A power tool is a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools. The most common types of power tools use electric motors. Internal combustion engines and compressed air are also commonly used. Tools directly driven by animal power are not generally considered power tools.

Uses edit

 
Diverse power tools

Power tools are used in industry, in construction, in the garden, for housework tasks such as cooking, cleaning, and around the house for purposes of driving (fasteners), drilling, cutting, shaping, sanding, grinding, routing, polishing, painting, heating and more.

Electrical power tool used during home broadband installation with plenty of dust emitted, Tai Po, Hong Kong

Classification edit

Power tools are classified as either stationary or portable, where portable means hand-held. Portable power tools have obvious advantages in mobility. Stationary power tools, however, often have advantages in speed and precision. A typical table saw, for instance, not only cuts faster than a regular hand saw, but the cuts are smoother, straighter, and more square than what is normally achievable with a hand-held power saw. Some stationary power tools can produce objects that cannot be made in any other way. Lathes, for example, produce truly round objects.

Stationary power tools for metalworking are usually called machine tools. The term machine tool is not usually applied to stationary power tools for woodworking, although such usage is occasionally heard, and in some cases, such as drill presses and bench grinders, exactly the same tool is used for both woodworking and metalworking.

Health impact edit

While hand-held power tools are extremely helpful, they also produce large amounts of noise, vibrations[1] and particulates including ultrafine particles.[2]

Currently there seems to be no or little regulations on the size and amount of dust emitted by power tools. Some industry standards do exist,[3][4] though it appears that they are not widely known or used globally. Knowing that dust is generated throughout the construction process and can cause serious health hazards,[5] manufacturers are now marketing power tools that are equipped with dust collection system (e.g. HEPA vacuum cleaner) or integrated water delivery system which extract the dust after emission.[6][7] However, the use of such products is still not common in most places.

Using power tools without hearing protection over a long period of time can put a person at risk for hearing loss. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that a person should not be exposed to noise at or above 85 dB, for the sake of hearing loss prevention.[8] Most power tools, including drills, circular saws, belt sanders, and chainsaws, operate at sound levels above the 85 dB limit, some even reaching over 100 dB.[1] NIOSH strongly recommends wearing hearing protection while using these kinds of power tools.[9]

History edit

Early industrial revolution-era factories had batteries of power tools driven by belts from overhead shafts. The prime power source was a water wheel or (later) a steam engine. The introduction of the electric motor (and electric distribution networks) in the 1880s made possible the self-powered stationary and portable tools we know today.[10] The global market for power tools is $33 billion (in 2016) and estimated to reach $46 billion in 2025.

Safety Enhancement edit

Prior to the 1930s, power tools were often housed in cast metal housings. The cast metal housings were heavy, contributing to repetitive use injuries, as well as conductive - often shocking the user. As Henry Ford adapted to the manufacturing needs of World War II, he requested that A. H. Peterson, a tool manufacturer, create a lighter electric drill that was more portable for his assembly line workers.[11] At this point, the Hole-Shooter, a drill that weighed 5 lbs. was created by A. H. Peterson. The Peterson Company eventually went bankrupt after a devastating fire and recession, but the company was auctioned off to A. F. Siebert,[12] a former partner in the Peterson Company, in 1924 and became the Milwaukee Electric Tool Company.[13]

In the early 1930s, companies started to experiment with housings of thermoset polymer plastics. In 1956, under the influence of Hans Erich Slany, Robert Bosch GmbH was one of the first companies to introduce a power tool housing made of glass filled nylon.[14]

Energy sources edit

As of 2021, an electric motor is the most popular choice to power stationary tools. Other power sources include steam engines, direct burning of fuels and propellants, such as in powder-actuated tools, or even natural power sources such as wind or moving water. Iln the past stationary tools were powered by windmills, water wheels, and steam. Some museums and hobbyists still maintain and operate stationary tools powered by these older power sources. Portable electric tools may be either corded or battery-powered. Compressed air is the customary power source for nailers and paint sprayers. A few tools (called powder-actuated tools) are powered by explosive cartridges. Tools that run on gasoline or gasoline-oil mixes are made for outdoor use; typical examples include most chainsaws and string trimmers. Other tools like blowtorches will burn their fuel externally to generate heat. Compressed air is universally used where there is a possibility of fuel or vapor ignition - such as automotive workshops. Professional level electric tools differ from DIY or 'consumer' tools by being double insulated and not earthed - in fact, they must not be earthed for safety reasons.

