Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). The tiny, kidney-shaped seeds have been harvested from dried seed pods by various civilizations for thousands of years. It is still widely used in many countries, especially in Central Europe and South Asia, where it is legally grown and sold in shops. The seeds are used whole or ground into meal as an ingredient in many foods – especially in pastry and bread – and they are pressed to yield poppyseed oil.

Black opium poppy seeds in bulk
Dry poppy seed pods containing ripe poppy seeds


Dried poppy seed pods with stems attached (poppy straws), and seeds (in bowl)

The poppy seed is mentioned in ancient medical texts from many civilizations. For instance, the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus, written c. 1550 BC, lists the poppy seed as a sedative.[1] The Minoan civilization (approximately 2700 to 1450 BC), a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete, cultivated poppies for their seeds, and used a milk, opium and honey mixture to calm crying babies. The Sumerians are another civilization that are known to have grown poppy seeds.[2]



Poppy seeds are less than a millimeter in length, kidney-shaped, and have a pitted surface.[3] It takes about 3,300 poppy seeds to make up a gram, and between 1 and 2 million seeds to make up a pound.[2] The primary flavor compound is 2-pentylfuran.[4]

The seeds are cultivated for the flowers they produce. Annual and biennial poppies are used to cultivate from seed as they are not difficult to propagate, and can be put directly in the ground during winter.[5] The California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), for example, is a striking orange wildflower that grows in the Western and Northwestern United States.


Poppy seed production (tonnes)
Country 2018 2014–2018 average
  Turkey 26,991 21,479
  Czech Republic 13,666 22,739
  Spain 12,360 11,812
  France 4,514 5,467
  Hungary 3,800 6,047
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[6]

In 2018, world production of poppy seeds was 76,240 tonnes, led by Turkey with 35% of the world total, followed by the Czech Republic and Spain as other major producers (table).[6]

The poppy seeds harvest can be a by-product of cultivation of Papaver somniferum for opium, poppy straw, or both opium and poppy straw. However, harvesting for poppy seeds of superior quality is in conflict with harvesting for opium as poppy seeds should be harvested when they are ripe, after the seed pod has dried. Traditionally, opium is harvested while the seed pods are green and the seeds have just begun to grow and their latex is abundant. Poppy straw can be a by-product of cultivation of poppy seeds. Compared to the seed pod and straw, the seeds contain very low levels of opiates.[7] The seeds may be washed to obtain poppy tea but a large amount is needed, around 300–400 g depending on the levels of opiates.

Since poppy seeds are relatively expensive, they are sometimes mixed with the seeds of Amaranthus paniculatus, which closely resemble poppy seeds.[8]


Poppy seed
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,196 kJ (525 kcal)
28.13 g
Sugars2.99 g
Dietary fiber19.5 g
41.56 g
Saturated4.517 g
Monounsaturated5.982 g
Polyunsaturated28.569 g
21.22 g
Vitamin A equiv.
0 μg
0 μg
Vitamin A0 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.854 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.100 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.896 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0 mg
Vitamin B6
0.247 mg
Folate (B9)
82 μg
52.1 mg
Vitamin C
1 mg
Vitamin E
1.77 mg
Vitamin K
0.0 μg
1438 mg
0 mg
9.76 mg
347 mg
2.285 mg
870 mg
719 mg
0 μg
26 mg
7.0 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water5.95 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[9] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[10]

In a 100 gram amount, poppy seeds provide 525 calories and are a rich source of thiamin, folate, and several essential minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and zinc (table). Poppy seeds are composed of 6% water, 28% carbohydrates, 42% fat, and 21% protein (table).

Food products


Intact seeds


Whole poppy seeds are widely used as a spice and decoration in and on top of many baked goods and pastries. In North America they are used in and on many food items such as poppyseed muffins, rusk, bagels (like the Montreal-style bagel), bialys, and cakes such as sponge cake. Poppy seeds can also be used like sesame seeds, added to hamburger buns or to make a bar of candy. The bars are made from boiled seeds mixed with sugar or with honey. This is especially common in the Balkans, Greece and even in the cuisines of former Austro-Hungarian countries.

The color of poppy seeds is important in some uses. According to The Joy of Cooking, "the most desirable come from Holland and are a slate-blue color."[11] When used as a thickener in some dishes, white poppy seeds are preferred, having less impact on the color of the food. In other dishes, black poppy seeds are preferred, for maximum impact. Blue poppy seeds are used in various German breads and desserts as well as in Polish cuisine.


Grinding poppy seeds

Poppy seeds can be ground using a generic tool such as a mortar and pestle or a small domestic type electric blade grinder, or a special purpose poppy seed grinder. A poppy seed grinder (mill) is a type of burr grinder with a set aperture that is too narrow for intact poppy seeds to pass through. A burr grinder produces a more uniform and less oily paste than these other tools.

The poppy seed paste is used for fillings in pastries, sometimes mixed with butter or milk and sugar. The ground filling is used in poppy seed rolls and some croissants and may be flavored with lemon or orange zest, rum and vanilla with raisins, heavy cream, cinnamon, and chopped blanched almonds or walnuts added. For sweet baked goods, sometimes instead of sugar a tablespoon of jam, or other sweet binding agent, like syrup is substituted. The poppy seed for fillings are best when they are finely and freshly ground because this will make a big difference in the pastry filling's texture and taste.

Poppy seed paste is available commercially, in cans. Poppy seeds are very high in oil, so commercial pastes normally contain sugar, water, and an emulsifier such as soy lecithin to keep the paste from separating. Commercial pastes also contain food preservatives to keep them from becoming rancid.

In the United States, commercial pastes are marketed under brand names including Solo and American Almond. Per 30 gram serving, the American Almond poppy seed paste has 120 calories, 4.5 grams fat, and 2 grams protein.

Poppy seeds are pressed to form poppyseed oil, a valuable commercial oil that has multiple culinary and industrial uses.

Other uses


Poppy seeds are often used as bird seed, in which case they are usually called maw seeds.[12]

Use by cuisine


Poppy seeds are used around the world in various cuisines.

European cuisine

Turkish poppy-seed cake
Czech blue poppy-filled cake
German Mohnstollen
Polish makowiec, Slovak makovník, a nut roll filled with poppy seed paste

Across Europe, buns and soft white bread pastries are often sprinkled on top with black and white poppy seeds (for example cozonac, kalach, kolache and kołacz). The seeds of the Czech blue poppy (food safety cultivars Papaver somniferum) are widely consumed in many parts of Central and Eastern Europe. The sugared, milled mature seeds are eaten with pasta, or they are boiled with milk and used as filling or topping on various kinds of sweet pastry. Milling of mature seeds is carried out either industrially or at home, where it is generally done with a manual poppy seed mill.

Blue poppy seeds are widely used in Austrian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, German, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Turkish and Ukrainian cuisines.

The states of former Yugoslavia (notably North Macedonia and Serbia, but also Croatia and Bosnia) have a long tradition of preparing poppy seed pastry (štrudla, baklava, pajgle) and dishes (pasta with poppy seeds). In Slovenia blue poppy seeds are used in traditional dishes such as prekmurska gibanica and makova potica.

In Poland, Hungary, Lithuania and Eastern Slovakia, a traditional dessert is prepared for the Christmas Eve dinner from poppy seeds. They are ground and mixed with water or milk; round yeast biscuits (kūčiukai in Lithuanian; opekance or bobalky in Slovak) are soaked in the resulting poppy seed 'milk' (poppy milk) and served cold.

