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Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Contents

PolishEdit

 
Signage on Polish municipal police (Straż Miejska) cars uses both the standard form (Ż) and the variant with horizontal stroke (Ƶ)

Ż represents the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], somewhat similar to the pronunciation of ⟨g⟩ in "mirage". It usually corresponds to Ж or Ž in most other Slavic languages.

Its pronunciation is the same as the rz digraph, the only difference being that ⟨rz⟩ evolved from a palatalized ⟨r⟩. Ż originates from a palatalized /g/ or /z/.[1]

Ż occasionally devoices to the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], particularly in final position.

Ż should not be confused with ⟨Ź⟩ (or ⟨z⟩ followed by ⟨i⟩), termed "soft zh"[citation needed], the voiced alveolopalatal fricative ([ʑ]).

Examples of żEdit

 żółty  (‘yellow’)
 żona  (‘wife’)

Compare ź (z with acute accent):

 źle  (‘wrongly, badly’)
 źrebię  (‘foal’)

Occasionally, capital Ƶ (Z with horizontal stroke) is used instead of capital Ż for aesthetic purposes, especially in all-caps text and handwriting.

Emilian-RomagnolEdit

Ż is used in Emilian-Romagnol to represent the voiced dental fricative [ð] (or, in some peripheral dialects, the affricates [dð~dz]), e.g. viażèr ([vjaˈðɛːr], "to travel").

KashubianEdit

Kashubian ż is a voiced fricative like in Polish, but it is postalveolar ([ʒ]) rather than retroflex.

MalteseEdit

 
City limit sign of Żurrieq in Malta

In Maltese, ż represents the voiced alveolar sibilant, pronounced like "z" in English "maze".

Tunisian ArabicEdit

It is used in Tunisian Arabic transliteration[which?] for /ð/ (based on Maltese with additional letters).

Computing codesEdit

character Ż ż
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
LATIN SMALL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 379 017B 380 017C
UTF-8 197 187 C5 BB 197 188 C5 BC
Numeric character reference Ż Ż ż ż
CP 852 189 BD 190 BE
CP 775 163 A3 164 A4
Mazovia 161 A1 167 A7
Windows-1250, ISO-8859-2 175 AF 191 BF
Windows-1257, ISO-8859-13 221 DD 253 FD
Mac Central European 251 FB 253 FD

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Corbett, Greville; Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 690. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6. The spelling difference reflects the historical difference between a palatalization of /r/ (for rz) and of /g/ or /z/ (for ż).