The Pandya dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty of South India, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera. The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam.
|300 BCE–1650 CE|
Extent of the Pandya Territories c. 1250 CE
|Capital||Madurai (3rd century BCE – 1345 CE) |
Korkai (ancient second capital)
Tenkasi (1345 – 1630 CE, part of Tirunelveli. Medieval second capital)
|Official languages||Tamil, Sanskrit |
|Religion||Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism|
• 560–590 CE
• 1309–1345 CE
|Vira Pandyan IV|
• 1422–1463 CE
|Jatavarman Parakrama Pandyan|
|Historical era||Iron Age to Renaissance|
|Today part of||India|
The Early Pandyas ruled parts of Southern India from at least 4th century BCE. Pandya rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Pandyas had diplomatic relations as far as Rome. The country of the Pandyas was described as Pandaie by Megasthenes, Pandi Mandala in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and described as Pandya Mediterranea and Modura Regia Pandionis by Ptolemy.
The Pandya empire was home to temples including Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, and Nellaiappar Temple in Tirunelveli. Jainism, Shaivism, and Vaishnavism flourished during the reign of the early Pandya kings, but after the revival of the Pandya power by Kadungon, the Shaivite Nayanars and the Vaishnavite Alvars rose to prominence and the non-Hindu sects declined. Strabo states that an Indian king called Pandion sent Augustus Caesar "presents and gifts of honour".
Traditionally, the legendary Sangams were held in Madurai under their patronage, and some of the Pandya Kings were poets themselves. The early Pandya Dynasty of the Sangam Literature faded into obscurity upon the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. The Later Pandyas (1216–1345) entered their golden age under Maravarman Sundara Pandyan and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. 1251), who expanded the empire into Telugu country, conquered Kalinga (Orissa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast between Sri Lanka and India which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.
During their history, the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. The Islamic invasion led to the end of Pandya supremacy in South India and in 1323, the Jaffna Kingdom of Sri Lanka declared its independence from the crumbling Pandya Empire. The Pandyas lost their capital city Madurai to Madurai Sultanate in 1335. However, they shifted their capital to Tenkasi and continued to rule the Tirulnelveli, Tuticorin, Ramanad, Sivagangai regions. Meanwhile, Madurai sultanate was replaced by Nayaka governors of Vijayanagara in 1378. In 1529 Nayaka governors declared independence and established Madurai Nayak dynasty.
The word Pandya is thought to be derived from the Tamil word "Pandu" meaning "old". Robert Caldwell derives the word Pandya from Pāṇḍu, the father of the Pandavas from Mahabharata, and believed that the name was intended to establish a claim of descent from the Pandavas.
Another theory suggests that in Sangam Tamil lexicon the word Pandya means old country in contrast with Chola meaning new country, Chera meaning hill country and Pallava meaning branch in Sanskrit. The Chera, Chola and Pandya are the traditional Dravidian siblings and together with the Pallavas are the major Kings that ruled ancient Tamilakam.
Historians have used several sources to identify the origins of the early Pandya dynasty with the pre-Christian Era and also to piece together the names of the Pandya kings. The Pandyas were one of the longest ruling dynasty of Indian history.
Historian Gustav Solomon Oppert derives the Pandi word from the Tamil word "Pallandi " meaning "king of Pallas". The name "Pandi' is a contraction of Pallandi which is a composite of two Tamil words "palla" and "andi". In Sangam Period, the word "andi" means " king" or "ruler ".
According to Tamil legends, the three brothers Cheran, Cholan and Pandyan ruled in common at Korkai. While Pandya remained at home, his two brothers Cheran and Cholan after a separation founded their own kingdoms in north and west.
According to the Epic Mahabharatha the legendary Malayadhwaja Pandya, who sided with the Pandavas and took part in the Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata, is described as follows in Karna Parva (verse 20.25):
"Although knowing that the shafts (arrows) of the high souled son of Drona employed in shooting were really inexhaustible, yet Pandya, that bull among men, cut them all into pieces".
Malayadhwaja Pandya and his queen Kanchanamala had one daughter Thataathagai alias Meenakshi who succeeded her father and reigned the kingdom successfully. The Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple was built after her. The city of Madurai was built around this temple.
Local folklore attributes Alli Raani as one of the Sangam age queens of the Pandya kingdom. She is attributed as a amazonian queen whose servants were males and administrative officials and army were women. She is thought of ruling the whole western and northern coast of Sri Lanka from her capital Kudiramalai, where remains of what is thought of as her fort are found. She is sometimes seen as an incarnation of the Pandya associated deities, Meenakshi and Kannagi.