Battery types edit

Different battery powered power tools often use batteries which are not be compatible across brands and models. This may cause vendor lock-in, and results in poor sustainability if and when either the battery, charger or power tool component fails, resulting in potentially all having to be replaced.

Examples of battery differences include the battery technologies themselves, with nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and nickel–cadmium batteries (Ni-Cd) being common previously,[15] but as of 2021 lithium-ion batteries have become the de facto standard for new power tools. The voltage is one of the most important factors for battery compatibility. In simple terms, a higher voltage rating on the tool often means that the power tool can deliver more power, with all else being equal. Using a battery with the wrong voltage rating may damage the tool, persons or surroundings. As of 2021, 18 volt battery packs are the de facto standard in new power tools. The ampere hour, in simple terms, tells something about how long the power tool can operate before it needs to be recharged. If comparing two batteries with the same battery technology and same voltage rating, a battery with twice the amp hour rating should last about twice as long. In practice there may however be some variations to this. Also, batteries with a higher amp hour rating in practice can also often let the power tool deliver a slightly higher peak power due to the ability to deliver a higher current.[citation needed]

Even when using the same battery technology, voltage rating and amp hour rating, the interface of batteries for power tools are often not compatible across different manufacturers, and sometimes also not even within the same brand or product line. There are examples of aftermarket adapters being made so that the user can mix and match batteries between well-known brands, but these often do not fully implement the tools battery safety and monitoring systems and the use is done at the user's own risk.

Battery alliances edit

There are initiatives with the goal that the same battery can be used across products from several manufacturers, mostly those who offer special tools rather than general ones. Mainly two German companies have opened their 18V systems for others:

  • In June 2018 nine companies presented a manufacturer-overlapping system for rechargeable batteries called "Cordless Alliance System" (CAS).[16] It is based on Metabo's 18 Volt battery system.
  • In 2020, Bosch initiated the "Power For All Alliance".[17] Notably, the alliance consists of the brands Gardena, Gloria,[18] Wagner[19] and Rapid. However, the Power For All Alliance batteries will only be used on Bosch's consumer tools in the Bosch Home & Garden line and Bosch Home Appliances line.
  • AMPShare – powered by Bosch Professional[20] is the new name for the alliance using Bosch professional ("blue") tools with its own battery and charger system which is incompatible with the Power For All batteries. Aimed at most parts of the world except North America, it claims to be based on 80 million batteries sold since 2008. Over two dozen companies take part.

Types edit

Power tools include:

Manufacturers edit

Power Tool Manufacturers With a Full Range Program edit

Brand Owner Headquarters
AEG Electric Tools Techtronic Industries TTI, China by acquiring the AEG Electric Tools brand in 2004.

Brand under license from Electrolux.

  China
Black & Decker Stanley Black & Decker Cop.   United States
DeWalt Stanley Black & Decker Cop   United States
Bosch Robert Bosch GmbH   Germany
Hikoki Formerly Hitachi Group. today owned by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.   Japan

  United States

Makita Makita Cooperation   Japan
Metabo Metabowerke GmbH. today owned by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.   Germany

  United States

Milwaukee Techtronic Industries TTI by acquiring Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation in 2005   United States

  China

Ryobi Power Tools Techtronic Industries TTI by acquiring Ryobi's North American power tools business in 2000. Brand under license from Ryobi Limited.   Japan

  China

Specialized Companies edit

A number of companies, some of which are comparatively small and specialized, build niche solutions for industry and trade.

