Peter Griffin is the main character of the American animated sitcom Family Guy. He is voiced by the series' creator, Seth MacFarlane, and first appeared on television, along with the rest of the Griffin family, in the 15-minute pilot pitch of Family Guy on December 20, 1998. Peter was created and designed by MacFarlane himself. MacFarlane was asked to pitch a pilot to the Fox Broadcasting Company based on Larry & Steve, a short made by MacFarlane which featured a middle-aged character named Larry and an intellectual dog, Steve. After the pilot was given the green light, the Griffin family appeared in the episode "Death Has a Shadow".
|Family Guy character|
|First appearance||"Death Has a Shadow"|
|Created by||Seth MacFarlane|
|Voiced by||Seth MacFarlane|
|Children||Meg, Chris, and Stewie Griffin|
Peter is married to Lois Griffin and is the father of Meg, Chris, and Stewie. He also has a dog named Brian, with whom he is best friends. He has worked at a toy factory, and at Quahog's Brewery. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences.
Peter's voice was inspired by the security guards that MacFarlane heard at his school. His appearance was a redesign of the protagonist Larry from MacFarlane's previous animated short films The Life of Larry and Larry & Steve. He has appeared in several pieces of Family Guy merchandise, including toys, T-shirts, and video games, and has made crossover appearances in other shows, including The Simpsons, South Park, Drawn Together, American Dad! and Family Guys spin-offs The Cleveland Show and Bordertown.
Role in Family Guy
Peter Griffin is a middle class Irish American, who is a bespectacled, obese blue collar worker with a prominent Rhode Island and Eastern Massachusetts accent. Peter and his wife Lois have three children; Meg, Chris, and Stewie. He is the illegitimate son of Thelma Griffin and Mickey McFinnigan, and was raised by Thelma and his stepfather Francis Griffin. Peter and his family live in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island, which is modeled after Providence, Rhode Island. Peter primarily worked as a safety inspector at the Happy-Go-Lucky Toy Factory, until his boss Jonathan Weed choked to death on a dinner roll; he then became a fisherman on his own boat, known as the "S.S. More Powerful than Superman, Batman, Spider-Man, and The Incredible Hulk Put Together," with the help of two Portuguese immigrants, Santos and Pasqual, until his boat was destroyed. He now works in the shipping department of the Pawtucket Patriot brewery. Peter is also shown in various jobs for single episodes and cutaway gags. In one episode Peter played for the New England Patriots until his behavior resulted in him being kicked off the team. In a running gag, storylines are randomly interrupted by extremely long, unexpected fights between Peter and Ernie the Giant Chicken, an anthropomorphic chicken who serves as an archenemy to Peter. These battles parody the action film genre, with explosions, high-speed chases, and immense devastation to the town of Quahog.
MacFarlane initially conceived Family Guy in 1995 while studying animation at the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD). During college, he created his thesis film entitled The Life of Larry, which was submitted by his professor at RISD to Hanna-Barbera. MacFarlane was hired by the company. In 1996, MacFarlane created a sequel to The Life of Larry entitled Larry & Steve, which featured a middle-aged character named Larry and an intellectual dog, Steve; the short was broadcast in 1997 as one of Cartoon Network's World Premiere Toons. Executives at Fox saw the Larry shorts and contracted MacFarlane to create a series, entitled Family Guy, based on the characters. Fox proposed MacFarlane complete a 15-minute short, and gave him a budget of $50,000. Several aspects of Family Guy were inspired by the Larry shorts. While working on the series, the characters of Larry and his dog Steve slowly evolved into Peter and Brian. MacFarlane stated that the difference between The Life of Larry and Family Guy was that "Life of Larry was shown primarily in my dorm room and Family Guy was shown after the Super Bowl."
