2015 Myanmar general election
General elections were held in Myanmar on 8 November 2015, with the National League for Democracy winning a supermajority of seats in the combined national parliament. Voting occurred in all constituencies, excluding seats appointed by the military, to select Members of Assembly to seats in both the upper house (the House of Nationalities) and the lower house (the House of Representatives) of the Assembly of the Union, and State and Region Hluttaws. Ethnic Affairs Ministers were also elected by their designated electorates on the same day, although only select ethnic minorities in particular states and regions were entitled to vote for them.
330 of the 440 seats in the House of Representatives
221 seats needed for a majority
168 of the 224 seats in the House of Nationalities
113 seats needed for a majority
Results of the election in the Pyithu Hluttaw, Amyotha Hluttaw, as well as State and Regional Hluttaws. Includes results of by-elections up to 2018.
These polls were the first openly contested election held in the country since 1990, which was annulled by the military government after the National League for Democracy's (NLD) victory. The poll was preceded by the 2010 general election, which was marred by a boycott and widespread allegations of systematic fraud by the victorious Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP).
The NLD won a sweeping victory, taking 86 percent of the seats in the Assembly of the Union (235 in the House of Representatives and 135 in the House of Nationalities), well more than the 67 percent supermajority needed to ensure that its preferred candidates would be elected president and second vice president in the Presidential Electoral College. While the NLD only needed a simple majority to carry on the normal business of government, it needed at least 67 percent to outvote the combined pro-military bloc in the Presidential Electoral College (the USDP and the appointed legislators representing the military). Although NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi is constitutionally barred from the presidency (as both her late husband and her children are foreign citizens), she was made the de facto head of government, after being appointed to a newly created office, the State Counsellor of Myanmar.
As the election approached, the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party confirmed it would contest its winning constituencies from 2010. The opposition National League for Democracy party confirmed it would contest even if a constitutional measure barring Aung San Suu Kyi from running for president was not amended.
The National Unity Party confirmed it would review its winning seats from 2010 and would consider other constituencies to challenge. The National Democratic Force said the party was prepared to challenge in as many as 200 constituencies but was still determining candidates. Ethnic political groups would contest in each state based on ethnic party strongholds, although some indicated they would consider forming an alliance as the Federal Union Party.
Before the election, 91 political parties were registered to take part in 2015.
In July 2015, Myanmar's Union Election Commission (UEC) designated the number of constituencies for running in the 2015 general election of four levels of parliamentary representatives: 330 constituencies for elections to the House of Representatives (the lower house), 168 for the House of Nationalities (the upper house), 644 for the State and Regional Hluttaws (local parliaments) and 29 for ethnic ministers of the local parliaments. The UEC also issued procedures for international observers to follow in monitoring the election, which was preliminarily scheduled for the end of October or the beginning of November.
The Union Election Commission cancelled elections in Kyethi and Mong Hsu townships in Shan State following armed clashes between the Tatmadaw and the insurgent Shan State Army - North. Despite calls by the Shan State Progressive Party to proceed with the elections, the UEC has denied the request, stating that it is not possible to hold free and fair elections in these areas. Elections were further cancelled in some villages in Hopang, Namtit, both of which fall within the nation's Wa Self-Administered Division, and under the control of the insurgent United Wa State Army. The cancellation of these elections will see the vacancy of 7 seats in the House of Representatives and 14 seats in the Shan State Hluttaw.
Cancellation of by-electionsEdit
By-elections had been scheduled to be held in November or December 2014, to elect members for six seats in the House of Nationalities, 13 in the House of Representatives, and 11 in state and regional legislatures. The seat vacancies were primarily the result of their former holders' moves to ministerial posts or departmental positions within government, but also included some other constituencies where representatives had died. The by-elections were expected to indicate the relative strengths of the contending parties, including President Thein Sein's Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) and the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) party led by Aung San Suu Kyi.
On 7 September 2014, the Union Election Commission cancelled the by-election because the period for campaigning would take place too close to that of the general elections in 2015 and because the results would therefore not have had any political significance.
Possible presidential candidatesEdit
In the event of a USDP victory, President Thein Sein was considered the frontrunner to continue as President after the election. Commander-in-Chief of the Military Min Aung Hlaing is close to retirement and was another favourite for the presidency, but may assume the role after a transitional period headed by another ex-military figure. Aung San Suu Kyi has reiterated her desire to become the next president but constitutional changes need to take place before she would be allowed to run. Although Parliament voted against most constitutional amendments on 25 June 2015 meaning that Aung San Suu Kyi cannot become president in the election, Suu Kyi later stated that she would be "above the President" if the NLD won the elections.
