Parris Nelson Glendening (born June 11, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 59th Governor of Maryland from January 18, 1995 to January 15, 2003. Previously, he was the County Executive of Prince George's County, Maryland from 1982 to 1994 as a member of the Democratic Party.
|59th Governor of Maryland|
January 18, 1995 – January 15, 2003
|Lieutenant||Kathleen Kennedy Townsend|
|Preceded by||William Donald Schaefer|
|Succeeded by||Bob Ehrlich|
|Chair of the National Governors Association|
July 11, 2000 – August 7, 2001
|Preceded by||Mike Leavitt|
|Succeeded by||John Engler|
|Executive of Prince George's County|
|Preceded by||Lawrence Hogan|
|Succeeded by||Wayne K. Curry|
Parris Nelson Glendening
June 11, 1942
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Lynne Shaw (divorced 1970s)|
(m. 1976; div. 2001)
Jennifer Crawford (m. 2002)
Florida State University (BA, MA, PhD)
Early life, education, and academic careerEdit
Growing up in poverty, Glendening received a scholarship to Broward Community College. Other financial aid later enabled him to attend the Florida State University, where he received a bachelor's degree (1964), a master's degree (1965), and a Ph.D. (1967), becoming the youngest student in FSU history to receive a doctorate in political science. When he graduated he taught Government and Politics as a professor at the University of Maryland at College Park for 27 years. In 1977, he co-authored Pragmatic Federalism: An Intergovernmental View of American Government with Mavis Mann Reeves.
Glendening's career in public service began in 1973 as a city councilman in the Washington, D.C. suburb of Hyattsville, Maryland. He was elected to the county council of Prince George's County, Maryland, in 1974 and twice served as the Council Chairman. In 1982, he was elected as the County Executive of Prince George's County, eventually becoming the first county executive in Maryland history to be elected to three terms (1982–94). Under Glendening's leadership, Prince George's County was selected as an "All America County" by the National Civic League, and City and State Magazine named him the "Most Valuable County Official" in the nation. He and his top aides stood to benefit from a controversial Prince George's County supplemental retirement plan that was not widely disclosed by the press until after he was elected governor in an extremely close contest.
Governor of MarylandEdit
Glendening was elected to his first term as Governor of Maryland, edging out Ellen Sauerbrey, the Republican nominee, by 5,993 votes. Sauerbrey challenged the result in Maryland circuit court claiming that widespread voting by dead people occurred in the African American community. No evidence of ballots cast in the names of dead voters was introduced in court. On the eve of the trial, Sauerbrey's attorneys talked of 89 such votes, but checking by reporters found no such ballots. Judge Raymond G. Thieme Jr. ruled against Sauerbrey's claim and certified Glendening's win. Glendening became the first Maryland governor elected from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region since Oden Bowie was elected in 1867. In 1998, Glendening won re-election to a second term, again defeating Sauerbrey, this time 55% to 44%.
Glendening's early administration was marked by tax reform and economic development. From 1994 to 1998, he cut or lowered more than 50 Maryland taxes, including the state personal income tax. By the end of his first term, Maryland's national rank in job creation had moved from 43rd to 14th. Glendening's job creation efforts focused mainly on biotechnology. Seeking to make Maryland a world leader in this area, Glendening successfully recruited companies such as Human Genome Sciences, Gallow Lab, and Qiagen to Maryland. As of June 2014, Maryland was home to the second-largest biotech cluster per capita in the U.S.
Glendening also assisted in successfully bringing the National Football League teams Washington Redskins from Robert F. Kennedy Stadium in the neighboring District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) who now play in a new stadium in Landover, with then owner Jack Kent Cooke, and the relocated franchise Baltimore Ravens, from Cleveland, Ohio, as the former Cleveland Browns with owner Art Modell to play in Baltimore after two years in a new stadium as part of the sports complex at Camden Yards, west of the redeveloped Inner Harbor. Glendening personally negotiated the relocation agreements with both owners and then undertook a politically heated battle against members of his own party – led by State Senator Chris Van Hollen (future Representative and Senator) – to build the teams' new stadiums and pay for the needed road improvements and public works infrastructure.
During Glendening's second term, serious ongoing environmental issues concerning the Chesapeake Bay and the overdevelopment of rural areas prompted him to focus on issues of growth and environmental stewardship. Glendening is widely recognized as a pioneer in land development issues and is credited for coining the phrase "Smart Growth."
Though overseeing the executions of Flint Gregory Hunt in 1997 and Tyrone Delano Gilliam Jr. in 1998, Governor Glendening halted executions in Maryland by an executive order on May 9, 2002. Glendening's successor, Governor Robert Ehrlich, lifted the ban during his term in office. (See Capital punishment in Maryland). The ban was re-instituted by Ehrlich's successor, former Baltimore mayor, Martin O'Malley, who eventually signed a bill in 2013 ending Maryland's use of capital punishment.
2002 gubernatorial electionEdit
During the 2002 Maryland governor election, Glendening was not eligible to run due to the state constitutional term limit. His lieutenant governor, Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, was nominated by the Democrats to run. Townsend was damaged during the election due to wide criticism by rural voters, especially farmers, directed at Glendening for what they considered overzealous environmental legislation aimed at preventing rain runoff of pollutants from farm soils into tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, that significantly raised the cost of participating in agribusiness.
Townsend lost the election 48% to 52% to the Republican U.S. Representative (Congressman) Robert Ehrlich of Arbutus. The Republican ran an inclusive campaign focusing on his bipartisan work in Congress and his pro-choice on abortion and other moderate voting record. His efforts resulted in record voter turnout in Maryland's rural and suburban counties. At the same time Townsend's campaign was plagued with missteps emblematic of which was her unpopular lieutenant governor choice, retired Admiral, Charles R. Larson, who had never been involved in politics and had changed parties only weeks before. Townsend's pick of Larson, which she made without consulting the Democratic leaders in the state, was a point of controversy in the campaign. Ehrlich was victorious in November 2002, taking office in the Maryland State House in Annapolis in January 2003.
Post political careerEdit
Glendening left office on January 15, 2003, with low approval ratings, and he largely stayed out of the limelight. He and his successor, Robert Ehrlich, informally agreed not to criticize one another. Glendening quietly continued his advocacy work for Smart Growth.
Glendening broke his three-and-a-half-year silence in late August 2006, when he endorsed Kweisi Mfume for the U.S. Senate. (Mfume eventually lost the Democratic primary to Representative Ben Cardin, who went on to win the Senate seat replacing longtime incumbent Paul Sarbanes.)
On January 25, 2002, Glendening divorced Frances Hughes Glendening and married one of his deputy chiefs of staff, Jennifer Crawford, his third wife. Crawford was 35, younger than the then-59-year-old Glendening. In March 2002, the couple announced that they were expecting a baby. Jennifer gave birth to a baby girl, Gabrielle, on August 18, 2002, marking the first time since 1879 that a Maryland governor had a baby born during his term of office.
|Democratic||Parris Glendening (incumbent)||846,972||55.14|
|Democratic||American Joe Miedusiewski||100,296||18.32|
|Democratic||Walter Gilchrist Finch||5,369||0.98|
- "Maryland Governor Parris N. Glendening". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Parris N. Glendening". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Sunnucks, Mike (November 19, 2001). "Md. Governor, first lady divorce". Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- Nitkin, David (January 29, 2002). "Governor weds longtime aide". originally The Baltimore Sun, found on Maryland State Archives. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Parris N. Glendening Biographical Series; Governor of Maryland, 1995-2003". Archives of Maryland, MSA SC 3520-11536. Maryland State Government. January 10, 2003. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- Peck, Dana (February–March 1999). "FSU Launched an Education Governor". Florida State Times. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
In 1967, at the age of 25, Glendening became the youngest student to receive a Ph.D. in political science at FSU.
- "All-America City: Past Winners". Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
Prince George's County, 1986-87
- "Glendening Forgoes early P.G. Pension". The Washington Post. January 31, 1995. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- "Sauerbrey abandons election appeal". Baltimore Sun. January 16, 1995. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Myers, Marcia; Zorzi, William F. Jr. (March 15, 1995). "U.S. pursuing new claims of city vote fraud; November election back in spotlight amid allegations". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
Judge Thieme called for an investigation into some of the problems highlighted during Mrs. Sauerbrey's challenge, ... but ... rejected her legal claims, and she chose not to appeal.
- "Maryland, Virginia biotech industries take center stage in D.C." Washington Business Journal. June 28, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- "Modell Announces Browns' Move to Baltimore". The Washington Post. November 7, 1995. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "Outsiders relish football tussle Underdogs: State legislators outside the power loop are fighting plans to fund football stadiums, and are enjoying the attention". Baltimore Sun. February 8, 1996. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "Smart growth 'pioneer' Glendening touts transit". Ww2.somdnews.com. April 15, 2011. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- O'Keefe, Karen. "The Town Paper: Smart Growth's Parris Glendeninglaves". Tndtownpaper.com. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Dresser, Michael (May 15, 2001). "Hixson savors bittersweet victory Gay rights bill signing product of long fight that hit close to home".
- McDonald, Greg (May 23, 2002). "Illinois Death Penalty Ban Spurs Legislators Into Action". Stateline.org. Washington, DC: Pew Center on the States. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- "Timeline: The death penalty in Maryland". Baltimoresun.com. Tribune Newspaper. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- "Ehrlich Dogged by Gubernatorial Question". The Washington Post. August 16, 1999. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "Ehrlich wins in Maryland's governor's race". Inside Politics. CNN. November 2, 2002. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
- Olesker, Michael (November 7, 2005). "Polls show the points; points show the trends". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
At his best, Glendening's approval rating was 56 percent. When he left office, it was 30 percent. Ehrlich's approval rating is 50 percent.[dead link]
- "Mfume snags Glendening endorsement". U.S. News & World Report. August 24, 2006. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Skalka, Jennifer; Andrew A. Green (January 18, 2007). "'New day' for Md". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
Comptroller William Donald Schaefer, the former governor and Baltimore mayor who was voted out of office last year, did not attend; nor did former Gov. Parris N. Glendening.
- Montgomery, Lori (March 2, 2002). "New Md. First Lady Expecting Baby in September". The Washington Post. p. B02. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Maryland governor is a new papa". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Lewiston, ID. March 19, 2002. p. 2A. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- LeDuc, Daniel (March 9, 1999). "Gov.'s Gay Rights Bid Has Family Ties". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
- Profile of Parris Glendening Retrieved October 31, 2014.
| Executive of Prince George's County
Wayne K. Curry
William Donald Schaefer
| Governor of Maryland
| Chair of the National Governors Association
|Party political offices|
William Donald Schaefer
| Democratic nominee for Governor of Maryland
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend
| Chair of the Democratic Governors Association