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This is a list of Tamil-speaking monarchs, who ruled in Tamilakam and Sri Lanka. The ancient Tamil monarchy was largely hereditary and supported by numerous chieftains.[1]

Contents

Tamil royal titlesEdit

  • Pérun-kō or Perarasan (emperor)
  • Perarasi (empress)
  • Kō(கோ) or Arasan (king)
  • Arasi (queen)
  • Ilam-kō or Ilavarasan (prince)
  • Ilavarasi (princess)
  • Kuru-nïlza mannan or Chitarasan (petty king)
  • Chitarasi (petty queen)
  • Āṇṭavaṉ (ruler)
  • Āḻiyāṉ (king)
  • Iṟai or Iṟaivaṉ (emperor)

Three Crowned KingsEdit

Pandyan KingdomEdit

Early Pandyans (6th century BCE – 3rd century CE)Edit

  • Koon Pandiyan
  • Nedunjeliyan I (he was mentioned in legend of Kannagi)
  • Pudappandiyan
  • Mudukudumi Peruvazhudhi
  • Nedunjeliyan II
  • Nanmaran
  • Nedunjeliyan III
  • Maran Vazhudhi
  • Kadalan Vazhudhi
  • Mutriya Chezhiyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvazhudhi

Medieval Pandyans (6th – 10th centuries CE)Edit

Pandyans under Chola empire (10th – 13th centuries)Edit

  • Sundara Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan II
  • Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa
  • Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandyan
  • Jatavarman Chola Pandya
  • Seervallabha Manakulachala (1101–1124)
  • Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132–1161)
  • Parakrama Pandyan I (1161–1162)
  • Kulasekara Pandyan III
  • Vira Pandyan III
  • Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175–1180)
  • Jatavarman Kulasekaran I (1190–1216)

Later Pandyans (13th – 14th centuries)Edit

Tenkasi Pandyans (15th – 17th centuries)Edit

During the 15th century, the Pandyans lost their traditional capital city Madurai because of the Islamic and Nayaks invasion, and were forced to move their capital to Tirunelveli in southern Tamilakam and existed there as vassals.

  • Cataiyavarman Parakrama Pandyan 1422–1463
  • Cataiyavarman III Kulasekara Pandyan 1429–1473
  • Azhagan Perumal Parakrama Pandyan 1473–1506
  • Kulasekara Pandyan 1479–1499
  • Cataiyavarman Civallappa Pandyan 1534–1543
  • Parakrama Kulasekara Pandyan 1543–1552
  • Nelveli Maran 1552–1564
  • Cataiyavarman Adiveerama Pandyan 1564–1604
  • Varathunga Pandyan 1588–1612
  • Varakunarama Pandyan 1613–1618
  • Kollankondan ?–?

Chola Empire (c. 300 BCE – 1279 CE)Edit

 
A bronze statue of Karikalan.
 
A sculpture of Rajaraja Chola I.

Legendary CholasEdit

Legendary early Chola kings

Early Cholas (c. 300 BCE – 848 CE)Edit

Medieval Cholas (850 CE–1070 CE)Edit

Later Cholas (1070 – 1279 AD)Edit

16th CenturyEdit

  • Virasekhara Chola (early 16th century, opponent of Nagama Nayak)

Chera KingdomEdit

Early CherasEdit

Later CherasEdit

 
Depiction of Cheraman Perumal
  • Kulashekhara Varman (800–820)
  • Rajashekhara Varman (820–844)
  • Sthanu Ravi Varman (844–885)
  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885–917)
  • Goda Ravi Varma (917–944)
  • Kotha Varma (944–962)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962–1019)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019–1021)
  • Vira Varman (1021–1028)
  • Rajasimha Varman (1028–1043)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043–1082)
  • Ravi Rama Varma (1082–1090)
  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090–1102)

Cheras of VenaduEdit

The Cheras under Rama Varma Kulashekhara moved to Kollam and founded the Venadu kingdom, which existed until 16 century.

  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090–1102)
  • Kotha Varma Marthandam (1102–1125)
  • Vira Kerala Varma I (1125–1145)
  • Kodai Kerala Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Kerala Varma II (1164–1167)
  • Vira Aditya Varma (1167–1173)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1173–1192)
  • Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III (1192–1195)
  • Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi (1195- ?)
  • Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1209–1214)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1214–1240)
  • Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1240–1252)
  • Ravi Varma (1299–1313)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1313–1333)
  • Aditya Varma Tiruvadi (1333–1335)
  • Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1335–1342)
  • Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1342–1363)
  • Vira Martanda Varma III (1363–1366)
  • Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1366–1382)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1383–1416)
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1416–1417)
  • Vira Kerala Martanda Varma (1383)
  • Chera Udaya Martanda Varma (1383–1444)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1444–1458)
  • Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1458–1468)
  • Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma (1468–1484
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1484–1503)
  • Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1503–1504)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1504–1528)

Pallava KingdomEdit

 
A Pallava coin with lion insigne of Narasimhavarman I.