Pandya kings find mention in a number of poems in the Sangam Literature. Among them Nedunjeliyan II, 'the victor of Talaiyalanganam', and Mudukudimi Peruvaludi 'of several sacrifices' deserve special mention. Beside several short poems found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru collections, there are two major works – Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai (in the collection of Pattupattu) – which give a glimpse into the society and commercial activities in the Pandya kingdom during the Sangam age. In the work Maduraikkanci, the author Mankudi Maruthanaar, refers to his patron, king Nedunchezhiyan, as the lord of Korkai and the warlord of the southern Parathavar.
Silappatikaram mentions that the emblem of the Pandyas was that of a fish. The Pandyas assumed several titles, one of them being Meenavan meaning "He of the Fish". This seems to indicate a fishermen origin of the Pandyas.
The earliest Pandya king to be found in epigraph is Nedunjeliyan, figuring in the Tamil-Brahmi Mangulam inscription assigned from the 2nd to the 1st centuries BCE.The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds, to a Jain ascetic. Silver Punch-marked coins with the fish symbol in the Pandya country dating from around the same time have also been found.
Pandyas are also mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 – 232 BCE). In his inscriptions Ashoka refers to the peoples of south India – the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Satiyaputras – as recipients of his Buddhist proselytism. These kingdoms, although not part of the Mauryan Empire, were on friendly terms with Ashoka:
The conquest by Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni river.
Kharavela, the Kalinga king who ruled during the 2nd century BCE, in his Hathigumpha inscription, claims to have destroyed a confederacy of Tamil states (Tamiradesasanghatam) which had lasted 132 years, and to have acquired a large quantity of pearls from the Pandyas.
Pandyas are also mentioned by Greek Megasthenes where he writes about southern kingdom being ruled by women. Megasthenes knew of the Pandya kingdom around 300 BCE. He described it in Indika as occupying the portion of India which lies southward and extends to the sea. According to his account, it had 365 villages, each of which was expected to meet the needs of the royal household for one day in the year. He described the Pandya queen at the time, Pandaia as a daughter of Heracles.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60 – c. 100 CE) describes the riches of a 'Pandian Kingdom':
- ...Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another Kingdom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea.... 
The Chinese historian Yu Huan in his 3rd-century text, the Weilüe, mentions the Panyue kingdom: ...The kingdom of Panyue is also called Hanyuewang. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India)...The inhabitants are small; they are the same height as the Chinese.... John E. Hill identified Panyue as Pandya kingdom. However, others have identified it with an ancient state located in modern Burma or Assam.
Pandyas also had trade contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt and, through Egypt, with Rome by the 1st century, and with China by the 3rd century. The 1st-century Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met, at Antioch, the ambassador sent by a king from India "named Pandion or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE (Strabo XV.4 and 73).
- The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark. Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow. For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are all white. That is why they portray them as I have described.
Although there are many instances of the Pandyas being referred to in surviving ancient Hindu texts including the Mahabharata, we currently have no way of determining a cogent genealogy of these ancient kings. We have a connected history of the Pandyas from the fall of Kalabhras during the middle of the 6th century.
Tamil literary sourcesEdit
Several Tamil literary works, such as Iraiyanar Agapporul, mention the legend of three separate Tamil Sangams lasting several centuries before the Christian Era and ascribe their patronage to the Pandyas.
The Sangam poem Maduraikkanci by Mankudi Maruthanaar contains a full-length description of Madurai and the Pandya country under the rule of Neduncheliyan III. The Nedunalvadai by Nakkirar contains a description of the king's palace. The Purananuru and Agananuru collections of the 3rd century BCE contain poems sung in praise of various Pandya kings and also poems that were composed by the kings themselves.
Sanskrit literary sourcesEdit
The Sanskrit grammarian Kātyāyana mention in his commentaries on Pāṇini's Astadhyayi (4th century BCE) make references to the Pandya kingdom. The Arthashastra compiled by Kautilya (4th century BCE) mentions pearls from Pandya Kingdom and cotton textiles from Madurai.
The Ramayana makes a few references to the Pandyas. For instance, when Sugriva sends his monkey warriors to search Sita, he mentions Chera, Chola and Pandya of the Southern region. Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, an epic poem about Rama's dynasty, states that Ravana signed a peace treaty with a Pandya king.
The Mahabharata mentions the Pandyas a number of times. It states that the Pandya country was located on the sea shore, and supplied troops to the Pandava king Yudhishthira during the war (5:19). The Pandya king Sarangadhwaja commanded 140,000 warriors (7.23). Pandya warrior Malayadhwaja had a one-to-one fight with Drona's son Ashwatthama (8:20). Mahabharata mentions that tirthas (sacred places) of Agastya, Varuna and Kumari were located in the Pandya country.
Early Pandyas (3rd century BCE – 3rd century CE)Edit
- Koon Pandyan
- Nedunjeliyan I (Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan)
- Palyagasaalai Mudukudumi Peruvaludhi
- Nedunjeliyan II
- Nan Maran
- Nedunj Cheliyan III (Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan)
- Maran Valudi
- Kadalan valuthi
- Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
- Ukkirap Peruvaludi
First Pandyan Empire (6th – 10th centuries CE)Edit
After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandya empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras. The following chronological list of the Pandya emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai riverbeds. Succeeding kings assumed the titles of "Maravarman" and "Sadayavarman" alternately, where Sadayavarman denotes themselves as followers of Lord Sadaiyan ("The one with Jata", referring to Siva).
After the defeat of the Kalabhras, the Pandya kingdom grew steadily in power and territory. With the Cholas in obscurity, the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas and the Pandyas, the river Kaveri being the frontier between them.
After Vijayalaya Chola conquered Thanjavur by defeating the Muttarayar chieftains who were part of Pandya family tree around 850, the Pandyas went into a period of decline. They were constantly harassing their Chola overlords by occupying their territories. Parantaka I invaded the Pandya territories and defeated Rajasimha III. However, the Pandyas did not wholly submit to the Cholas despite loss of power, territory and prestige. They tried to forge various alliances with the Cheras and the Kings of Lanka and tried to engage the Cholas in war to free themselves from Chola supremacy. But right from the times of Parantaka I to the early 12th century up to the times of Kulottunga Chola I the Pandyas could not overpower the Cholas who right from 880–1215 remained the most powerful empire spread over South India, Deccan and the Eastern and Western Coast of India during this period.
- Kadungon (r. c. 590–620 CE)
- Maravarman Avani Sulamani (r. c. 620-645 CE)
- Jayantavarman alias Seliyan Sendan (r. c. 645–670 CE)
- Arikesari Maravarman (r. c. 670–700 CE)
- Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (r. c. 700–730 CE)
- Maravarman Rajasimha I (r. c. 735–765 CE)
- Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadayan (r. c. 765–815 CE)
- Maravarman Rajasimha II (r. c. 815–817 CE)
- Varaguna I (r. c. 817–835 CE)
- Srimara Srivallabha (r. c. 815–862 CE)
- Varaguna II (r. c. 862–885 CE)
- Parantaka Viranarayanan (r. c. 880–905 CE)
- Maravarman Rajasimha III (r. c. 905–920 CE)
Under Chola Influence (10th – 13th centuries)Edit
The Chola domination of the Tamil country began in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II. Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala, son of Parantaka Chola II defeated Vira Pandya in battle. The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IV. Pandyas were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge on the island of Sri Lanka. This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas. They were replaced by a series of Chola viceroys with the title Chola Pandya who ruled from Madurai from c. 1020 CE. Rajadhiraja III aided Kulesekhara Pandya III by defeating the Sinhalese army and crowning him as king of Madurai. The "Chola yoke" started from about 920 and lasted until the start of the 13th century. The following list gives the names of the Pandya kings who were active during the 10th century and the first half of 11th century.
- Sundara Pandya I
- Vira Pandya I
- Vira Pandya II
- Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa
- Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandya
- Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandya
- Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandya
- Jatavarman Chola Pandya
- Seervallabha Manakulachala (1101–1124 CE)
- Maaravarman Seervallaban (1132–1161 CE)
- Parakrama Pandyan I (1161–1162 CE)
- Kulasekara Pandyan III
- Vira Pandyan III
- Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175–1180 CE)
- Jatavarman Kulasekaran I (1190–1216 CE)
Second Pandya Empire (13th and 14th centuries)Edit
The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandya Empire. This period saw the rise of seven prime Lord Emperors (Ellarkku Nayanar – Lord of All) of Pandya, who ruled the kingdom alongside Pandya princes. Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century. The foundation for such a great empire was laid by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan early in the 13th century.
- Parakrama Pandyan II (king of Polonnaruwa) (1212–1215 CE)
- Maravarman Sundara Pandyan(1216–1238 CE)
- Sundaravarman Kulasekaran II (1238–1240 CE)
- Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238–1251 CE)
- Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268 CE)
- Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1310 CE)
- Sundara Pandyan IV (1309–1327 CE)
- Vira Pandyan IV (1309–1345 CE)
The Pandya kingdom was replaced by the Chola princes who assumed the title as Chola Pandyas in the 11th century. After being overshadowed by the Pallavas and Cholas for centuries, Pandya glory was briefly revived by the much celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I in 1251 CE.
Pandya power extended from the Telugu countries on banks of the Godavari river to Sri Lanka, which was invaded by Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I in 1258 and on his behalf by his younger brother Jatavarman Vira Pandyan II from 1262 to 1264. They ruled the whole peninsula and reduced the power of the Cholas and the Hoysala, also making Chera Nadu and Sri Lanka Pandya provinces. Later Jatavarman Sundara Pandya appointed his brother to rule Kongu country, Chola country and Hoysala country.