The voice of Peter is provided by MacFarlane, who also provides the voice for Brian, Stewie and Quagmire. MacFarlane also provides the voices for various other recurring and one-time only characters, most prominently those of news anchor Tom Tucker, Carter Pewterschmidt (Lois' father), and Dr. Hartman. MacFarlane has been part of the main voice cast from the beginning of the series including the pilot, as well he has been voicing Peter from the start. MacFarlane chose to voice Peter and several other characters himself, believing it would be easier to portray the voices he already envisioned than for someone else to attempt it. MacFarlane's speaking voice is not very close to Peter's; he uses his normal voice as the voice of Brian. MacFarlane drew inspiration for the voice of Peter from the security guards he overheard talking while he was attending the Rhode Island School of Design; according to him, "I knew a thousand Peter Griffins growing up in New England. Guys who would not think before they spoke, like [switching to Peter's voice] there was no self-editing mechanism. [Pointing to himself] Everything in here, [pointing to his front] it's coming out here". MacFarlane also voices many of Peter's ancestors who share the same type of voice. He noted in an interview that he voices Peter and the rest of the characters partly because they initially had a small budget, but also that he prefers to have the freedom to do it himself. In another interview, he mentioned that Peter's voice is one of the most difficult to do.
There have been several occasions where MacFarlane does not voice Peter. In the episode "No Meals on Wheels" (season 5, 2007), actor Patrick Stewart voiced Peter in a cutscene, but MacFarlane voices Peter for the rest of the episode. In the episode "Family Gay" (season 7, 2009), Seth Rogen provided a guest-voice as Peter under the effects of the "Seth Rogen gene". In "Road to the Multiverse" (season 8, 2009), he was voiced by actor Jamison Yang, who was required for a scene where everything in the world was Japanese.
Peter, a stereotypical blue-collar worker, frequently gets drunk with his neighbors and friends Cleveland Brown, Joe Swanson and Glenn Quagmire at "The Drunken Clam," Quahog's local tavern. In the season 4 episode "Petarded", after taking an I.Q. test, Peter discovered his low intellect falls slightly below the level for mental retardation. Peter is known for his brash impulsiveness, which has led to several awkward situations, such as attempting to molest Meg in order to adopt a redneck lifestyle. He is incredibly jealous of other attractions Lois has in her life, an attitude which has led to extreme situations, such as when he assaulted a whale that kissed Lois at SeaWorld. In the third season episode "Stuck Together, Torn Apart", Peter and Lois split up because of Peter's jealousy, only to discover that Lois has the same character flaw and the two decide to live with their mutually jealous nature. Peter has a very short attention span which frequently leads him to bizarre situations, as Chris points out in "Long John Peter", after Peter's parrot dies "He will get over it pretty quickly and then move on to another wacky thing", to which Peter finds a pipe organ and forgets about his parrot (Peter then destroys the pipe organ within seconds and then finds a deed to a cattle ranch). Peter is also naïve with one example in "Airport '07" where he thinks his truck will fly by filling it with airplane fuel.
Peter has complex relationships with all three of his children. He normally makes fun of Meg and treats her badly, such as in the episode "FOX-y Lady", where he, Meg and Chris try to create a cartoon and they exclude Meg and her ideas. Though in some episodes Peter has had a good relationship with Meg, in "Hell Comes to Quahog" (season 5, 2006), Peter almost tells Meg he loves her and in "Road to Rupert" (season 5, 2007), he told Meg that he would treat her badly in front of the family, but that he would be her friend in secret. It was presumed though that in "Peter's Sister", (season 14, 2015) that Peter would stop bullying Meg. Peter communicates and has a much better relationship with Stewie. Peter and Stewie had their adventures when he took him to Walt Disney World Resort in the episode "The Courtship of Stewie's Father" (season 4, 2005). With Chris, Peter communicates well, but at times when in need of advice or in an adventure Peter tells Chris to do the opposite of what he should do, like in "Long John Peter" (season 6, 2008), where Chris is asking for advice on dating and Peter tells him to treat women horribly.