In Central Europe, poppy strudel is very popular, especially during Christmas. In Germany, Poland and countries belonging to the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, poppy seed pastries called Mohnkuchen are often eaten around Christmas time.[13] Recipes for Mohnstriezel use poppy seed soaked in water for two hours[14] or boiled in milk. A recipe for Ukrainian poppyseed cake recommends preparing the seeds by immersing in boiling water, straining and soaking in milk overnight.[15]

Jewish cuisine


In Eastern European Jewish cuisine, pastries filled with black poppy seeds in a sugary paste are traditional during Purim, which occurs exactly one month before Passover and approximately a month before Easter. Traditional pastries include poppy seed kalács and hamantashen, both sometimes known as beigli (also spelled bejgli). Poppy seed hamantashen were the main traditional food eaten by Ashkenazi Jews at Purim until the filling was replaced by other fruit and nut fillings. Poppy seed pastries are common in Jewish bakeries and delicatessens throughout the United States.

Indian cuisine

Bati posto from West Bengal
Aloo posto

In Indian cuisine, particularly Bengali cuisine, white poppy seeds are added for thickness, texture and flavor to recipes. Commonly used in the preparation of korma, ground poppy seeds, along with coconut and other spices, are combined into a paste added during cooking. Poppy seeds are widely used in many regional Indian cuisines. One dish, originating from Khulna, is aloo posto (potato and poppy seeds) which consists of ground poppy seeds cooked together with potatoes and made into a smooth, rich product, which is sometimes eaten with rice.[16] There are many variants to this basic dish, replacing or complementing the potatoes with other ingredients, such as onions (penyaj posto), pointed gourd (potol posto), Ridged Luffa (jhinge posto), chicken (murgi posto), and prawns (chingri posto). Chadachadi is another dish from Bengali cuisine and includes long strips of vegetables, sometimes with the stalks of leafy greens added, all lightly seasoned with spices like mustard or poppy seeds and flavored with a phoron. One dish involves grilling patties made from posto, sometimes frying them (postor bora). Another dish involves simply mixing uncooked ground poppy seeds (kancha posto) with mustard oil, chopped green chili peppers, fresh onions and rice. Kacha posto bata (uncooked poppy seeds paste) with mustard oil is a very popular dish in West Bengal as well as Bangladesh. Poppy seeds are widely used in Kashmir as a topping on various breads, especially kulcha.

Poppy seeds, along with tulsi (basil) seeds, are added to beverages such as thandai, sharbat, milkshakes, rose milk, almond milk and khus khus milk.

Pakistani cuisine


Poppy seeds locally called "khashkhash" are an essential ingredient in the preparation of a dish that consists of minced meat balls locally called "Kofta".

Health effects


Allergy (type 1 hypersensitivity) to poppy seeds is rare, but has been reported[17][18] and can cause anaphylaxis.[18]

False positive drug tests


Although the drug opium is produced by "milking" latex from the unripe fruits ("seed pods") rather than from the poppy seeds, all parts of the plant can contain or carry the opium alkaloids, especially morphine and codeine.[19] This means that eating foods (e.g., bagels) that contain poppy seeds can result in a false positive for opiates in a drug test,[19] although more refined tests can distinguish them.[20] To minimize the problems caused by false positives, the USADA recommends that athletes refrain from eating foods containing poppy seeds several days prior to a competitive event.[19]


The sale of poppy seeds from Papaver somniferum is banned in Singapore because of the morphine content. Poppy seeds are also prohibited in Taiwan, primarily because of the risk that viable seeds will be sold and used to grow opium poppies.[21]

China prohibits spice mixes made from poppy seed and poppy seed pods because of the traces of opiates in them, and has since at least 2005.[22][23]

Despite its present use in Arab cuisine as a bread spice, poppy seeds are also banned in Saudi Arabia for various religious[citation needed] and drug control reasons.[24] In one extreme case in the United Arab Emirates, poppy seeds found on a traveler's clothes led to imprisonment.[25][26] Concerns were raised in Malaysia by MP Datuk Mohd Said Yusof who claimed in 2005 that mamak restaurants used poppy seeds in their cooking to get customers addicted to it.[27]

It is illegal to grow opium-bearing cultivars of Papaver genus in Russia, although selling poppy seeds is not restricted in most regions.[citation needed]