The marital alliance of Kulothunga Chola III and one of his successors, Rajaraja Chola III, with the Hoysalas did not yield any advantage in countering the Pandya resurgence, who got defeated by Maravarman Sundara Pandya I, who after the victory burnt down Uraiyur and Thanjavur. The Cholas renewed their control with the help of the Hoysalas under Hoysala king Vira Someshwara. The later successor of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I, Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II got defeated by Rajendra Chola III around 1250.
Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I subdued Rajendra Chola III around 1258–1260 AD and was an equal antagonist of the Hoysalas whose presence he absolutely disliked in the Tamil country. He first vanquished the Kadava Pallavas under Kopperunchinga II, who had challenged the Hoysala army stationed in and around Kanchipuram and killed a few of their commanders.
Around 1260, Jatavarman I first dragged the Hoysalas into war by routing Vira Someshwara's son Ramanatha out of Tiruchirappalli. Vira Someshwara Hoysala, who had given the control of the empire to his sons tried to challenge Jatavarman. Between Samayapuram and Tiruchy, the armies of Vira Someshwara were routed with Vira Someshwara losing his life in this battle to Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I in Kannanur.
Jatavarman I next concentrated on completely wiping out the Chola empire. Rajendra Chola III had been counting on Hoysala assistance in case he was challenged by the Pandyas, keeping in mind the earlier marital alliance of the Cholas with the Hoysalas. Initially, Jatavarman consolidated the Pandya hold on Tiruchirappalli and Thiruvarangam and marched towards Thanjavur and Kumbakonam. The Hoysala king Narasimha III joined hands with the Pandyas, opposing alliance with the Cholas. When challenged by Jatavarman Sundara Pandya, Rajendra III marched against the Pandyas between Tanjore and Tiruchy, hoping for assistance and participation in war from the Hoysalas. However, the already vanquished Hoysalas were in a defensive position. They did not want to go to war and risk yet another defeat by the resurgent Pandyas. Jatavarman Sundara Pandya who defeated the Kadava Pallavas, Hoysalas and also the Telugu Choda, forced Rajendra III to become his tributary vassal.
Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan invaded Sri Lanka in 1258 and took control over Jaffna Kingdom by defeating the Javaka king Chandrabhanu, making the Javaka king paying tribute to him. Chandrabhanu and two Sinhalese princes revolted against the Pandyas in 1270, and got his final defeat in 1270 by the brother of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I, Jatavarman Vira Pandya II.
Pandya Civil War (1308 to 1311 CE)Edit
After the death of the king Maravarman Kulashekhara, his sons Vira and Sundara fought a war of succession for control of the kingdom. Kulasekhara had two sons Sundara Pandya, the legitimate heir, and Vira Pandya, an illegitimate son who was nominated to the throne by their father. So, Sundara Pandya killed his father and then ascended the throne but this victory lasted only for a short time as Vira Pandya soon defeated his brother and occupied the throne in 1310 AD. This caused Sundara Pandya to take refuge with the Delhi Sultanate and the former wasted no time and invited Malik Kafur, the eunuch general of Allaudin Khilji to come to his aid. Taking advantage of this situation, the neighbouring Hoysala king Ballala III invaded the Pandya territory. However, Ballala had to retreat to his capital, when Malik Kafur invaded his kingdom at the same time. After subjugating Ballala, Malik Kafur marched to the Pandya territory in March 1311. His army raided a number of places in the kingdom, massacring people and destroying temples. The Pandya brothers fled their headquarters, and Kafur pursued them unsuccessfully, hoping to make one of them a tributary to the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji. Nevertheless, the invaders obtained a large number of treasures, elephants and horses.
According to the 14th century Sanskrit treatise Lilatilakam, a general named Vikrama Pandya defeated the Delhi King. Some historians have identified Vikrama as an uncle of Vira and Sundara, and believe that he defeated Malik Kafur. However, this identification is not supported by historical evidence: Vikrama Pandya mentioned in Leelathilakam appears to have defeated a Muslim army during 1365–70. By late April 1311, the rains had obstructed the operations of the Delhi forces, and the invading generals received the news that the defenders had assembled a large army against them. Kafur gave up his plans to pursue the Pandya brothers, and returned to Delhi with the plunder.
After Kafur's departure, Vira and Sundara resumed their conflict. Sundara Pandya was defeated, and sought help from the Delhi Sultanate. With their help, he regained control of the South Arcot region by 1314.