Peter is best friends with his anthropomorphic dog, Brian. In earlier seasons, Brian often served as a voice of reason for Peter, helping him out with issues. Brian is extremely grateful to Peter for picking him up as a stray, shown during a flashback in the episode, "Brian: Portrait of a Dog". His gratitude was affirmed in, "New Kidney in Town", where Brian is prepared to give up both his kidneys (and his life), so that Peter could undergo a kidney transplant (although he did not have to do it thanks to another donor being found). At Brian's funeral in "Life of Brian", Peter said that Brian was his "best friend in the whole world" and "like a brother to him".
James Bartlett, The Great Reporter.
Before Peter was born, his mother Thelma went to Mexico City to have an abortion. However, she gave birth during the procedure, and smuggled him home to Providence, Rhode Island, where he spent his childhood. Peter was raised by Francis and Thelma Griffin in the Roman Catholic faith. However, in "Peter's Two Dads", he discovers that his biological father is an Irishman named Mickey McFinnigan. Peter visits Mickey, who initially rejects him. Mickey later accepts him as his son after beating him in the "game of drink" (the game of drink referring to matching shots until one passes out). Mickey is based on the friends of MacFarlane's father. MacFarlane said: "When I was growing up, my father had lots of friends: big, vocal, opinionated New England, Irish Catholics. They were all bursting at the seams with personality, and Family Guy came out of a lot of those archetypes that I spent years observing."
Editors of Variety put Family Guy in their contenders for the 2011 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series; they stated that, depending on your sense of humor, Peter is either "a comedy genius" or "an obnoxious idiot". MacFarlane has been nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in the Outstanding Voice-Over Performance category several times for voicing Peter and other characters; he won in 2016. He was also nominated in 2008 for an Annie Award in the Voice Acting in an Animated Television Production or Short Form for voicing Peter.
Peter has ranked in several of IGN's top 10s (generally these list are related to the show). Among these lists, Peter ranked the third spot on IGN's "Top 25 Family Guy Characters," in which it was stated that many of the show's best gags come from Peter and his shenanigans and that "Peter practically invented the "manatee joke". Entertainment Weekly placed Peter in its "18 Bad TV Dads" list (the list also included characters like Homer Simpson and Al Bundy).
Criticism and controversy
Peter has been criticized for being too similar to Homer Simpson. Peter has appeared in some episodes of The Simpsons, in these episodes which he has been featured he has been depicted as Homer Simpson's clone or is accused of plagiarism. Ken Tucker from Entertainment Weekly stated that Peter is Homer Simpson "as conceived by a singularly sophomoric mind that lacks any reference point beyond other TV shows". Robin Pierson from The TV Critic criticized the Griffin family for being too similar to the Simpson family; and he said that Peter "has Homer Simpson written all over him". This is eventually made fun of in the episode "Ratings Guy" when, after Peter ruins television and goes to the networks to reverse the changes, Homer Simpson shows up with the same plight, with Peter going "A-ha! Looks like this is one WE beat YOU to!" In a crossover episode between Family Guy and The Simpsons, the Griffins end up in the town of Springfield after their car was stolen, where they meet the Simpsons and become friends with them.
Peter has created controversy in various episodes of Family Guy. The episode "The Cleveland-Loretta Quagmire" (season 4, 2005) featured a sequence titled "You Have AIDS", in which Peter Griffin dances and sings in a barbershop quartet fashion around the bed of a man with end-stage AIDS about his diagnosis, which drew protests from several AIDS service organizations. In the episode "When You Wish Upon a Weinstein" (season 3, 2003), Peter sings a parody song of "When You Wish upon a Star", entitled "I Need a Jew"; on October 3, 2007, Bourne Co. Music Publishers filed a lawsuit accusing the show of infringing its copyright on the original song; Bourne Co., the sole United States copyright owner of the song, alleged the parody pairs a "thinly veiled" copy of their music with antisemitic lyrics. The complaint was not upheld.