Shwe Mann, the former No. 3 in the junta who is now speaker of House of Representatives, considered reform-minded, was the most likely figure to take the mantle from Thein Sein until he was removed from his position within the party on 12 August 2015.
While National League for Democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi is constitutionally barred from the presidency, former commander-in-chief of Tatmadaw Tin Oo, Aung San Suu Kyi's personal physician Tin Myo Win, Htin Kyaw, Myo Aung and Tin Mar Aung are mentioned as possible presidential picks and Khun Htun Oo, Sai Nyunt Lwin and Aye Thar Aung are mentioned as possible vice presidential picks after the election. On 10 March 2016, Htin Kyaw and Henry Van Thio were nominated as the Vice Presidents of Myanmar by NLD. Htin Kyaw was elected as the ninth president of Myanmar on 15 March 2016 by 360 of the 652 MPs at the Assembly of the Union; Aung San Suu Kyi was appointed as the State Counsellor, a position similar to Prime Minister, on 6 April 2016.
The National League for Democracy (NLD) obtained a majority of the total seats in both the House of Nationalities and the House of Representatives of the Assembly of the Union, which is enough for its nominees to win election as president and first vice president in the Presidential Electoral College, and for control over national legislation.
The NLD also received a majority of total combined seats in the State and Regional Hluttaws, including 21 of 29 Ministers of Ethnic Affairs. With the final tally of all elected seats (township and ethnic), it is believed they will have the ability to control most local governments and parliaments, either entirely on its own or with the support of ethnic parties. The exceptions to this are the Rakhine State Hluttaw, where the Arakan National Party won a plurality of total seats and is expected to govern with the NLD's support, and the Shan State Hluttaw, where the USDP (which won a plurality of elected seats) and Military Representatives control roughly equal seats to the combined total of the various other parties, led by the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy and the NLD in second and third place, respectively.
House of NationalitiesEdit
168 of the 224 seats in the House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw) were up for election. The remaining 56 seats (25%) were not elected, and instead reserved for military appointees (taken from Tatmadaw personnel; officially known as "Defence Services Personnel Representatives"). There are 12 members elected per state/region, including one member from each self-administered zone.
|National League for Democracy||13,100,673||57.68||135|
|Union Solidarity and Development Party||6,406,108||28.20||12|
|Arakan National Party||501,962||2.21||10|
|National Unity Party||437,361||1.93||1|
|Shan Nationalities League for Democracy||362,360||1.60||3|
|National Development Party||227,235||1.00||0|
|Myanmar Farmers Development Party||214,813||0.95||0|
|Pa-O National Organisation||158,788||0.70||1|
|Shan Nationalities Democratic Party||123,198||0.54||0|
|Kayin People's Party||120,335||0.53||0|
|Ta'ang National Party||93,242||0.41||1|
|National Democratic Force||92,638||0.41||0|
|Mon National Party||78,914||0.35||1|
|Tai-Leng Nationalities Development Party||70,479||0.31||0|
|All Mon Region Democracy Party||54,130||0.24||0|
|Phalon-Sawaw Democratic Party||40,039||0.18||0|
|The 88 Generation Students Youth||35,643||0.16||0|
|Danu National Democracy Party||31,647||0.14||0|
|Chin National Democratic Party||29,561||0.13||0|
|Kachin State Democracy Party||27,105||0.12||0|
|United Democratic Party||24,203||0.11||0|
|Unity and Democracy Party of Kachin State||22,234||0.10||0|
|Union Pa-O National Organisation||19,007||0.08||0|
|Inn National Development Party||15,516||0.07||0|
|Zomi Congress for Democracy||14,689||0.06||2|
|Kachin National Congress for Democracy||14,009||0.06||0|
|Lahu National Development Party||12,707||0.06||0|
|Rakhine State National United Party||12,642||0.06||0|
|Chin League for Democracy||10,481||0.05||0|
|Kayin State Democracy and Development Party||9,492||0.04||0|
|Mro National Democracy Party||9,487||0.04||0|
|Lisu National Development Party||9,177||0.04||0|
|Federal Union Party||9,103||0.04||0|
|New National Democracy Party||8,274||0.04||0|
|All Nationals' Democracy Party Kayah State||8,010||0.04||0|
|Chin Progressive Party||7,857||0.03||0|
|Kayin Democratic Party||6,761||0.03||0|
|People's Party of Myanmar Farmers and Workers||6,294||0.03||0|
|Kachin Democratic Party||6,118||0.03||0|
|Democratic Party for A New Society||6,099||0.03||0|
|Kayah Unity Democracy Party||5,625||0.02||0|
|Arakan Patriot Party||5,477||0.02||0|
|Danu National Organisation Party||5,258||0.02||0|
|Khumi (Khami) National Party||4,882||0.02||0|
|Women Party (Mon)||4,676||0.02||0|
|Lhaovo National Unity and Development Party||4,046||0.02||0|
|Enthnic National Development Party||3,823||0.02||0|
|Eastern Shan State Development Democratic Party||3,641||0.02||0|
|Kayan National Party||3,543||0.02||0|
|Dawei Nationality Party||3,081||0.01||0|
|Wa National Unity Party||2,990||0.01||0|
|Democracy and Peace Party||2,906||0.01||0|
|Daingnet National Development Party||2,723||0.01||0|
|Kayin Unity Democratic Party||2,680||0.01||0|
|Myanmar National Congress Party||2,622||0.01||0|
|Wa Democratic Party||2,470||0.01||0|
|Public Contribute Students Democracy Party||2,386||0.01||0|
|Shan State Kokang Democratic Party||2,294||0.01||0|
|Union Democratic Party||2,244||0.01||0|
|Confederate Farmers Party||2,133||0.01||0|
|Mro National Development Party||1,812||0.01||0|
|Shan-Ni & Northern Shan Ethnics Solidarity Party||1,301||0.01||0|
|Guiding Star Party||1,197||0.01||0|
|National Prosperity Party||1,046||0.00||0|
|Zo National Region Development Party||893||0.00||0|
|Ka Man National Development Party||741||0.00||0|
|Union of Myanmar Federation of National Politics||730||0.00||0|
|Mro Nationality Party||329||0.00||0|
|New Society Party||292||0.00||0|
|88 Generation Democracy Party||286||0.00||0|
|Source: UEC, IPU|
|Chin State||1||NLD||Ngun Hay|
|3||NLD||Henry Van Thio|
|4||NLD||Zone Hlae Htan|
|5||ZCD||Pu Gin Kam Lian|
|6||USDP||Cin Khan Pau|
|7||ZCD||Kyein Ngaik Man|
|8||NLD||Mon Law Maung|
|9||NLD||Khi Swe Win|
|10||NLD||Larl Min Htan|
|12||NLD||Myo Htet (a.k.a. Sa Lite Myo Htike)|
|Kachin State||1||NUP||J Yaw Wu|
|2||NLD||Sheila Nan Taung (a.k.a. Ann Nan Taung)|
|4||NLD||Naung Na Jatan|
|5||Independent||Za Khine Tein Yein|
|6||NLD||Min Swe Naing|
|8||NLD||Khin Ma Gyi|
|9||NLD||Khin Maung Myint|
|11||NLD||Kham Win Thaung|
|12||NLD||Naing Ko Ko|
|Kayah State||1||NLD||Phyaeyal (a.k.a. Myint Than Tun)|
|2||NLD||Shay Ral Sha Maung|
|3||NLD||Bawral Soe Wai|
|4||NLD||Saw Sein Tun|
|7||NLD||Aung Kyaw Soe|
|10||USDP||Sai Thae Sein|
|11||NLD||Naw Mya Say|
|12||NLD||Sai Pan Pha|
|Kayin State||1||NLD||Saw Moe Myint (a.k.a. Samuel)|
|2||NLD||Saw Than Htut|
|3||NLD||Saw Chit Oo|
|4||NLD||Nan Moe Moe Htwe|
|5||USDP||Sai Than Naing|
|6||USDP||Nan Ni Ni Aye|
|7||NLD||Naw Christ Tun (a.k.a. Arr Kar Moe)|
|8||NLD||Mahn Win Khaing Than|
|9||NLD||Saw B Sam Thein Myint|
|11||NLD||Naw Sar Mu Htoo|
|12||NLD||Saw Yar Phaung Awa|
|Mon State||1||NLD||Aye Min Han|
|2||NLD||Nwe Nwe Aung|
|3||NLD||Khin Zaw Oo|
|4||NLD||Lin Tin Htay|
|5||NLD||Myat Thidar Htun|
|9||NLD||Zaw Lin Htut|
|10||NLD||Soe Thiha (a.k.a. Maung Too)|
|11||NLD||Hla Myint (a.k.a. Hla Myint Than)|
|Rakhine State||1||ANP||Wai Sein Aung|
|2||ANP||Tet Tun Aung|
|3||ANP||Khin Maung Latt|
|6||ANP||Aye Thar Aung|
|8||ANP||Kyaw Kyaw Win|
|9||ANP||Maung Kyaw Zan|
|Shan State||1||NLD||Zaw Min Latt (a.k.a. Ko Latt)|
|2||SNLD||Sai Tun Aung|
|3||SNLD||Sai Wan Hlaing Kham|
|4||SNLD||Sai Ohn Kyaw|
|6||USDP||Sai Sai Kyauk Sam|
|7||NLD||Sai Lone San Khat|
|8||NLD||Ma Ma Lay|
|9||PNO||Khin Thein Pe|
|10||TNP||Mai Ohn Khine|
|11||USDP||Kyaw Ni Niang|
|12||USDP||Sai San Aung|
|Ayeyarwady Region||1||NLD||Soe Moe|
|2||NLD||Sa Khin Zaw Lin|
|5||NLD||Maung Maung Ohn|
|6||NLD||Man Tun Kyine|
|8||NLD||Ei Ei Pyone|
|9||NLD||Man Toe Shwe|
|11||NLD||May Than Nwe|
|Bago Region||1||NLD||San Maung Maung|
|2||NLD||Moe Myint Aung|
|3||NLD||Shwe Shwe Sein Latt|
|4||NLD||Win Myat Aye|
|5||NLD||Tin Tin Win|
|8||NLD||Win Myint Chit|
|Magwe Region||1||NLD||Hla San|
|4||NLD||Aung Kyi Nyunt|
|5||NLD||Tin Aung Tun|
|7||NLD||Than Than Aye|
|9||NLD||Mya Min Swe|
|Mandalay Region||1||NLD||Than Win|
|2||NLD||Tun Tun Oo|
|3||NLD||Kyaw Than Htun|
|4||NLD||Hla Htay (a.k.a. Ohn Kyi)|
|5||NLD||Aung Myo Latt|
|8||USDP||Khin Aung Myint|
|9||NLD||Maung Maung Swe|
|10||NLD||Kyaw Myint Oo|
|Sagaing Region||1||NLD||Kyaw Thaung|
|7||NLD||Khin Maung Win|
|8||NLD||Ko Ko Naing|
|9||NLD||Maung Maung Latt|
|10||NLD||Tin Maung Win|
|11||NLD||Nyi Nyi Htwe (a.k.a. Ko Ko Lay)|
|Tanintharyi Region||1||NLD||Aung Win|
|2||NLD||Thet Naing Soe|
|4||NLD||Han Win Thein|
|5||NLD||Lin Wai Phyo Latt|
|10||NLD||Soe Thein (a.k.a. Maung Soe)|
|11||NLD||Khin Maung Win|
|12||NLD||Khin Myo Win|
|Yangon Region||1||NLD||Htwe Kywe|
|3||NLD||Myat Nyana Soe|
|4||NLD||Than Soe (a.k.a. Than Soe (Economics))|
|5||NLD||Ba Myo Thein|
|7||NLD||Ye Myint Soe|
|10||NLD||Naw Hla Hla Soe|
The list of military appointees was published as the UEC Announcement 2/2016.
House of RepresentativesEdit
There are 330 of 440 seats in the House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw) that are elected, of which 323 were filled after seven seats were cancelled due to the ongoing armed insurgencies in Shan State. The remaining 110 seats (25%) were not elected, and instead reserved for military appointees (taken from Tatmadaw personnel; officially known as "Defence Services Personnel Representatives"). Members are elected to constituencies based on township and population.