Decline and fallEdit
Subsequently, there were two other expeditions from the Khalji Sultanate in 1314 led by Khusro Khan (later Sultan Nasir-ud-din) and in 1323 by Ulugh Khan (Muhammad bin Tughluq) under Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. These invasions shattered the Pandya empire beyond revival and coinage discoveries made imply that the Later Pandyas were left with the South Arcot District of Tamil Nadu. While the previous invasions were content with plunder, Ulugh Khan annexed the former Pandya dominions to the Delhi Sultanate as the province of Ma'bar. Most of South India came under the Delhi's rule and was divided into five provinces – Devagiri, Tiling, Kampili, Dorasamudra and Ma'bar. Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan was appointed governor of the newly created southern-most Ma'bar province of the Delhi Sultanate by Muhammad bin Tughluq. In 1333, Sayyid Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence and created Madurai Sultanate, a short lived independent Muslim kingdom based in the city of Madurai. Hoysala king Veera Ballala III, from his capital in Tiruvannamalai, challenged the Madurai Sultans at Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam and died fighting them in 1343. Bukkaraya I of Vijayanagara Empire conquered the city of Madurai in 1371, imprisoned the Sultan, released and restored Arcot's Tamil prince Sambuva Raya to the throne.Then Koneri Raya succeeded the throne. Bukka I appointed his son Veera Kumara Kampana as the viceroy of the Tamil region. Later, Nayaka governors were appointed who would continue ruling till 1736.
Groups of small temples are seen at Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu. The Shiva temples have a Nandi bull sculpture in front of the maha mandapa. In the later stages of Pandyas rule, finely sculptured idols, gopurams on the vimanas were developed. Gopurams are the rectangular entrance and portals of the temples.
The early coins of Tamilakam bore the symbols of the Three Crowned Kings, the tiger, the fish and the bow, representing the symbols of the Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras. Coins of Pandyas bear the legend of different Pandya ruler in different times. The Pandyas had
issued silver punch-marked and die struck copper coins in the early period. A few gold coins were attributed to the Pandya rulers of this period. These coins bore the image of fish, singly or in pairs, which where their emblem.
Some of the coins had the names Sundara, Sundara Pandya or merely the letter 'Su' were etched. Some of the coins bore a boar with the legend of 'Vira-Pandya. It had been said that those coins were issued by the Pandyas and the feudatories of the Cholas but could not be attributed to any particular king.
The coins of Pandyas were basically square. Those coins were etched with elephant on one side and the other side remained blank. The inscription on the silver and gold coins during the Pandyas, were in Tamil-Brahmi and the copper coins bore the Tamil legends.
The coins of the Pandyas, which bore the fish symbols, were termed as 'Kodandaraman' and 'Kanchi' Valangum Perumal'. Apart from these, 'Ellamthalaiyanam' was seen on coins which had the standing king on one side and the fish on the other. 'Samarakolahalam' and 'Bhuvanekaviram' were found on the coins having a Garuda, 'Konerirayan' on coins having a bull and 'Kaliyugaraman' on coins that depict a pair of feet.
Government and SocietyEdit
Roman and Greek traders frequented the ancient Tamil country, present day Southern India and Sri Lanka, securing trade with the seafaring Tamil states of the Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties and establishing trading settlements which secured trade with South Asia by the Greco-Roman world since the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty a few decades before the start of the Common Era and remained long after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. As recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a South Indian King called Pandya. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was described as Pandya Mediterranea in the Periplus and Modura Regia Pandya by Ptolemy. They also outlasted Byzantium's loss of the ports of Egypt and the Red Sea (c. 639–645) under the pressure of the Muslim conquests. Sometime after the sundering of communications between the Axum and Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century, the Christian kingdom of Axum fell into a slow decline, fading into obscurity in western sources. It survived, despite pressure from Islamic forces, until the 11th century, when it was reconfigured in a dynastic squabble.
Pearl fishing was another industry that flourished during the Sangam age. The Pandya port city of Korkai was the center of pearl trade. Written records from Greek and Egyptian voyagers give details about the pearl fisheries off the Pandya coast. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions that "Pearls inferior to the Indian sort are exported in great quantity from the marts of Apologas and Omana". The
inferior variety of pearls that the Tamils did not require for their use was in very great demand in the foreign markets. Pearls were woven along with nice muslin cloth, before being exported. The most expensive animal product that was imported from India by the Roman Empire was the pearl from the Gulf of Mannar.
The pearls from the Pandyan Kingdom were also in demand in the kingdoms of north India. Several Vedic mantras refer to the wide use of the pearls. The royal chariots were decked with pearls, as were the horses that dragged them. The use of pearls was so high that the supply of pearls from the Ganges could not meet the demand. Literary references of the pearl fishing mention how the fishermen, who dive into the sea, avoid attacks from sharks, bring up the right-whorled chank and blow on the sounding shell. Convicts were according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea used as pearl divers in Korkai.
Historical Madurai was a stronghold of Shaivism and Vaishnavite. Following the invasion of Kalabhras, Jainism gained a foothold in the Pandya kingdom. With the advent of Bhakti movements, Shaivism and Vaishnavism resurfaced. Pandya Nedumchadayan was a staunch Vaishnavite.
- Arunachalam, S. (1952). The History of the Pearl Fishery of the Tamil Coast. Ananamalai University. p. 32.
- Journal of Annamalai University: Humanities. Part A. Annamalai University. 1991. p. 17.
- Aiyar, R. Swaminatha (1987). Dravidian Theories. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 265, 273. ISBN 9788120803312.
- Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 46. ISBN 9788131711200.
- Zvelebil, Kamil (1992). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. BRILL. p. 23. ISBN 9004093656.
- Inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 March 2009). Britannica Guide to India. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 9781593398477.
- "Pandya dynasty | Indian dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- Venkataramaiah, K. M.; Linguistics, International School of Dravidian (1996). A handbook of Tamil Nadu. International School of Dravidian Linguistics. p. 548. ISBN 9788185692203.
- Balfur, Edward (1968). The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. p. 105.
- Vincent, William (1805). The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. Cadell and Davies. p. 403.
- A. Soundaram (2011). "The Characteristic Features of Early Medieval Tamil Society". In S. Ganeshram; C. Bhavani (eds.). History of People and Their Environs. Bharathi Puthakalayam. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-93-80325-91-0.
- The First Spring: The Golden Age of India – Abraham Eraly – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 455. ISBN 9788122411980.
- Melton, J. Gordon (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History [4 Volumes]: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 476. ISBN 9781610690263.
- Sri Lanka and South-East Asia: Political, Religious and Cultural Relations from A.D. C. 1000 to C. 1500, 1978 By W. M. Sirisena, 57 p.
- Politics of Tamil Nationalism in Sri Lanka, South Asian Publishers, 1996 By Ambalavanar Sivarajah, 22 p.
- Avari, Burjor (1 July 2016). India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from c. 7000 BCE to CE 1200. Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 9781317236733.
- Caldwell, Bishop R. (2004). History of Tinnevelly. Asian Educational Services. p. 12. ISBN 9788120601611.
- Madras, University of (1973). Journal: Humanities.
- Oppert, Gustav saloman (1888). On the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa or India. p. 104. ISBN 9925082196.
- Caldwell, Bishop R. (1989). History of Tinnevelly. Asian Educational Services. p. 12. ISBN 9788120601611.
- Mahabharata Book Eight: Karna By Adam Bowles
- The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated into ..., Volume 8 By Kisari Mohan Ganguli
- Journal of Kerala Studies. University of Kerala. 2009. p. 110.
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (25 August 2017). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 9781538106860.
- Journal of Indian History. Department of History, University of Kerala. 2002. p. 96.
- University, Vijaya Ramaswamy, Jawaharlal Nehru (25 August 2017). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 50. ISBN 9781538106860.
- Raghavan, M. D. (1971). Tamil culture in Ceylon: a general introduction. Kalai Nilayam. pp. 59–60.
- Shulman, David Dean (14 July 2014). Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition. Princeton University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9781400856923.
- Venkataramaiah, K. M.; Linguistics, International School of Dravidian (1996). A handbook of Tamil Nadu. International School of Dravidian Linguistics. p. 548. ISBN 9788185692203.
- Karuṇāniti, Kalaiñar Mu; Araṅkacāmi, Pal̲ani; Kal̲akam, Tañcai Tamil̲p Palkalaik (1997). Gleanings from Sangam verses: English version of Sangat Thamizh. Tamil University. p. 245.
- Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, 1966. p. 127.
- Nākacāmi, Irāmaccantiran̲ (1978). Studies in Ancient Tamil Law and Society. Institute of Epigraphy, State Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamilnadu. p. 52.
- Benard, Elisabeth; Moon, Beverly (21 September 2000). Goddesses Who Rule. Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780195352948.
- Agnihotri, V.K. Indian History. Allied Publishers. p. 386. ISBN 9788184245684.
- Excavations of Archaeological Sites in Tamil Nadu, Mankulam Excavation, 2007. Tamil Nadu State Department of Archaeology. 2008. p. 1.
- Champakalakshmi, Radha (1996). Trade, ideology, and urbanization: South India 300 BC to AD 1300. Oxford University Press. p. 123.
- Kulke and Rothermund, p104
- Keay, p119
- S. Dhammika, The Edicts of King Ashoka: An English Rendering Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy (1994) ISBN 955-24-0104-6
- Caldwell, Bishop R. (2004). History of Tinnevelly. Asian Educational Services. p. 16. ISBN 9788120601611.
- India By John Keay
- Caldwell, Bishop R. (2004). History of Tinnevelly. Asian Educational Services. p. 15. ISBN 9788120601611.
- Periplus 54. Original Greek: "Ἡ δὲ Νέλκυνδα σταδίους μὲν ἀπὸ Μουζιρέως ἀπέχει σχεδὸν πεντακοσίους, ὁμοίως διά τε ποταμοῦ (καὶ πεζῇ) καὶ διὰ θαλάσσης, βασιλείας δέ ἐστιν ἑτέρας, τῆς Πανδίονος· κεῖται δὲ καὶ αὐτὴ παρὰ ποταμὸν, ὡσεὶ ἀπὸ σταδίων ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι τῆς θαλάσσης."
- Hill, John
- Bin Yang (2009). Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14254-0.
- Yukteshwar Kumar (2005). A History of Sino-Indian Relations. APH Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-7648-798-6.
- Strabo, Geography, BOOK XV., CHAPTER I., section 73. Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
- Keay, p121
- Smith, Vincent A. (1999). The Early History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 453. ISBN 9788171566181.
- Travel and ethnology in the Renaissance: South India through European eyes, Joan-Pau Rubiés
- Muslim identity, print culture, and the Dravidian factor in Tamil Nadu, J. B. Prashant More
- Layers of blackness: colourism in the African diaspora, Deborah Gabriel
- Husaini, Abdul Qadir. The History of the Pandya Country. p. 5.
- Sastri. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. p. 127.
- Roy, Kaushik (3 June 2015). Warfare in Pre-British India – 1500BCE to 1740CE. Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 9781317586920.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 454. ISBN 9788122411980.
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (25 August 2017). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 260. ISBN 9781538106860.
- The Ramayana, The Great Hindu Epic Translated by R C Dutt, RAMAYANA BOOK VII: KISHKINDHA (Part – VI THE QUEST FOR SITA)
- Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1969). Caste and Race in India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 357–358. ISBN 978-81-7154-205-5.
- Bibek Debroy (1 July 2012). The Mahabharata: Volume 3. Penguin Books India. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-14-310015-7.
- (Saiyid.), Abdul Qadir Husaini (1962). The History of the Pāndya Country. Selvi Pathippakam. pp. 8–17.
- Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1976). A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. Oxford University Press. pp. 22–25.
- Indrapala, Karthigesu (2007). The evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. p. 324. ISBN 978-955-1266-72-1.
- Kalidos, Raju (1976). History and Culture of the Tamils: From Prehistoric Times to the President's Rule. Vijay Publications. p. 176.
- "Pandya dynasty | Indian dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Farooqui, Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131732021.
- Farooqui, Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. p. 26. ISBN 9788131732021.
- N. Subrahmanian 1962, pp. 133-136.
- Journal of Indian History. University of Kerala: Department of Modern Indian History. 2005.
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- Ayyappappanikkar (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. p. 513. ISBN 9788126003655.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 458. ISBN 9788122411980.
- Caldwell, Bishop R. (2004). History of Tinnevelly. Asian Educational Services. p. 31. ISBN 9788120601611.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 439. ISBN 9788122411980.
- (India), Andhra Pradesh (2000). Andhra Pradesh District Gazetteers: Prakasam. Director of Print. and Stationery at the Government Secretariat Press; [copies can be from: Government Publication Bureau, Andhra Pradesh].
- The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge University Press: CUP Archive. p. 185.
- Journal of the Epigraphical Society of India. The Society. 1990. p. 48.
- Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 411. ISBN 9788120804364.
- Chopra, Pran Nath (1992). Encyclopaedia of India: Karnataka. Rima Pub. p. 29.
- Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Bhavan, Bharatiya Vidya (1966). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The struggle for empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 257.
- Congress, Indian History (1957). Proceedings – Indian History Congress. p. 186.
- Boda, Sharon La (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Routledge. p. 502. ISBN 9781884964046.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 487. ISBN 9788122411980.
- Intirapālā, Kārttikēcu (1971). The collapse of the Rajarata civilization in Ceylon and the drift to the south-west: a symposium. Ceylon Studies Seminar, University of Ceylon. p. 96.
- Connolly, Peter; Gillingham, John; Lazenby, John (13 May 2016). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Warfare. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 9781135936747.
- Criminal Justice India Series: Pondicherry. West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences: Allied Publishers. 2002. p. 4. ISBN 9788177648713.
- J. B. Prashant More. Muslim Identity, Print Culture, and the Dravidian Factor in Tamil Nadu. Orient Blackswan, 2004. p. 10.
- K.V. Raman. Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture. Abhinav Publications, 2003. p. 24.
- Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992, p. 412.
- Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992, p. 414.
- Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992, pp. 416–417.
- Kishori Saran Lal 1950, pp. 208–213.
- K.K.R. Nair 1987, p. 27.
- Peter Jackson 2003, p. 207.
- Kishori Saran Lal 1950, p. 212.
- Nilakanta Sastri, P.213
- Muthanna, I. M. (1962). Karnataka, History, Administration & Culture. p. 89.
- Aiyangar, Krishnaswami S. (1991). South India and Her Muhammadan Invaders. Asian Educational Services, 1991 – India, South. pp. 67–68, 110–111, 167, 171–174. ISBN 9788120605367.
- Puri, B. N.; Das, M. N. (1 December 2003). A Comprehensive History of India: Comprehensive history of medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9788120725089.
