Indonesian Christian Party

  (Redirected from Parkindo)

Parkindo (Indonesian: Partai Kristen Indonesia, Indonesian Christian Party) was a political party in Indonesia from 1950 to 1973.

Indonesian Christian Party

Partai Kristen Indonesia
AbbreviationParkindo
ChairmanWilhelmus Zakaria Johannes (first)
Melanchton Siregar (last)
Secretary-GeneralMaryoto (first)
Sabam Sirait (last)
Founded10 November 1945
Dissolved11 January 1973
Preceded byParki
Merged intoIndonesian Democratic Party
Succeeded byIndonesian Christian Party 1945
Prosperous Peace Party (claimed)
HeadquartersDjakarta, Indonesia
NewspaperKemudi
Sinar Harapan
Think tankAssociation of Indonesian Christian Intelligence
Student wingIndonesian Christian Student Movement
Indonesian Christian Pupil Movement
Youth wingIndonesian Christian Youth Movement
Women's wingIndonesian Christian Women's Association
Armed wingArrow Division (during Indonesian National Revolution)
Membership1,049,475 (1969)
IdeologyPancasila
ReligionChristianity (Protestant)

Founded by Johannes Leimena and Melanchton Siregar, the former Military Governor of North Sumatra, who was known as a local teacher in Tarutung. Its support was concentrated in Protestant areas of Indonesia. It had considerable influence despite the small number of Christians in Indonesia due to the large numbers of Christians in the civil service, the army and educational establishments and because of the high profile of party leader Johannes Leimena who served in several Indonesian cabinets and as deputy prime minister.[1] In the 1955 Indonesian legislative election, the party won 2.6% of the vote and eight seats in the People's Representative Council.[2] However, in the 1971 elections, the last it contested before being merged into the Indonesian Democratic Party, it gained only 1.34% of the vote.[3][4]

HistoryEdit

Pre-independenceEdit

The first Christian party in the Dutch East Indies was the Christelijk Ethische Partij (transl. Christian Ethic Party), which was established on 25 September 1917.[5] According to the constitution of the party, the party strives to make the statutes of God, as revealed in the Holy Scriptures, nature and history, the foundation of the political life in the Dutch East Indies. At the formation of the party, it had around 800 members. The party also invited native Indonesians, which was a rarity for Dutch-majority party at that time. The party changed its name to Christenlijk Staatkundige Partei (transl. Christian Constitutional Party) on 1929. The party gained five seats in the 1935 Dutch East Indies Volksraad election, on which three seats to the native Indonesians, and two seats to Europeans.[6]

EstablishmentEdit

The party was established following the decree by the government on 3 November 1945 to form "as many political parties as possible" in Indonesia. The decree was an attempt by the government to eradicate rumors that stated that Sukarno and Hatta would make Indonesia a one-party state, governed by the Indonesian National Party. Six days after the decree, Christian politicians of Indonesia held a meeting to discuss the possibility of establishing a party for Christians. The meeting was held in the Pasundan Church. The Protestants sent Basuki Probowinoto, Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia, Fredrick Laoh, Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes, J. K. Panggabean, Soedarsono, Maryoto and Martinus Abednego, while the Catholics sent Suradi and Hadi. After the delegates agreed to form an political party, the Catholic delegates withdrew from the meeting, giving the reason that they had to talk about it first with the leaders of the Catholic Church.[7]

The meeting finally produced an agreement to form a party for Christians under the name National Christian Party (Indonesian: Partai Kristen Nasional). The name was proposed by Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia. The delegates chose Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes as the chairman and Maryoto as the general secretary by acclamation. On 10 November 1945, the delegates declared the formation of the National Christian Party.[8]

Notable membersEdit

National Heroes of IndonesiaEdit

MinistersEdit

  • Johannes Leimena, seated seven different ministerial positions from 1946 until 1966
  • Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia, Minister of Education (1945–1946)
  • Albert Mangaratua Tambunan, Minister of Social Affairs (1966–1970)
  • Wilhelm Johannis Rumambi, Liaison Minister (1959–1966), Minister of Enlightenment (1966)

Election resultsEdit

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
April 1955
8 / 257
1,003,325 2.6%[9]  8 seats Johannes Leimena
December 1955
16 / 514
988,810 2.61%[9]  8 seats Johannes Leimena
1971
7 / 360
733,359 1.34%[9]  9 seats Melanchton Siregar

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Feith (2007) p145
  2. ^ Feith (2007) p434
  3. ^ Evans (2003) pp. 21-21
  4. ^ Liddle (1994) p46
  5. ^ Christelijk-Ethische Partij 1917, p. 28
  6. ^ Koloniaal Tijdschrift, Vol.24, 1935
  7. ^ Parkindo 1945 2006, p. 2
  8. ^ Parkindo 1945 2006, pp. 2–3
  9. ^ a b c "Bab V - Hasil Pemilu - KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 1 August 2018.

BibliographyEdit