|National League for Democracy||12,821,899||57.20||255|
|Union Solidarity and Development Party||6,349,879||28.33||30|
|Arakan National Party||490,664||2.19||12|
|National Unity Party||418,443||1.87||0|
|Shan Nationalities League for Democracy||357,928||1.60||12|
|National Development Party||228,483||1.02||0|
|Pa-O National Organisation||224,673||1.00||3|
|Myanmar Farmers Development Party||173,420||0.77||0|
|Shan Nationalities Democratic Party||120,815||0.54||0|
|National Democratic Force||113,292||0.51||0|
|Mon National Party||94,721||0.42||0|
|Ta'ang National Party||86,394||0.39||3|
|Kayin People's Party||71,776||0.32||0|
|Tai-Leng Nationalities Development Party||62,907||0.28||0|
|The 88 Generation Students Youth||47,763||0.21||0|
|All Mon Region Democracy Party||44,798||0.20||0|
|Phalon-Sawaw Democratic Party||37,010||0.17||0|
|Chin National Democratic Party||30,957||0.14||0|
|Kachin State Democracy Party||27,682||0.12||1|
|Zomi Congress for Democracy||27,142||0.12||2|
|Lisu National Development Party||24,096||0.11||2|
|Danu National Democracy Party||22,544||0.10||0|
|Lahu National Development Party||19,988||0.09||0|
|United Democratic Party||18,683||0.08||0|
|Chin League for Democracy||17,117||0.08||0|
|Rakhine State National United Party||16,297||0.07||0|
|Democratic Party for a New Society||14,708||0.07||0|
|Kokang Democracy and Unity Party||13,990||0.06||1|
|Federal Union Party||12,972||0.06||0|
|Kayin Democratic Party||12,372||0.06||0|
|Wa National Unity Party||11,760||0.05||0|
|Kachin National Congress for Democracy||11,544||0.05||0|
|Kayin Democratic Party–Kayin People's Party||11,134||0.05||0|
|Kachin Democratic Party||11,082||0.05||0|
|Karen National Party||10,861||0.05||0|
|Arakan Patriot Party||10,439||0.05||0|
|Kayan National Party||9,953||0.04||0|
|New National Democracy Party||9,124||0.04||0|
|Wa Democratic Party||8,216||0.04||1|
|People's Party of Myanmar Farmers and Workers||7,965||0.04||0|
|Modern People Party||7,848||0.04||0|
|Inn National Development Party||7,160||0.03||0|
|Myanmar National Congress Party||6,845||0.03||0|
|Lhaovo National Unity and Development Party||6,507||0.03||0|
|Union Pao National Organisation||6,281||0.03||0|
|Chin Progressive Party||6,212||0.03||0|
|Khumi (Khami) National Party||5,694||0.03||0|
|All Nationals' Democracy Party Kayah State||5,626||0.03||0|
|Khami National Development Party||5,111||0.02||0|
|Union of Myanmar Federation of National Politics||4,695||0.02||0|
|Inn National League Party||4,322||0.02||0|
|Danu National Organisation Party||4,275||0.02||0|
|New Society Party||3,833||0.02||0|
|Public Contribute Students Democracy Party||3,509||0.02||0|
|Kayah Unity Democracy Party||3,501||0.02||0|
|Guiding Star Party||3,496||0.02||0|
|Mro National Democracy Party||3,389||0.02||0|
|Confederate Farmers Party||3,283||0.01||0|
|Peace for Diversity Party||3,100||0.01||0|
|Democracy Party for Myanmar New Society||3,042||0.01||0|
|Asho Chin National Party||3,038||0.01||0|
|National Unity Congress Party||2,832||0.01||0|
|Eastern Shan State Development Democratic Party||2,337||0.01||0|
|Dawei Nationality Party||2,220||0.01||0|
|Shan State Kokang Democratic Party||2,071||0.01||0|
