Voiceless labiodental affricate
|Voiceless labiodental affricate|
The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga has this affricate, as in [tiɱp̪͡fuβu] "hippopotamuses" and aspirated [ɱp̪͡fʰuka] "distance" (compare [ɱfutsu] "tortoise", which shows that the stop is not epenthetic), as well as a voiced labiodental affricate, [b̪͡v], as in [ʃileb̪͡vu] "chin". There is no voiceless labiodental fricative [f] in this dialect of Tsonga, only a voiceless bilabial fricative, as in [ɸu] "finished". (Among voiced fricatives, both [β] and [v] occur, however.)
German has a similar sound /p͡f/ in Pfeffer /ˈp͡fɛfər/ ('pepper') and Apfel /ˈap͡fəl/ ('apple'). Phonotactically, this sound does not occur after long vowels, diphthongs or /l/. It differs from a true labiodental affricate in that it starts out bilabial but then the lower lip retracts slightly for the frication.
Features of the voiceless labiodental affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- There are two variants of the stop component:
- The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|German||Standard||Pfirsiche||[ˈp͡fɪɐ̯zɪçə] (help·info)||'peaches'||Bilabial-labiodental. See Standard German phonology|
|Swiss dialects||Soipfe||[ˈz̥oi̯p͡fə]||'soap'||Bilabial-labiodental. The example word is from the Zurich dialect.|
|Italian||Some central-south dialects||infatti||[iɱˈp̪͡fät̪̚t̪i]||'indeed'||Labiodental, allophone of /f/ after nasals. See Italian phonology|
|Luxembourgish||Kampf||[ˈkʰɑmp͡f]||'fight'||Occurs only in German loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Tsonga||XiNkuna dialect||timpfuvu||[tiɱp̪͡fuβu]||'hippopotami'||Contrasts with aspirated form.|
- Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
- Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2), doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441
- Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
- Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7
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