This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Poppy tea is a herbal tea infusion brewed from poppy straw or seeds of several species of poppy. The species most commonly used for this purpose is Papaver somniferum, which produces opium as a natural defense against predators. In the live flower, opium is released when the surface of the bulb, called the seed pod, is pierced or scraped. For the purpose of the tea, dried pods are more commonly used than the pods of the live flower. The walls of the dried pods contain opiate alkaloids, primarily consisting of morphine.
The tea is consumed for its narcotic effect, and in small amounts for analgesic, anti-diarrheal, and sedative effects.[failed verification] It has also been known to be used as a method of relieving withdrawal symptoms.[medical citation needed] Use of such preparations originated in parts of Central and Eastern Europe, the Levant and Near East, and Central and South Central Asia millennia ago.
In the Netherlands, all parts of Papaver somniferum after harvesting (except for the seeds) are illegal by law, as they are List I drugs of the Opium Law. Because of use for decorative purposes, the trade in, and possession of dried Papaver somniferum is not actively prosecuted. Trade in, or possession of dried Papaver somniferum with the intention of drug use can be prosecuted. The dried seed pod of Papaver somniferum is easily obtainable as it is commonly available for decorative use. Many varieties, strains, and cultivars of Papaver somniferum are in existence, and the alkaloid content can vary significantly.
In the United States it is legal to purchase poppy seeds, but all other parts of the plant are considered Schedule II controlled substances under the federal Controlled Substance Act of 1970. Unwashed poppy seeds used to make poppy tea may contain lethal concentrations of morphine and codeine. The Opium Poppy Exclusion Act of 1942 bans growing the poppy in many cases, but is generally not a problem for gardeners as the plant is widely grown for the flowers and for seeds for replanting and cooking. For much of US history poppies were a significant cash crop, and the government encouraged farmers to grow more poppies for medicinal use during wars up to World War I. It is, however, manufacture of a schedule II substance to create a drink for the opium content, and the possession of it is illegal as well.
The import and sale of opium poppy seeds is legal in Canada, but possession of other parts of the plant may be prosecuted. Canadian authorities have noted the presence of dode or doda in the South Asian community, a traditional form of poppy tea. Crackdowns on this traditional preparation in the late 2000s led to a number of arrests in Canada.
This section does not cite any sources. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Poppy tea contains two groups of alkaloids: phenanthrenes (including morphine and codeine) and benzylisoquinolines (including papaverine). Of these, morphine is the most prevalent comprising 8%-14% of the total. Its effects derive from the fact that it binds to and activates mu opioid receptors in the brain, spinal cord, stomach and intestine.
Dried Papaver somniferum capsules and stems will, if harvested and dried by the usual protocol, contain significantly lower quantities of thebaine than opium made from latex as well as somewhat more codeine. When ingested, thebaine causes nausea, vomiting, and myoclonus. Thebaine is an important precursor for manufacture of pharmaceuticals, and is more concentrated in the roots of Papaver somniferum than elsewhere. Other species of poppies, numbering in the hundreds, do not contain morphine or codeine in useful amounts, but may contain non-narcotic alkaloids like protopine, sanguinarine or berberine.
Side effects and toleranceEdit
This section does not cite any sources. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Side effects increase with dosage and include drowsiness, mild stomach ache, lethargy, urinary retention, bradypnea, constipation, nausea, respiratory depression and death.[medical citation needed] Nausea can be attributed to the presence of noscapine and is more common in first-time or inexperienced users. At high doses, the side effects are dangerous and can cause death through respiratory arrest or inhalation of vomit. Constipation often results from use, as with any opiate.
Poppy tea is highly variable in potency, this accounts for almost all deaths related to the substance, assume the tea is a saturated morphine solution when choosing the appropriate dose. Morphine's solubility in water is 0.2 g/L.
Additionally, frequent use results in high tolerance and dependence. Chemical dependency builds in relation to the frequency of use, dosage, age, sex, weight, and medical condition. Once chemical dependency has developed, abrupt cessation of use will cause withdrawal; symptoms include leg and abdominal cramps, mydriasis, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, insomnia, cravings, lethargy, and anxiety. Symptoms of withdrawal usually fade after 4–10 days but cravings and psychological dependence may continue for longer, in some cases up to a year. Treatment methods for addiction are generally the same for any opioid.
In the United States, in 2003, a 17 year old who, according to his parents, was self-treating his anxiety with home-brewed poppy seed tea, died of pulmonary edema caused by acute morphine and codeine intoxication. A Drug Alert posted by the DOJ in 2010 pointed to five deaths possibly resulting from drinking of poppy tea. Since 2010, not less than 10 deaths presumably related to poppy tea consumption were reported by the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS).
A 2013 inquest found that a 27-year-old British man died from the effects of drinking a pint of poppy tea. The concentration is not specified.
Some instances of death or injury associated with the consumption of poppy seed tea have involved users who combined the beverage with other nervous system depressants (i.e. alcohol, tranquillizers, cannabis)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-19. Retrieved 2012-11-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Restyling the Secret of the Opium Den". Archived from the original on 2012-10-11.
- "Photo Gallery". Opium Museum. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "Bureau voor Medicinale Cannabis | Pagina niet gevonden" (PDF). Cannabisbureau.nl. 2013-03-19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Powers, Deborah; Erickson, Stephen; Swortwood, Madeleine J. (3 October 2017). "Quantification of Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine in Home-Brewed Poppy Seed Tea by LC-MS/MS". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 63 (4): 1229–1235. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.13664. ISSN 0022-1198. PMID 28973785.
- "Controlled Substances Act". FDA. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017.
- "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act(S.C. 1996, c.19)". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2013-11-22. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
- "Ontario man arrested for 'doda' poppy preparation". Dosenation.com. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "Police warn about street drug called Doda | Toronto Star". Thestar.com. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "Popular opium-like drug seized in B.C." Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Error Redirect". Retrieved 30 April 2018 – via www.winnipegfreepress.com.[dead link]
- Doda drug bust in Peel Region Archived 2012-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
- News, A. B. C. (16 January 2008). "Homebrewed High -- Can Poppy Tea Kill?". ABC News. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- Poppy letter - Center for Science in the Public Interest Archived
- CSPI Urges FDA, DEA to Crack Down on Sale of Contaminated Poppy Seeds: At Least 12 U.S. Deaths Are Associated with ‘Tea’ Made with Poppy Seeds or Pods, April 3, 2019, Center for Science in the Public Interest Archived
- "CBC News - Nova Scotia family warns of poppy seed tea dangers". Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- Webb, Sam (31 December 2013). "DJ died after drinking a PINT of deadly 'poppy tea' he made using a recipe he found online". DailyMail.co.uk. Mail Online - Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- unknown (29 November 2012). "Teen dies after drinking poppy tea". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- McKenna, K. (2014, Dec. 5). Poppy seed tea fatality prompts drug alert from coroner. The Courier Mail. Retrieved from https://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/poppy-seed-tea-fatality-prompts-drug-alert-from-coroner/news-story/d8c34033bd0804e4e40e835eda755074
- Bailey, K., Clay, D., Kraner, J., et al. (2010, Oct.). Fatality Involving the Ingestion of Phenazepam and Poppy Seed Tea. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (8), 527-573.