Nereid

  (Redirected from Nereids)

In Greek mythology, the Nereids (/ˈnɪəriɪdz/ NEER-ee-idz; Greek: Νηρηΐδες Nereides, sg. Νηρηΐς Nereis) are sea nymphs (female spirits of sea waters), the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to their brother Nerites.[1] They often accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, and can be friendly and helpful to sailors (such as the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece).

The Nereid Monument. From Xanthos (Lycia), modern-day Antalya Province, Turkey. 390–380 BC. Room 17, the British Museum, London

MythologyEdit

 
Nereid riding a sea-bull (latter 2nd century BC)

Nereids are particularly associated with the Aegean Sea, where they dwelt with their father Nereus in the depths within a golden palace.[1] The most notable of them are Thetis, wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles; Amphitrite, wife of Poseidon and mother of Triton; and Galatea, the vain love interest of the Cyclops Polyphemus.

They symbolized everything that is beautiful and kind about the sea. Their melodious voices sang as they danced around their father. They are represented as very beautiful girls, crowned with branches of red coral and dressed in white silk robes trimmed with gold, but who went barefoot. They were part of Poseidon's entourage and carried his trident.

In Homer's Iliad XVIII, when Thetis cries out in sympathy for the grief of Achilles for the slain Patroclus, her sisters appear. The Nereid Opis is mentioned in Virgil's Aeneid. She is called by the goddess Diana to avenge the death of the Amazon-like female warrior Camilla. Diana gives Opis magical weapons for revenge on Camilla's killer, the Etruscan Arruns. Opis sees and laments Camilla's death, and kills Arruns with an arrow in revenge as directed by Diana.[2]

NamesEdit

 
French Empire mantel clock (1822) depicting the nereid Galatea velificans

This list is correlated from four sources: Homer's Iliad,[3] Hesiod's Theogony,[4] the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus[5] and the Fabulae of Hyginus.[6] Because of this, the total number of names goes beyond fifty.[7]

List of nereids
No. Name Sources
Hom. Hes. Ps-Apol. Hyg. Others
1Actaea
2 Agaue
3 Amatheia
4Amphinome
5 Amphithoe
6 Amphitrite
7Apseudes
8 Arethusa [8] [9]
9 Asia [10] [11]
10 Autonoe
11 Beroe [12]
12 Callianassa
13 Callianeira
14 Calypso
15 Ceto
16 Clio [12]
17 Clymene [13] [14]
18 Cranto
19 Creneis
20 Cydippe [15] [16]
21 Cymo
22 Cymatolege
23 Cymodoce [17]
24 Cymothoe
25 Deiopea [18] [11]
26 Dero
27 Dexamene
28 Dione
29 Doris
30 Doto
31 Drymo [19]
32 Dynamene
33 Eione
34 Ephyra
35 Erato
36 Euagore or Evagore
37 Euarne
38 Eucrante
39 Eudore
40 Eulimene
41 Eumolpe
42 Eunice
43 Eupompe
44 Eurydice
45 Galene
46 Galatea
47 Glauce
48 Glauconome
49 Halie
50 Halimede
51 Hipponoe
52 Hippothoe
53 Iaera
54 Ianassa
55 Ianeira
56 Ione
57 Iphianassa [20]
58 Laomedeia
59 Leiagore
60 Leucothoe
61 Ligea [19]
62 Limnoreia
63 Lycorias
64 Lysianassa
65 Maera
66 Melite [21]
67 Menippe
68 Nausithoe
69 Nemertes
70 Neomeris
71 Nerea [22]
72 Nesaea [17]
73 Niso
74 Opis
75 Oreithyia
76 Panopea [21]
77 Panope
78 Pasithea
79 Pherusa
80 Phyllodoce [19]
81 Plexaure
82 Ploto
83 Polynome
84 Pontomedusa
85 Pontoporeia
86 Poulynoe
87 Pronoe
88 Proto
89 Protomedeia
90 Psamathe
91 Sao
92 Speio [17]
93 Thaleia [17]
94 Themisto
95 Thetis [21]
96 Thoe
97 Xantho [19]
Number of Nereids 34 50 45 47 2

Modern useEdit

In modern Greek folklore, the term "nereid" (νεράιδα, neráida) has come to be used for all nymphs, fairies, or mermaids, not merely nymphs of the sea.[23]

Nereid, a moon of the planet Neptune, is named after the Nereids, as is Nereid Lake in Antarctica.[24]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Atsma, Aaron J. "Nereides". Theoi Project Greek Mythology. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  2. ^ Virgil: His life and times by Peter Levi, Duckworth, 1998
  3. ^ Homer, Iliad 18.39-51
  4. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 240-262
  5. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.2.7
  6. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Preface
  7. ^ This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.346 which suggests that Arethusa was a naiad, more likely Oceanides, rather than a Nereides.
  8. ^ Virgil, Georgics 4.346
  9. ^ This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.343 which suggests that Arethusa was a naiad, more likely Oceanides, rather than a Nereides.
  10. ^ a b Virgil, Georgics 4.343
  11. ^ a b This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.341 which clearly states that ". . .Clio, too, And Beroe, sisters, ocean-children both, . . ."
  12. ^ It is possible that only one Nereid was named as Clymene who was Homer's Clymene but the other Clymene in Virgil, Georgics 4.345 was suggested to be a naiad, apparently an Oceanid rather than a Nereid. This was misinterpreted by Hyginus in his Fabulae Preface that is why, two Nereids were named Clymene in the text.
  13. ^ Virgil, Georgics 4.345
  14. ^ This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.339 which suggests that Cydippe was a naiad, more likely Oceanides, rather than a Nereides.
  15. ^ Virgil, Georgics 4.339
  16. ^ a b c d Virgil, Georgics 4.338; Aeneid 5.826
  17. ^ This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.343 which suggests that Deiopea was a naiad, more likely Oceanides, rather than a Nereides.
  18. ^ a b c d This was definitely a misinterpretation of Hyginus in Virgil's Georgics 4.336 which suggests that Drymo, Xantho, Ligea and Phyllodoce were naiads, more likely Oceanides, rather than Nereides: ". . .Even from her chamber in the river-deeps, His mother heard: around her spun the nymphs, Milesian wool stained through with hyaline dye, Drymo, Xantho, Ligea, Phyllodoce, Their glossy locks o'er snowy shoulders shed, . . ."
  19. ^ Lucian, Dialogi Marini 14
  20. ^ a b c Virgil, Aeneid 5.825
  21. ^ Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1.450
  22. ^ Zervas, Theodore G. (2016). Formal and Informal Education During the Rise of Greek Nationalism: Learning to be Greek. Springer. p. 121. ISBN 9781137484154.
  23. ^ Nereid Lake. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit