# Dot (diacritic)

(Redirected from Overdot)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese

·
Dot
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
 Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ậ ậ Ặ ặ Ḃ ḃ Ḅ ḅ Ċ ċ C̣ c̣ Ç̇ ç̇ Ć̣ ć̣ Č̣ č̣ Ꜿ ꜿ Ḋ ḋ Ḍ ḍ Ė ė Ė́ ė́ Ė̃ ė̃ Ẹ ẹ Ệ ệ Ḟ ḟ F̣ f̣ Ġ ġ G̣ g̣ Ḣ ḣ Ḥ ḥ İ i̇̀ i̇́ i̇̃ į̇́ į̇̃ Ị ị j̇̃ J̣ j̣ K̇ k̇ Ḳ ḳ L̇ l̇ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ŀ ŀ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ȯ ȯ O͘ o͘ Ọ ọ Ộ ộ Ȱ ȱ Ợ ợ Ṗ ṗ P̣ p̣ Q̇ q̇ Q̣ q̣ Q̣̇ q̣̇ Q̣̈ q̣̈ Ṙ ṙ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ṡ ṡ ẛ Ṡ̃ ṡ̃ Ṣ ṣ Ṥ ṥ Ṧ ṧ Ṩ ṩ Ṫ ṫ Ṭ ṭ U̇ u̇ U̇̄ u̇̄ Ụ ụ Ự ự V̇ v̇ Ṿ ṿ Ẇ ẇ Ẉ ẉ Ẋ ẋ X̣ x̣ Ẏ ẏ Ỵ ỵ Ż ż Ẓ ẓ
·
Dot
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
 Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ậ ậ Ặ ặ Ḃ ḃ Ḅ ḅ Ċ ċ C̣ c̣ Ç̇ ç̇ Ć̣ ć̣ Č̣ č̣ Ꜿ ꜿ Ḋ ḋ Ḍ ḍ Ė ė Ė́ ė́ Ė̃ ė̃ Ẹ ẹ Ệ ệ Ḟ ḟ F̣ f̣ Ġ ġ G̣ g̣ Ḣ ḣ Ḥ ḥ İ i̇̀ i̇́ i̇̃ į̇́ į̇̃ Ị ị j̇̃ J̣ j̣ K̇ k̇ Ḳ ḳ L̇ l̇ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ŀ ŀ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ȯ ȯ O͘ o͘ Ọ ọ Ộ ộ Ȱ ȱ Ợ ợ Ṗ ṗ P̣ p̣ Q̇ q̇ Q̣ q̣ Q̣̇ q̣̇ Q̣̈ q̣̈ Ṙ ṙ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ṡ ṡ ẛ Ṡ̃ ṡ̃ Ṣ ṣ Ṥ ṥ Ṧ ṧ Ṩ ṩ Ṫ ṫ Ṭ ṭ U̇ u̇ U̇̄ u̇̄ Ụ ụ Ự ự V̇ v̇ Ṿ ṿ Ẇ ẇ Ẉ ẉ Ẋ ẋ X̣ x̣ Ẏ ẏ Ỵ ỵ Ż ż Ẓ ẓ

## Overdot

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in ${\displaystyle v={\dot {x}}}$ . However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation.[citation needed] In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in ${\displaystyle 0.{\dot {3}}}$ , which is equal to the fraction ⅓, and ${\displaystyle 0.{\dot {1}}{\dot {4}}{\dot {2}}{\dot {8}}{\dot {5}}{\dot {7}}}$  or ${\displaystyle 0.{\dot {1}}4285{\dot {7}}}$ , which is equal to .