- Desai, Pandurang Bhimarao (1971). Studies in Indian history and culture: volume presented to Dr. P. B. Desai ... on the occasion of his completing sixty years. Prof. P. B. Desai Felicitation Committee, Karnatak University; [for copies write to the printer: K. E. B's Print. Press]. p. 125.
- Rajan, K. V. Soundara (1 March 1998). Rock-cut temple styles: early Pandya art and the Ellora shrines. Somaiya Publications. p. 58. ISBN 9788170392187.
- Allen, Margaret Prosser (1991). Ornament in Indian Architecture. University of Delaware Press. p. 350. ISBN 9780874133998.
- Mansingh, Surjit (9 May 2006). Historical Dictionary of India. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 430. ISBN 9780810865020.
- Sircar, Dineshchandra (1970). Early Indian indigenous coins. University of Calcutta. p. 98.
- The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Numismatic Society of India. 2005. p. 67.
- Sircar, Dineshchandra (1970). Early Indian indigenous coins. University of Calcutta. p. 96.
- Savariroyan, Pandit D. (2004). Dravidian kingdoms and list of Pandiyan coins. Asian Educational Services. pp. 48–49. ISBN 9788120617520.
- Shastri, Ajay Mitra; Kumar, Manmohan S. (1 January 1996). Numismatic Studies, Vol. Harman Publishing House. p. 46. ISBN 9788185151922.
- Nākacāmi, Irāmaccantiran̲; Nagaswamy, R. (1981). Tamil Coins: A Study. Institute of Epigraphy, Tamilnadu State Department of Archaeology. p. 102.
- Desikachari, T. (1991). South Indian Coins. Asian Educational Services. p. 164. ISBN 9788120601550.
- Lindsay (2006) p. 101
- Curtin 1984: 100
- The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour
- Holl 2003: 9
- Venkata Subramanian 1988, p. 55.
- Iyengar, P.T. Srinivasa (2001). History of the Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 AD. Asian Educational Services. p. 22. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Caldwell, Robert (1881). A Political and General History of the District of Tinnevelly. p. 20. Retrieved 15 July 2005.
- Subrahmanian, N.; Hikosaka, Shu; Samuel, G. John; Thiagarajan, P.; India), Institute of Asian Studies (Madras (1997). Tamil social history. Institute of Asian Studies.
- Kulke and Rothermund, p99, p107
- Ridgeon, Lloyd V. J. (2003). Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present. Psychology Press. p. 23. ISBN 9780415297967.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pandyan Dynasty.|
- Balambal, V. (1998). Studies in the History of the Sangam Age. Kalinga Publications. ISBN 978-81-85163-87-1.
- Carswell, John. 1991. "The Port of Mantai, Sri Lanka." RAI, pp. 197–203.
- Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5.
- Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation.
- Holl, Augustin (2003). Ethnoarchaeology of Shuwa-Arab Settlements. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0407-1.
- Husaini, A.Q. (1972). History of The Pandya Country.
- Keay, John (2000) . India: A history. India: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
- Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India (4 ed.).
- Lindsay, W S (2006). History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-94253-8.
- Nagasamy, R (1981). Tamil Coins – A study. Institute of Epigraphy, Tamil Nadu State Dept. of Archaeology.
- Purushottam, Vi. Pi. (1989). Cankakala Mannar Kalanilai Varalaru.
- Ray, Himanshu Prabha, ed. 1996. Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the International Seminar Techno-Archaeological Perspectives of Seafaring in the Indian Ocean 4th cent. BC – 15th cent. AD New Delhi, 28 February – 4 March 1994. New Delhi, and Jean-François SALLES, Lyon. First published 1996. Reprinted 1998. Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
- Reddy, P. Krishna Mohan. 2001. "Maritime Trade of Early South India: New Archaeological Evidences from Motupalli, Andhra Pradesh." East and West Vol. 51 – Nos. 1–2 (June 2001), pp. 143–156.
- Tripathi, Rama Sankar (1967). History of Ancient India. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-0018-4.
- Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta. The Pandyan Kingdom: From the Earliest Times to the Sixteenth Century.
- Shaffer, Lynda (1996). Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500 (Sources and Studies in World History). Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-144-7.
- N. Subrahmanian (1962). History of Tamilnad (To A. D. 1336). Madurai: Koodal. OCLC 43502446. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016.
- Venkata Subramanian, T. K. (1988). Environment and Urbanisation in Early Tamilakam. Issue 92 of Tamil_p Palkalaik Kal_aka ve?iyi?u. Tamil University. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-7090-110-5.
- Banarsi Prasad Saksena (1992). "The Khaljis: Alauddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206–1526). 5 (Second ed.). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 31870180.
- K.K.R. Nair (1987). "Venad: Its Early History". Journal of Kerala Studies. University of Kerala. 14 (1): 1–34. ISSN 0377-0443.
- Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290–1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335.
- Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.