Ngiti language

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The Ngiti /əŋˈɡti/,[2] or South Lendu, is an ethnolinguistic group located in the Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ngiti speakers call their language Ndruna. In 1991, the Ngiti numbered 100,000 located in the Irumu territory south of Bunia.[3] During the Ituri conflict, the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri was formed as a Ngiti militia group and political party.[4]

Ngiti
South Lendu
Ndruna
Native toCongo (DRC)
Native speakers
(100,000 cited 1991)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3niy
Glottologngit1239

Unusual numeral systemEdit

Letter names and phonemesEdit

Letter [A] Name [5] IPA Romanization Sound: description or sound in English. Unicode Order
Vendi Vendi Rumnyi Vendi Rumnyi Alphabet [B]
ا الف alif /ɑː/, /ʔ/, /∅/ ā, – ā, – a as in bath (UK English, Received pronunciation) [C] U+0627 1 1 1
ب بے be /b/ b b b as in Ball. U+0628 2 2 2
پ پے pe /p/ p p p as in Pigeon. U+067E 3 3 3
ت تے te /t/ t t Dental T (used in Spanish and Dutch/Flemish) U+062A 4 4 4
ٹ ٹے ţe /ʈ/ t T as in karta (Swedish) U+0679 5 5 5
ث ثے the /θ/ s c as in cinema. U+062B 6 6 6
ج جيم x̧im /d͡ʒ/ j j j in Jug. U+062C 7 7 7
ڃ ڃیم xim /d͡z/ c ch ch in Chimney. U+0686 8 8 8
ݮ ݮیم xhim /ɖ͡ʐ/ c ch ch in Chimney. U+0686 8 8 8
چ چیم çim /t͡ʃ/ c ch ch in Chimney. U+0686 8 8 8
څ څیم cim /t͡s/ c ch ch in Chimney. U+0686 8 8 8
ݲ ݲیم chim /ʈ͡ʂ/ c ch ch in Chimney. U+0686 8 8 8
ح مذی حے madhi he /ɦ/ h h as in Happy. U+062D 9 9 9
خ خے khe /x/ k͟h kh No full equivalent in English. Similar to guttural kh in Khundak. U+062E 10 10 10
د دال dal /d/ d d No full equivalent in English. Similar to soft d in dream. U+062F 11 11 11
ڈ ڈال ḑal /ɖ/ d D as in Dream. U+0688 12 12 12
ذ ذال dhal /ð/ z Z as in zebra. U+0630 13 13 13
ر رے re /r/ r r r as in Razor. U+0631 14 14 14
ڑ ڑے ŗe /ɽ/
[D]
r No full equivalent in English. Similar to hard dh in Raigadh. U+0691 15 15 15
ز زے ze /z/ z z z as in Zebra. U+0632 16 16 16
ݱ ݱے z̧e /ʐ/ zh zh si as in version. U+0698 17 17 17
ژ ژے zhe /ʒ/
[E]
zh zh si as in version. U+0698 17 17 17
س سین sin /s/ s s s as in sea. U+0633 18 18 18
ݰ ݰین şin /ʂ/ sh sh sh as in shine. U+0634 19 19 19
ش شین shin /ʃ/ sh sh sh as in shine. U+0634 19 19 19
ص صاد swad /s/ s s as in swear. U+0635 20 20 20
ض ضاد zwad /z/ z z as in gazette. U+0636 21 21 21
ط طوے t̤oʼe /t/ t No full equivalent in English. Similar to ta as in Talia. U+0637 22 22 22
ظ ظوے z̤oʼe /z/ z Hard z in zoo. U+0638 23 23 23
ع عین ʻain /ɑː/, /oː/, /eː/,
/ʔ/, /ʕ/, /∅/
ʻ ʻ
[citation needed]
No full equivalent in English. Similar to harsh guttural a in apple. U+0639 24 24 24
غ غین ghain /ɣ/ g͟h gh No full equivalent in English. Similar to guttural gh in Ghalib. U+063A 25 25 25
ف فے fe /f/ f f f as in flower. U+0641 26 26 26
ٯ ٯاف nyaf /ɴ/ q q Not used in English. In Arabic it is the first letter of Qatar and the last letter of Iraq. Sometimes said to resemble the call of a crow. U+0642 27 27 27
ق قاف qaf /q/ q q Not used in English. In Arabic it is the first letter of Qatar and the last letter of Iraq. Sometimes said to resemble the call of a crow. U+0642 27 27 27
ڨ ڨاف yaf /ɢ/ q q Not used in English. In Arabic it is the first letter of Qatar and the last letter of Iraq. Sometimes said to resemble the call of a crow. U+0642 27 27 27
ک کاف kaf /k/ k k k as in Kite. U+06A9 28 28 28
گ گاف gaf /ɡ/ g g g as in grass. U+06AF 29 29 29
ݣ ݣاف ngaf /ŋ/ g g g as in grass. U+06AF 29 29 29
ل لام lam /l/ l l l as in lemon. U+0644 30 30 30
لؕ لؕام ļam /ɭ/ l l l as in lemon. U+0644 30 30 30
م میم mim /m/ m m m as in Mike. U+0645 31 31 31
ن نون nun /n/ n n n as in noon. U+0646 32 32 32
ݨ پشاہ ݨون nun pashah /ɳ/ n n n as in noon. U+0646 32 32 32
ں
٘
نون غنّہ nun ghunna / ◌̃ /
[D]
n Nasal vowel. Not used in English, but used in French.[example needed] U+06BA
U+0658
[F]
[G] 32a 33
و واؤ waʼo /w/ v,
ū, u, o, au
w,
ū, u, o, au
w as in walet. U+0648 33 33 34
ۏ ۏاؤ vaʼo /v/ v,
ū, u, o, au
w,
ū, u, o, au
w as in walet. U+0648 33 33 34
ۋ ۋاؤ mvaʼo /ɱ/ v,
ū, u, o, au
w,
ū, u, o, au
w as in walet. U+0648 33 33 34
ہ گول ہے gol he /ɦ/, /ɑː/, /eː/ h, ā, e h, ā, e h as in hot. U+06C1
[H]
34 34 35
ی ۏگلی يے vogeli je /j/, /iː/, /ɑː/ y, ī, á y, ī, á y as in yellow or ee as in feel. U+06CC 36 35 38
مذی ࢨے madhi je /j/, /iː/, /ɑː/ y, ī, á y, ī, á y as in yellow or ee as in feel. U+06CC 36 35 38
ے رفشت يے rafshat je /ɛː/, /eː/
[D]
ai, e ai, e a as in cat or ay as in day. U+06D2 37 35b 39
ئ ہمزہ hamzah /ʔ/ or /∅/
[I]
ʼ, –, yi ʼ, –, yi Ya (e.g. yak) sound for first. A-i (Sloppy A sound) for second. U+0626 35a 37
[J]
ء U+0621 0
Footnotes:

  1. ^ The form shown is the isolated glyph. For other positional forms see: Nastaliq Letter Forms .
  2. ^ [citation needed]
  3. ^ At the beginning of a word it can represent another vowel, holding a vowel diacritic that would normally be held by the consonant preceding the vowel, for examble اُردو "Urdu". But the dacritic indicating which vowel is often omitted اردو like other short vowel diacritcs.
  4. ^ a b c No Urdu word begins with ں‎, ھ‎, ڑ‎, or ے‎.[citation needed]
  5. ^ Used mainly for Persian loanwords.
  6. ^ The version shown on the left is U+06BA , which is used only at the end of words. When it is used in the middle of a word it is a diacritic U+0658 , which is usually omitted (see below for further information on diacritic omission in Urdu).
  7. ^ Not present in dictionary order because it is not used at the beginning of words.
  8. ^ Sometimes choṭī hē is used to refer to gōl hey but choṭī hē can also refer to the Arabic / Persian variant, a stylistic variation representing an equivalent letter, but Persian and Arabic usually use U+0647 whereas Urdu uses U+06C1 for gōl hey.[6] See also: Urdu in Unicode.
  9. ^ Hamzah: In Urdu , hamzah is silent in all its forms except for when it is used as hamzah-e-izafat. The main use of hamzah in Urdu is to indicate a vowel cluster.
  10. ^ [citation needed]

numberEdit

Ngiti is reported to have a base-32 number system with base-4 cycles.[7] The following is a list of some Ngiti numerals.

Number Numeral
1 atdí
2 ɔyɔ
3 ɨ̀bhʉ
4 ɨ̀fɔ
8 àrʉ̀
12 otsi
16 ɔpɨ
20 àbà
24 àròtsí
28 àdzòro
32 wǎdhɨ̀
64 ɔyɔ wǎdhɨ̀
96 ɨ̀bhʉ wǎdhɨ̀
128 ɨ̀fɔ wǎdhɨ̀

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Ngiti at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  3. ^ Ngiti from Ethnologue
  4. ^ "DRC: Who's who in Ituri – militia organisations, leaders", IRIN, 20 April 2005
  5. ^ Delacy 2003, pp. XV–XVI.
  6. ^ "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  7. ^ Hammarström, Harald (2006), "Rarities in Numeral Systems", Proceedings of Rara & Rarissima Conference (PDF)