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A voiced labiodental affricate ([b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].

Voiced labiodental affricate
b̪v
Audio sample

FeaturesEdit

Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • There are two variants of the stop component:
    • bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental.
    • labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[1] vèès [b̪͡vɛːs] 'screw' Labiodental; occasional allophone of /v/; distribution unclear.[1]
Italian Some central-south dialects[2] in vetta [iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top' Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals.[2] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[3] Kampf am Ënnergrond [ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm
ˈənɐɡʀont]
'underground battle' Occurs only word-finally before words beginning with vowels (when pronounced without a pause between them) in German loanwords.[3] See Luxembourgish phonology
Ngiti[4] abvɔ [āb̪͡vɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Less commonly [b͡β][5]
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect shilebvu [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin'

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  2. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 72–73.
  4. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 31.
  5. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 45.

ReferencesEdit

  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083

External linksEdit