonists with High G Protein Signaling Bias". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 61 (19): 8895–8907. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01136. PMC 6386185. PMID 30199635.
- Verougstraete, Nick; Vandeputte, Marthe M.; Lyphout, Cathelijne; Cannaert, Annelies; Hulpia, Fabian; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Verstraete, Alain G.; Stove, Christophe (August 2020). "First report on brorphine: the next opioid on the deadly new psychoactive substances' horizon?". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. doi:10.1093/jat/bkaa094.
- Krotulski AJ, Mohr AL, Papsun DM, Logan BK (January 2018). "Metabolism of novel opioid agonists U-47700 and U-49900 using human liver microsomes with confirmation in authentic urine specimens from drug users". Drug Testing and Analysis. 10 (1): 127–136. doi:10.1002/dta.2228. PMID 28608586.
- "2-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-N-[(1S,2S)-2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylacetamide". ChemSpider.
- "EG-2201". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Mogler, Lukas; Franz, Florian; Wilde, Maurice; Huppertz, Laura M.; Halter, Sebastian; Angerer, Verena; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker (September 2018). "Phase I metabolism of the carbazole-derived synthetic cannabinoids EG-018, EG-2201, and MDMB-CHMCZCA and detection in human urine samples". Drug Testing and Analysis. 10 (9): 1417–1429. doi:10.1002/dta.2398. ISSN 1942-7611. PMID 29726116.
- PubChem. "Methyl (S)-2-(9-(cyclohexylmethyl)-9H-carbazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Qian Z, Jia W, Li T, Hua Z, Liu C (January 2017). "Identification and analytical characterization of four synthetic cannabinoids ADB-BICA, NNL-1, NNL-2, and PPA(N)-2201". Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1002/dta.1990. PMID 27239006.
- Krotulski AJ, Mohr AL, Kacinko SL, Fogarty MF, Shuda SA, Diamond FX, et al. (September 2019). "4F-MDMB-BINACA: A New Synthetic Cannabinoid Widely Implicated in Forensic Casework". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 64 (5): 1451–1461. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.14101. PMID 31260580.
- Haschimi B, Mogler L, Halter S, Giorgetti A, Schwarze B, Westphal F, et al. (September 2019). "Detection of the recently emerged synthetic cannabinoid 4F-MDMB-BINACA in "legal high" products and human urine specimens". Drug Testing and Analysis. 11 (9): 1377–1386. doi:10.1002/dta.2666. PMID 31228224.
- PubChem. "5-Chloro AKB48". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "5F-MN-18". Forendex. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "5F-NPB-22". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "5F-SDB-005". Forendex. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Qian Z, Hua Z, Liu C, Jia W (January 2016). "Four types of cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives, ADB-BINACA, AB-FUBICA, ADB-FUBICA, and AB-BICA, identified as new psychoactive substances". Forensic Toxicology. 34 (1): 133–143. doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0297-2. PMC 4705129. PMID 26793280.
- "AMB". Forendex. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Krotulski AJ, Mohr AL, Diamond FX, Logan BK (January 2020). "Detection and characterization of the new synthetic cannabinoid APP-BINACA in forensic casework". Drug Testing and Analysis. 12 (1): 136–144. doi:10.1002/dta.2698. PMID 31788963.
- Nakajima JI, Takahashi M, Uemura N, Seto T, Fukaya H, Suzuki J, et al. (November 2014). "Identification of N,N-bis(1-pentylindol-3-yl-carboxy)naphthylamine (BiPICANA) found in an herbal blend product in the Tokyo metropolitan area and its cannabimimetic effects evaluated by in vitro [35S]GTPγS binding assays". Forensic Toxicology. 33: 84–92. doi:10.1007/s11419-014-0253-6.
- PubChem. "Ethyl (2S)-2-[[1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]indazole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3-methylbutanoate". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "FUB-NPB-22". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "NPB-22". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Banister SD, Moir M, Stuart J, Kevin RC, Wood KE, Longworth M, et al. (September 2015). "Pharmacology of Indole and Indazole Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, and 5F-ADBICA". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 6 (9): 1546–59. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00112. PMID 26134475.
- PubChem. "[1-(5-Fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl]-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethanone". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- "CBL-018". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Wiley JL, Lefever TW, Cortes RA, Marusich JA (September 2014). "Cross-substitution of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and JWH-018 in drug discrimination in rats". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 124: 123–8. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.05.016. PMC 4150816. PMID 24887450.
- Kazlauskas R (2010). Designer steroids. Handb Exp Pharmacol. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 195. pp. 155–85. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79088-4_7. ISBN 978-3-540-79087-7. PMID 20020364.
- Abushareeda W, Fragkaki A, Vonaparti A, Angelis Y, Tsivou M, Saad K, et al. (March 2014). "Advances in the detection of designer steroids in anti-doping". Bioanalysis. 6 (6): 881–96. doi:10.4155/bio.14.9. PMID 24702116.
- Zhang X, Sui Z (February 2013). "Deciphering the selective androgen receptor modulators paradigm". Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery. 8 (2): 191–218. doi:10.1517/17460441.2013.741582. PMID 23231475.
- Zhang X, Li X, Allan GF, Sbriscia T, Linton O, Lundeen SG, Sui Z (January 2007). "Serendipitous discovery of novel imidazolopyrazole scaffold as selective androgen receptor modulators". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17 (2): 439–43. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.10.035. PMID 17079140.
- Allan GF, Tannenbaum P, Sbriscia T, Linton O, Lai MT, Haynes-Johnson D, et al. (August 2007). "A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats". Endocrine. 32 (1): 41–51. doi:10.1007/s12020-007-9005-2. PMID 17992601.