International travelers


As poppy seeds cause false positive results in drug tests, it is advised in airports in India not to carry such items to other countries, where this can result in punishments based on false positive results. Travelers to the United Arab Emirates are especially prone to difficulties and severe punishments.[28][29]

In Singapore, poppy seeds are classified as "prohibited goods" by the Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB).[30]


See also



  1. ^ Raghavan, Susheela (2006). Handbook of spices, seasonings, and flavorings. CRC Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8493-2842-8.
  2. ^ a b McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Simon and Schuster. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
  3. ^ Yearbook of Agriculture. United States Government Printing Office. 1896. p. 203.
  4. ^ Yiu H. Hui, Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering. CRC Press 2006. ISBN 0-8493-9848-7
  5. ^ "Poppy, chamomile and larkspur seeds are planted outside in January." Day, Molly (2009-01-14). "Gardening: Work to get seeds started in January". Muskogee Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  6. ^ a b "Poppy seed production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  7. ^ "Poppy law" on Erowid.org
  8. ^ Singhal, Rekha S.; Pushpa R. Kulkarni; Dinanath V. Rege (1997). Handbook of Indices of Food Quality and Authenticity. Woodhead. p. 414. ISBN 978-1-85573-299-5.
  9. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  10. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  11. ^ Irma S. Rombauer; Marion Rombauer Becker; Ethan Becker (2006). The Joy of Cooking. New York: Scribner. p. 1011. ISBN 978-0-7432-4626-2.
  12. ^ Ward, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: James Kemster Printing Co. pp. 492–495. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
  13. ^ "Poppy Seed Moon Cake or Makosbeigli," in Meyer, June (1998). June Meyer's Authentic Hungarian Heirloom Recipes. Meyer & Assoc. ISBN 978-0-9665062-0-4.
  14. ^ Mohnstriezel-Poppy-Seed-Cake. Recipezaar.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
  15. ^ Walter, Joyce (2009-01-10). "Ukrainian community in midst of celebrations". The Moose Jaw Times Herald (Saskatchewan). Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  16. ^ "How British greed spurred the creation of one of Bengal's most loved dishes". The Indian Express. 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2023-09-01.
  17. ^ Keskin O, Sekerel BE; Sekerel (2006). "Poppy Seed Allergy: A case report and review of the literature". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 27 (4): 396–398. doi:10.2500/aap.2006.27.2881. PMID 16948357.
  18. ^ a b Panasoff J (2008). "Poppy seed anaphylaxis". Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology. 18 (3): 224–225. PMID 18564637.
  19. ^ a b c "Can athletes eat poppy seeds without testing positive?". United States Anti-Doping Agency. 2014-02-10.
  20. ^ O'Connor, Anahad (2005-01-11). "The Claim: Eating Poppy Seeds Can Make You Fail a Drug Test". The New York Times.
  21. ^ "Court convicts bagel shop owner over poppy seeds - Taipei Times". 4 May 2001. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  22. ^ "Controls over poppy seed strengthened". Asia Times. October 18, 2005. Archived from the original on March 16, 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  23. ^ "In China, poppy seedpod is a spice too hot to handle". 21 October 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2017 – via LA Times.
  24. ^ Ignorance Is No Excuse for Breaking Law. Arabnews.com (2006-01-10). Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
  25. ^ Tourists warned of UAE drug laws. BBC News (2008-02-08). Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
  26. ^ "List Of Controlled Pharmaceutical Substances In UAE". Fair Trials International. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18.
  27. ^ "Health Ministry: Kas-kas won't be banned in Malaysia yet". The Rakyat Post. 14 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  28. ^ Travel Warning – Khas Khas (Poppy Seed) Imprisonment in UAE Archived 2017-06-19 at the Wayback Machine. Hoax-slayer.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
  29. ^ "Indian in UAE denies using poppy seeds as drugs". Yahoo News India. IANS. July 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  30. ^ "I would like to know if I am allowed to bring poppy seeds into Singapore for my baking business". Retrieved 31 August 2015.

Further reading