Brand Owner Headquarters Usage / Program
Dolmar Makita Corporation, Japan, by acquiring Dolmar GmbH 1991   Germany

  Japan

Forestry and garden tools
Dremel Dremel now a Brand of Bosch Power Tools   United States

  Germany

Fast-moving multifunctional tools
Duss Friedrich Duss Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG   Germany Drilling (hammer drills, chisel hammers, diamond drills)
Fein Fein-Verwaltung GmbH of C. & E. Fein GmbH   Germany Tool for cutting, drilling and grinding (metal construction)
Festool TTS Tooltechnic Systems Holding AG (Wendlingen am Neckar)   Germany Sawing and sanding for wood construction (also compressed air)
Flex Chervon Holdings Ltd, Owner of Flex-Elektrowerkzeuge GmbH (Deutschland, Steinheim an der Murr)   Germany

  China

Separating, grinding and screwing
Hazet Hazet GmbH,   Germany Impact screws (mainly pneumatic range)
Hilti Hilti AG,   Liechtenstein Full Range, Focus on impact drilling and screwing
Lösomat Gedore GmbH, Remscheid (Gedore Torque Solutions), by aquirung Lösomat Schraubtechnik Neef GmbH, Vaihingen an der Enz   Germany High-torque screwdriver tools
Mafell Mafell AG   Germany Sawing (wood)
Matjeschk M-PT Matjeschk-PowerTools GmbH & Co. KG, Ralbitz-Rosenthal   Germany Bohren und Schrauben
Perles ATech d.o.o.   Slovenia Drilling tools
Stihl Stihl AG   Germany Forestry and garden tools

Trading Companies edit

With purchases from other manufacturers and OEM production

Brand Owner Headquarters Program range
AEG Electric Tools Techtronic Industries (TTI) by acquiring the AEG Electric Tools brand in 2004

and licensed the brand name from Electrolux, the AEG owner.

  China Full range
Einhell Einhell Germany AG, Landau an der Isar   Germany Full Range
Parkside Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG   Germany Full Range
Stahlwerk Stahlwerk Schweissgeräte GmbH   Germany
Worx Positec Tool Corporation   China Full Range
Würth Würth-Group   Germany Full Range

More brands and its manufacturer edit

The incomplete list lists the brand first, then its manufacturer or owner.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "NIOSH Power tools database". Archived from the original on 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
  2. ^ "Particulate matter emissions from activities of building refurbishment".
  3. ^ "EN 50632-1".
  4. ^ "EN 50632-2-5".
  5. ^ "FAQs - Dust, HSE".
  6. ^ "Beware of dust - Hilti Canada".
  7. ^ "Dust control - Hilti Hong Kong".
  8. ^ "Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure Revised Criteria". Basis for the Exposure Standard: 24–5. 1998.
  9. ^ Franks, John R., ed. (1996). Appendix A: OSHA Noise Standard Compliance Checklist (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. p. 60. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  10. ^ "Modern Marvels: The World's First Power Tools". History. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved Oct 4, 2011.
  11. ^ "History of Milwaukee". Milwaukee Tool Corporation.
  12. ^ History of Peterson and Milwaukee Companies
  13. ^ Nagyszalanczy, Sandor (2001). Power Tools: An Electrifying Celebration and Grounded Guide. Newtown, CT: The Taunton Press. ISBN 978-1-56158-427-7.
  14. ^ Ogursky, Gunter. Design: The Quality Factor. Esslingen, Germany: Robert Bosch GmbH.
  15. ^ Cordless Tool Batteries Battle - NiCD vs NiMH vs Li-Ion
  16. ^ "CAS - Diese neun Firmen nutzen ein gemeinsames Akku-System". 20 June 2018.
  17. ^ THE battery for your home and garden | POWER FOR ALL ALLIANCE
  18. ^ History - Gloria
  19. ^ Bosch, WAGNER, Gardena und weitere Hersteller gründen Akku-Allianz | WAGNER
  20. ^ https://www.ampshare.com/[bare URL]

External linkis edit