- Kanno Y, Ota R, Someya K, Kusakabe T, Kato K, Inouye Y (2013). "Selective androgen receptor modulator, YK11, regulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by follistatin expression". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 36 (9): 1460–5. doi:10.1248/bpb.b13-00231. PMID 23995658.
- Takayama K, Noguchi Y, Aoki S, Takayama S, Yoshida M, Asari T, et al. (February 2015). "Identification of the minimum peptide from mouse myostatin prodomain for human myostatin inhibition". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 58 (3): 1544–9. doi:10.1021/jm501170d. PMID 25569186.
- "Public Notification: "RigiRx Plus" Contains Undeclared Drug Ingredient". US FDA. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW (June 2015). "The cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve direct action in the prefrontal cortex". Biological Psychiatry. 77 (11): 940–50. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.013. PMC 4377121. PMID 25499957.
- Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ (June 2015). "Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 27 (6): 1069–89. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. PMID 25591060.
- Bagot KS, Kaminer Y (April 2014). "Efficacy of stimulants for cognitive enhancement in non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth: a systematic review". Addiction. 109 (4): 547–57. doi:10.1111/add.12460. PMC 4471173. PMID 24749160.
- Wood S, Sage JR, Shuman T, Anagnostaras SG (January 2014). "Psychostimulants and cognition: a continuum of behavioral and cognitive activation". Pharmacological Reviews. 66 (1): 193–221. doi:10.1124/pr.112.007054. PMC 3880463. PMID 24344115.
- Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Holtzman DM (2015). "Chapter 14: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071827706.
- Urban KR, Gao WJ (2014). "Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain". Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 8: 38. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00038. PMC 4026746. PMID 24860437.
- Battleday RM, Brem AK (November 2015). "Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review" (PDF). European Neuropsychopharmacology. 25 (11): 1865–81. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028. PMID 26381811.
- Meulen Rt, Hall W, Mohammed A (2017). Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement. Oxford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780198727392.
- Camfield DA, Stough C, Farrimond J, Scholey AB (August 2014). "Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 72 (8): 507–22. doi:10.1111/nure.12120. PMID 24946991.
- Heishman SJ, Kleykamp BA, Singleton EG (July 2010). "Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance". Psychopharmacology. 210 (4): 453–69. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1848-1. PMC 3151730. PMID 20414766.
- Cohen PA, Zakharevich I, Gerona R (2020). "Presence of Piracetam in Cognitive Enhancement Dietary Supplements". JAMA Internal Medicine. 180 (3): 458. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5507. PMC 6902196. PMID 31764936.
- Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 454. ISBN 9780071481274.
- Gualtieri F, Manetti D, Romanelli MN, Ghelardini C (2002). "Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 8 (2): 125–38. doi:10.2174/1381612023396582. PMID 11812254.
- John Gridley (30 August 2010). "FDA Warning Letter: Unlimited Nutrition". Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Fioravanti, Mario; Buckley, Ann E (September 2006). "Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment". Clinical Interventions in Aging. 1 (3): 247–251. ISSN 1176-9092. PMC 2695184. PMID 18046877.
- Nakazaki, Eri; Mah, Eunice; Citrolo, Danielle; Watanabe, Fumiko (2020-06-01). "Effect of Citicoline on Memory Function in Healthy Order Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". Current Developments in Nutrition. 4 (Supplement_2): 1227–1227. doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa057_043.
- Lippelt, D. P.; Kint, S. van der; Herk, K. van; Naber, M. (2016-06-24). "No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults". PLOS ONE. 11 (6): e0157714. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157714. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4920398. PMID 27341028.
- De Jesus Moreno Moreno, Maria (January 2003). "Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Clinical Therapeutics. 25 (1): 178–193. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(03)90023-3. ISSN 0149-2918. PMID 12637119.
- Fond G, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Brunel L, Macgregor A, Miot S, Lopez R, et al. (September 2015). "Innovative mechanisms of action for pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement: A systematic review". Psychiatry Research. 229 (1–2): 12–20. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.006. PMID 26187342.
- Zajdel, P; Bednarski, M; Sapa, J; Nowak, G (2015). "Ergotamine and nicergoline - facts and myths". Pharmacol Rep. 67 (2): 360–363. doi:10.1016/j.pharep.2014.10.010. PMID 25712664.
- Fadiman, James (2016-01-01). "Microdose research: without approvals, control groups, double blinds, staff or funding". Psychedelic Press. XV.
- Webb, Megan; Copes, Heith; Hendricks, Peter S. (2019-08-01). "Narrative identity, rationality, and microdosing classic psychedelics". International Journal of Drug Policy. 70: 33–39. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.04.013. ISSN 0955-3959. PMID 31071597.
- Polito, Vince; Stevenson, Richard J. (2019-02-06). "A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics". PLOS One. 14 (2): e0211023. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1411023P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211023. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6364961. PMID 30726251.
- Anderson, Thomas; Petranker, Rotem; Christopher, Adam; Rosenbaum, Daniel; Weissman, Cory; Dinh-Williams, Le-Anh; Hui, Katrina; Hapke, Emma (December 2019). "Psychedelic microdosing benefits and challenges: an empirical codebook". Harm Reduction Journal. 16 (1): 43. doi:10.1186/s12954-019-0308-4. ISSN 1477-7517. PMC 6617883. PMID 31288862.
- Bershad, Anya K.; Schepers, Scott T.; Bremmer, Michael P.; Lee, Royce; Wit, Harriet de (2019-11-15). "Acute Subjective and Behavioral Effects of Microdoses of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Human Volunteers". Biological Psychiatry. 86 (10): 792–800. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.05.019. ISSN 0006-3223. PMC 6814527. PMID 31331617.