Early PallavasEdit

  • Tondaiman Ilandiraiyan (son of Chola king Killivalavan with Nākar princess Pili Valai according to Manimegalai) - The Great Founder of a Pallava Dynasty Lineage
  • Bappa - Virakurcha - married a Naga of Mavilanga (Kanchi).
  • Simha Varman I (275–300 or 315–345)
  • Skanda Varman I (345–355) (Shivaskandavarman)

Middle PallavasEdit

  • Visnugopa (340–355) (Yuvamaharaja Vishnugopa)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II (370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–435)
  • Simha Varman II (435–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later PallavasEdit

Ay KingdomEdit

Jaffna Kingdom (Aryacakravartis) (c. 1215 – 1619 AD)Edit

 
Image of Singai Parasasekaran, his sons Pandaram, Paranirupsingan and Cankili I
  • Cinkai Ariyan Cekaracacekaran I 1215-1240
  • Kulasekara Pararacacekaran I 1240-1256
  • Kulottunga Cekaracacekaran II 1256-1279
  • Vikkrama Pararacacekaran II 1279-1302
  • Varotaya Cekaracacekaran III 1302-1325
  • Marttanta Pararacacekaran III 1325-1348
  • Kunapusana Cekaracacekaran IV 1348-1371
  • Virotaya Pararacacekaran IV 1371-1380
  • Jeyavira Cekaracacekaran V 1380-1410
  • Kunavira Pararacacekaran V 1410-1440
  • Kanagasuriya Cekaracacekaran V 1440-1478
  • Pararacacekaran VI 1478-1519
  • Cankili I (Cekaracacekaran VI) 1519-1565
  • Ilavarasan Puvi Raja Pandaram 1561-1565
  • Kasi Nayinar Pararacacekaran 1565-1570
  • (Name Not Known) 1565-1565
  • Periya Pillai Pandaram Cekaracacekaran 1570-1582
  • Puvi Raja Pandaram Pararacacekaran 1582-1591
  • Ethirmanna Cinkam Pararacacekaran 1591-1615
  • Paddilarasan Arasakesari Pandaram 1615-1616 (Assassinated)
  • Cankili II Cekaracacekaran 1616-1619[2]

NayakarsEdit

Madurai Nayakar (1529 AD – 1736 AD)Edit

  • Nagama Nayaka
  • Viswanatha Nayaka
  • Vitthala Raja Nayaka (1546–1558)
  • Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka (1563–1573)
  • Muttu Krishnappa Nayaka (1602–1609)
  • Muttu Virappa Nayaka (1609–1623)
  • Tirumalai Nayaka (1623–1659)
  • Muttu Alakadri Nayaka (1659–1662)
  • Chokkanatha Nayaka (1662–1682)
  • Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayaka (1682–1689)
  • Mangammal (1689–1704)
  • Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayaka (1704–1731)
  • Queen Meenakshi, and the End of the Nayakas (1731–1736)

Gingee Nayakar (1509 – 1649)Edit

  • Krishnappa Nayaka (1509–1521)
  • Chennappa Nayaka
  • Gangama Nayaka
  • Venkata Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Venkata Rama Bhupaala Nayaka
  • Thriyambamka Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Varadappa Nayaka
  • Ramalinga Nayani vaaru
  • Venkata Perumal Naidu
  • Periya Ramabhadra Naidu
  • Ramakrishnappa Naidu (d. 1649)

Thanjavur Nayakar (1532 – 1673 AD)Edit

Kandy Nayakar (1739 – 1815 AD)Edit

Ramnad SethupathisEdit

Under Madurai Nayakars (1590 – 1670 AD)Edit

  • Sadasiva Thevar Sethupathi (1590–1621)
  • Kootan Sethupathi (1621–1637)
  • Dalavai Sethupathi (1637–1659)
  • Raghunatha Sethupathi (1659–1670)

Independent Sethupathis (1670 – 1794 AD)Edit

  • Raghunatha Kilavan (1670–1708)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi I (1708–1723)
  • Sundaresvara Raghunatha Sethupathi (1723–1724)
  • Bhavani Shankara Thevar (1724–1728)
  • Kumara Muthu Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi (1728–1734)
  • Muthukumara Raghunatha Sethupathi (1734–1747)
  • Rakka Thevar (1747–1748)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi II (1748–1760)
  • Muthuramalinga Sethupathi I (1760–1794)

Under British Raj (1795 – 1979 AD)Edit

Pudukkotai Tondaimans (1680 – 1948 AD)Edit

Sivaganga estate (1725 – 1947 AD)Edit

  • Muthu Vijaya Raghunatha Periyavudaya Thevar (1730-1750)
  • Muthu Vaduganatha Periyavudaya Thevar (1750-1780)
  • Velu Nachiyar (1780-1790)
  • Vellacci (1790-1793)[3]
  • Vangam Periya Udaya Thevar (1793-1801)
  • Zamindar under British rule (1803-1947)

Velir monarchsEdit

PalaiyakkararsEdit

OthersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Splendours of Tamil Nadu. p.146
  2. ^ "genealogy of the royal house of jaffna".
  3. ^ K. R. Venkatarama Ayyar, Sri Brihadamba State Press, 1938, A Manual of the Pudukkóttai State, p.720