Appearances in the media
Peter has had several television appearances outside Family Guy, often in the form of direct parody. Peter has appeared in two episodes of The Simpsons, referencing how the two shows are frequently compared to each other. In the fourteenth season episode "Treehouse of Horror XIII", Peter is depicted as one of Homer Simpson's clones, and in the seventeenth season episode, "The Italian Bob", a photo of Peter is in a book of criminals, which says he is wanted for "plagiarismo". Peter also appeared in various episodes of the show's spin-off The Cleveland Show. In addition, Peter has appeared at the end of the American Dad! episode "Hurricane!" with guns on both Stan Smith and former neighbor Cleveland Brown. During the stand-off, Francine Smith is accidentally shot by Stan, which Peter declares as "classic American Dad!".
Peter is also featured on the Family Guy: Live in Vegas CD, and plays a significant part in Family Guy Video Game!, the first Family Guy video game, which was released by 2K Games in 2006. Peter will be used in the game Family Guy Online as a character class for the game's character creator. MacFarlane recorded exclusive material of Peter's voice and other Family Guy characters for a 2007 pinball machine of the show by Stern Pinball. In 2004, the first series of Family Guy toy figurines was released by Mezco Toyz, each member of the Griffin family had their own toy, with the exception of Stewie, of whom two different figures were made. Over the course of two years, four more series of toy figures have been released, with various forms of Peter. Alongside the action figures, Peter has been included in various other Family Guy-related merchandise.
As of 2009, six books have been released about the Family Guy universe, all published by HarperCollins since 2005. This include Family Guy: It Takes a Village Idiot, and I Married One (ISBN 978-0-7528-7593-4), which covers the entire events of the episode "It Takes a Village Idiot, and I Married One", and Family Guy and Philosophy: A Cure for the Petarded (ISBN 978-1-4051-6316-3), a collection of seventeen essays exploring the connections between the series and historical philosophers. which include Peter as a character. Peter appears in comic-book based on the Family Guy universe; by Titan Comics. The first comic book was released July 27, 2011.
In 2008, the character appeared in advertisements for Subway, promoting the restaurant's massive feast sandwich. Chief marketing officer Tony Pace commented "Peter's a good representation of the people who are interested in the Feast, and Family Guy is a show "that appeals to that target audience." The Boston Globe critic Brian Steinberg praised the restaurant's use of the character for the commercials.
- "Cavalcade Of Cartoons, No Joke: Animated Shows Make Up A Third Of The Midseason Replacements For Axed Fall Premieres". The Charlotte Observer. January 10, 1999.
- "Family Guy writer at Bryant". The Providence Journal. September 24, 2008.
- Hines, Michael (September 15, 2007), "Family funny business", Chicago Tribune
- James, Caryn (January 29, 1999). "TV Weekend; Where Matricide Is a Family Value". New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- Callaghan, Steve (2005). "A Hero Sits Next Door". Family Guy: The Official Episode Guide, Seasons 1–3. New York City, New York: HarperCollins. p. 32. ISBN 0-06-083305-X.
- "Perfect Castaway". TV Squad. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- Drucker, Mike (November 29, 2005). "Family Guy – Volume 3". IGN. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Wong, Kevin (June 13, 2005). "Family Guy / American Dad". PopMatters. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
- "Danny Smith:Credits". TV Guide. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- Love, Brett (May 21, 2007). "Family Guy: Meet The Quagmires". TV Squad. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- Lenburg, Jeff (2006). Who's Who in Animated Cartoons: An International Guide to Film & Television's Award-Winning and Legendary Animators (Illustrated ed.). New York: Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-55783-671-7.