## Underdot

• In Inari Sami, an underdot denotes a half-long voiced consonant: đ̣, j̣, ḷ, ṃ, ṇ, ṇj, ŋ̣, ṛ, and ṿ. The underdot is used in dictionaries, textbooks, and linguistic publications only.
• In IAST and National Library at Calcutta romanization, transcribing languages of India, a dot below a letter distinguishes the retroflex consonants ṭ, ḍ, ṛ, ḷ, ṇ, ṣ, while m with underdot () signifies an anusvara. Very frequently (in modern transliterations of Sanskrit) an underdot is used instead of the ring (diacritic) below the vocalic r and l.
• In romanizations of some Afroasiatic languages, particularly Semitic Languages and Berber Languages, an underdot indicates an emphatic consonant.
• The underdot is also used in the PDA orthography for Domari to show pharyngealization—the underdotted consonants ⟨ḍ ḥ ṣ ṭ ẓ⟩ represent the emphaticized sounds /d̪ˤ ħ sˤ t̪ˤ zˤ/.
• In Asturian, (underdotted double ll) represents the voiced retroflex plosive or the voiceless retroflex affricate, depending on dialect, and (underdotted h) the voiceless glottal fricative.
• In Romagnol, ẹ ọ are used to represent [e, o], e.g. Riminese dialect fradẹll, ọcc [fraˈdell, ˈotʃː] "brothers, eyes".
• In academic notation of Old Latin, ẹ̄ (e with underdot and macron) represents the long vowel, probably //, that developed from the early Old Latin diphthong ei. This vowel usually became ī in Classical Latin.
• In academic transcription of Vulgar Latin, used in describing the development of the Romance languages, ẹ and ọ represent the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/, in contrast with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/, which are represented as e and o with ogonek (ę ǫ).
• In O'odham language, (d with underdot) represents a voiced retroflex stop.
• Vietnamese: The nặng tone (low, glottal) is represented with a dot below the base vowel: ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ.
• In Yoruba, the dot (or alternatively a small vertical line) is used below the o for an "open-o" sound, the e for an "open-e," and the s for an "sh" sound (ẹ, ọ, ṣ). The marking distinguishes these from the unmarked characters since the sound differences are meaningful.
• In Igbo, an underdot can be used on i, o, and u to make , , and . The underdot symbolizes a reduction in the vowel height.
• In Americanist phonetic notation, x with underdot represents a voiceless uvular fricative.
• Underdots are used in the Rheinische Dokumenta phonetic writing system to denote a voiced s and special pronunciations of r and a.
• In the Fiero-Rhodes orthography for Eastern Ojibwe and Odaawaa, in , , and , underdot is used to indicate labialization when either ⟨o⟩ or ⟨w⟩ following them was lost in syncope.
• In Marshallese, underdots on consonants represent velarization, such as the velarized bilabial nasal .
• UNGEGN romanization of Urdu includes ḍ, g̣, ḳ, ṭ, ẉ, and ỵ.[1]
• In Mizo, represents /t͡r/.
• The underdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called nukta.

## Raised Dot

• Number digits in Enclosed Alphanumerics like 🄀 ⒈ ⒉ ⒊ ⒋ ⒌ ⒍ ⒎ ⒏ ⒐
• In Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, in addition to the middle dot as a letter, centred dot diacritic, and dot above diacritic, there also is a two-dot diacritic in Naskapi Language representing /_w_V/ which depending on the placement on the specific Syllabic letter may resemble a colon when placed vertically, diaeresis when placed horizontally, or a combination of middle dot and dot above diacritic when placed either at an angle or enveloping a small raised letter ⟨ᓴ⟩. Additionally, in Northwestern Ojibwe, a small raised /wi/ as /w/, the middle dot is raised farther up as either ⟨ᣜ⟩ or ⟨ᣝ⟩; there also is a raised dot Final ⟨ᣟ⟩, which represents /w/ in some Swampy Cree and /y/ in some Northwestern Ojibwe.

## Encoding

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:

• U+0307 ◌̇ COMBINING DOT ABOVE (HTML &#775;)

and at:

• U+0323 ◌̣ COMBINING DOT BELOW (HTML &#803;)
• U+0358 ◌͘ COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT (HTML &#856;)
• U+1DF8 ◌᷸ COMBINING DOT ABOVE LEFT (HTML &#7672;)

There is also:

• U+02D9 ˙ DOT ABOVE (HTML &#729;)
• U+18DF CANADIAN SYLLABICS FINAL RAISED DOT

Pre-composed characters: