Voiced labiodental affricate
|Voiced labiodental affricate|
Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- There are two variants of the stop component:
- The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Dutch||Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect||vèès||[b̪͡vɛːs]||'screw'||Labiodental; occasional allophone of /v/; distribution unclear.|
|Italian||Some central-south dialects||in vetta||[iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä]||'at the top'||Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals. See Italian phonology|
|Luxembourgish||Kampf am Ënnergrond||[ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm
|'underground battle'||Occurs only word-finally before words beginning with vowels (when pronounced without a pause between them) in German loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Ngiti||abvɔ||[āb̪͡vɔ̄]||'thorny vine'||Less commonly [b͡β]|
- Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
- Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
- Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1
- Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083