- Lenburg, Jeff (May 11, 2006). ""Family Guy" Seth MacFarlane to speak at Class Day: Creator and executive producer of 'Family Guy' will headline undergraduate celebration". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- Bartlett, James (March 12, 2007). "Seth MacFarlane – he's the "Family Guy"". The Great Reporter. Presswire Limited. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- Andreeva, Nellie (May 5, 2008). ""Family Guy" creator seals megadeal". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- Callaghan, p. 16
- Strike, Joe. "Cartoon Network Pilots Screened by ASIFA East at NYC's School of Visual Arts". Animation World Network. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
- Graham, Jefferson (January 29, 1999). "Cartoonist MacFarlane funny guy of Fox's 'Family' Subversive voice of series is his". USA Today. p. E7.
- "Family Guy Cast and Details". TV Guide. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- Cruz, Gilbert (September 26, 2008). "Family Guy's Seth MacFarlane". Time. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
- Smith, Andy (April 30, 2005). "A Real Family Reunion". Prohaving the vidence Journal TV. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
- "Episode 9". The Graham Norton Show. Season 15. 2014-05-30. BBC.
- Rabin, Nathan (January 26, 2006). "Seth MacFarlane". The A.V. Club. Onion, Inc. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
- "Interview with Seth MacFarlane". IGN. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- "Patrick Stewart > Filmography". Allmovie. Archived from the original on April 26, 2006. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- "Family Guy — Family Gay — Cast and Crew". Yahoo!. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Family Guy – Road to the Multiverse – Cast and Crew". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- MacIntosh, Dan (November 29, 2005). "Family Guy, Volume 3". PopMatters. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
- McNarma, Chris (September 14, 2007). "'Family Guy Live' a fresh channel for laughs". Chicago Tribune. p. 1.
- Writ.: Sulkin, Alec; Wild, Wellesley; Dir.: Kearsley, Seth (June 19, 2005). "Petarded". Family Guy. Season 4. Episode 6. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Nearing, Brian (May 31, 2009). "Union guy is 'Family Guy'". Albany Times Union. p. C1. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
- Writ.: Devanney, Tom; Hentemann, Mark; Dir.: Holmquist, John (March 4, 2007). "Airport '07". Family Guy. Season 5. Episode 12. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Writ.: Hentemann, Mark; Dir.: DiMartino, Michael Dante (2002-01-31). "Stuck Together, Torn Apart". Family Guy. Season 3. Episode 19. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Writ.: Devanney, Tom; Hentemann, Mark; Dir.: Holmquist, John (March 4, 2007). "Long John Peter". Family Guy. Season 6. Episode 12. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- "FOX-Y-Lady". Film.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- "Family Guy: "Road to Rupert" Review". Tv.ign.com. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
- Iverson, Dan (September 25, 2006). "Family Guy: "Hell Comes to Quahog" Review". IGN. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- "Family Guy Season 14 Episode 6 Review: Peter's Sister". 2015-11-16. Retrieved 2016-07-28.
- MacFarlane, Seth (2005). Family Guy season 4 DVD commentary for the episode "The Courtship of Stewie's Father" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Goodman, David A.; Smith, Danny (executive producers); Devanney, Tom (consulting producer); Fertman, Kim (co-producer); Green, Seth (voice actor); Polcino, Dominic (director). Family Guy: Volume Seven: Commentary for "Long John Peter" (DVD). Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.
- Bartlett, James (March 12, 2007). "Seth MacFarlane – he's the "Family Guy"". The Great Reporter. Presswire Limited. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
- Writ.: Butler, Kirker; Dir.: Michels, Pete (November 18, 2007). "Padre de Familia". Family Guy. Season 6. Episode 6. FOX.
- Writ.: Scully, Brian; Dir.:Kim, Mike (October 5, 2008). "I Dream of Jesus". Family Guy. Season 7. Episode 2. FOX.
- Writ.: Hentemann, Mark; Dir.: Purdum, James (October 4, 2009). "Family Goy". Family Guy. Season 8. Episode 2. FOX.
- Writ.: Smith, Danny; Dir.: Tang, Cindy (November 2, 2007). "Peter's Two Dads". Family Guy. Season 5. Episode 10. FOX.
- Haque, Ahsan. "Top 25 Family Guy Characters". IGN. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Heisler, Steve; Levine, Stuart; Weisman, Jon; Whipp, Glenn; Kissell, Rick; Justin, Neal; Albiniak, Paige & Littleton Cynthia (June 7, 2011). "Emmy comedy: Veteran contenders — Guffaws galore with these returning shows". Variety. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Yee, Lawrence (September 11, 2016). "Creative Arts Emmy Awards Complete Winners List". Variety. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- "The 61st Primetime Emmy Awards and 2009 Creative Arts Emmy Awards Nominees are..." Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. July 16, 2009. Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Cohen, David (December 1, 2008). "'Kung Fu Panda' leads Annie noms". Variety. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Haque, Ahsan. "Family Guy: Top 10 Musical Moments". IGN. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Haque, Ahsan. "Family Guy: Top 10 Fights". IGN. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- EW Staff (June 7, 2011). "18 Bad TV Dads — Peter Griffin". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Tucker, Ken (June 9, 1999). "Family Guy". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
- Pierson, Robin (August 7, 2009). "Episode 1: Death Has a Shadow". The TV Critic. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
- Writ.:Ihlenfeld, Dave & Wright, David; Dir.: Purdum, James (October 7, 2012). "Ratings Guy". Family Guy. Season 11. Episode 2. FOX.
- Adams, Bob (August 22, 2005). ""Family Guy" has fun with AIDS". Advocate.com. PlanetOut Inc. Archived from the original on September 23, 2005. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
... showcases a comic musical number called “You Have AIDS.” Overburdened AIDS service organizations are not amused.
- Bourne Co., vs. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Fox Broadcasting Company, Twentieth Century Fox Television, Inc., Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, Inc., Fuzzy Door Productions, Inc., The Cartoon Network, Inc., Seth MacFarlane, Walter Murphy (United States District Court, Southern District of New York October 3, 2007). Text
- Kearney, Christine (March 16, 2009). ""Family Guy" Wins Court Battle Over song". reuters.com. Retrieved March 17, 2009.
- Finley, Adam (July 14, 2005). "Family Guy and The Simpsons". TV Squad. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Budke, Ryan (December 12, 2005). "The Simpsons: The Italian Bob". TV Squad. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Conroy, Tom (October 8, 2009). "Cleveland Show, acquired lack of taste". Media Life Magazine. Archived from the original on October 14, 2009. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Owen, Rob (May 1, 2005). "'Family Guy' goes beyond TV with CD, movie". Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on July 20, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- "'Family Guy' makes for simple-but-funny gaming". The Gazette. November 24, 2006.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (July 20, 2011). "'Family Guy' after brand world domination". IGN. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- Finley, Adam (February 3, 2007). "Family Guy pinball is freakin' sweet". TV Squad. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Clodfelter, Tim (November 11, 2004). "Here's the Offbeat Stuff that true geeks are made of". Winston-Salem Journal. p. 33.
- Szadkowski, Joseph (June 3, 2006). "Undead monster doomed to wander the high seas". The Washington Times.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (April 29, 2005). "'Family Guy' after brand world domination". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- "Search results: Family Guy". HarperCollins. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
- "Family Guy: It Takes a Village Idiot, and I Married One". HarperCollins. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
- "Philosophy Professor Jeremy Wisnewski Publishes Book on Family Guy". Hartwick College. September 18, 2007. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
- "The Family Guy Comic Book is Coming For You Nerds". UGO. June 8, 2011. Archived from the original on June 20, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Steinberg, Brian (December 30, 2007). "The year in advertising". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- "Subway — it's for the fat-loving guy, too". The News Tribune. November 30, 2007.
- Elliot, Stewart (June 18, 2008). "Crude? So what? These characters still find work in ads". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2009.