|Akha National Development Party||2,038||0.01||0|
|National Prosperity Party||2,005||0.01||0|
|National Unity Party–National Development Party||1,709||0.01||0|
|Democracy and Peace Party||1,374||0.01||0|
|Union Farmer Force Party||1,266||0.01||0|
|Union Democratic Party||1,106||0.00||0|
|Shan-Ni & Northern Shan Ethnics Solidarity Party||1,075||0.00||0|
|Mro National Development Party||1,053||0.00||0|
|Women Party (Mon)||892||0.00||0|
|Negotiation, Stability and Peace Party||800||0.00||0|
|Zo National Region Development Party||541||0.00||0|
|People Democracy Party||340||0.00||0|
|Unity and Democracy Party of Kachin State||239||0.00||0|
|Ka Man National Development Party||121||0.00||0|
|National Democratic Party for Development||101||0.00||0|
|New Era Union Party||24||0.00||0|
|Source: UEC, IPU|
|Chin State||Falam||NLD||Salai Reyalbal (a.k.a. Salai Yambel)|
|Mindat||NLD||Nay Lin Aung|
|Thantlang||NLD||Ni Shwe Lyan|
|Tiddim||ZCD||Chin Sian Thang|
|Tonzang||ZCD||Kham Khant Htan|
|Kachin State||Bhamo||NLD||Aung Thein|
|Hsawlaw||LNDP||Lae Mae Lay|
|Injangyang||KSDP||Lama Naw Aung|
|Machanbaw||USDP||Nam Mon Htin|
|Mansi||NLD||Chin Phae Lin|
|Mohnyin||NLD||San San Ei|
|Momauk||NLD||Win Aung (politician)|
|Myitkyina||NLD||In Htone Khar Naw|
|Nogmung||USDP||Ji Pan Sar|
|Sumprabum||NLD||Lone Jone Seng Mai|
|Tanai||NLD||Lin Lin Oo|
|Wingmaw||NLD||La Gan Zal Jone|
|Kayah State||Bawlakhe||USDP||Aye Maung|
|Hpasaung||NLD||Nan Htwe Thu|
|Mese||NLD||Than Lin Lin|
|Shadaw||NLD||Wint War Tun|
|Kayin State||Hlaingbwe||NLD||Khin Cho|
|Hpa-an||NLD||Nang Than Than Lwin|
|Kyain Seikgyi||NLD||Saw Tin Win|
|Phapun||USDP||Tun Mya Aung (a.k.a. Saw Tun Mya Aung)|
|Thandaung||NLD||Son Victor Khalite|
|Mon State||Bilin||NLD||Tin Ko Ko Oo (a.k.a. A Tut)|
|Chaungzon||NLD||Khin Htay Kwal|
|Kyaukmaraw||NLD||San Kyaw Wan Maung|
|Mawlamyine||NLD||Naing Thaung Nyunt|
|Paung||NLD||Mi Kon Chan|
|Thaton||NLD||Mar Mar Khaing|
|Ye||NLD||Aung Tun Khaing|
|Rakhine State||Ann||USDP||Thein Swe|
|Buthidaung||ANP||Aung Thaing Shwe|
|Kyauktaw||ANP||Oo Tun Win|
|Maungdaw||ANP||Hla Tun Kyaw|
|Mrauk-U||ANP||Oo Hla Saw|
|Pauktaw||ANP||Aung Kyaw Dan|
|Ponnagyun||ANP||Do Tun Maung|
|Rathedaung||ANP||Khin Saw Wai|
|Sittwe||ANP||Maung Thein Khaing|
|Toungup||NLD||Ni Ni May Myint|
|Shan State||Hseni||SNLD||Sai Oo Kham|
|Hopong||PNO||Kham Aung Kyaw|
|Hsi Hseng||PNO||Kham Than Htoo|
|Hsipaw||SNLD||Sai Thant Zin|
|Kalaw||NLD||Pyone Kaythi Naing|
|Kongyan||USDP||Le Kyain Phu (a.k.a. Myint Swe)|
|Kunhing||SNLD||Nan Khin Saw|
|Kunlong||KDUP||Yan Kyin Ral|
|Kutkai||USDP||T Khun Myat|
|Kyaukme||SNLD||Sai Htun Aung|
|Linkhae||SNLD||Sai Ba Thein|
|Lashio||USDP||Sai Mauk Kham|
|Laukkaing||USDP||Lu Htal Hone|
|Lawksawk||USDP||Khin Maing Myint|
|Loilen||USDP||Khin Maung Thi|
|Mabeine||NLD||Aung Myint Shein|
|Mawkmai||USDP||Sai Ngo Seng Hein|
|Mongkhet||USDP||Sel Ki Kaw|
|Mong Kung||SNLD||Sai Sang Mai|
|Mong Nai||SNLD||Sai San Thein|
|Mong Pan||USDP||Sai Kyaw Moe|
|Mong Ping||USDP||Sai Tun Sein|
|Mongpyak||USDP||Lin Zaw Tun|
|Mongtong||NLD||Aung Kyaw Oo|
|Mong Yang||USDP||Sai San|
|Mong Yai||SNLD||Sai Thiha Kyaw|
|Mong Yawng||NLD||Sai Tun Aung|
|Mu Se||SNLD||Sai Phoe Myat|
|Namtu||SNLD||Nan Kham Aye|
|Nawnghkio||NLD||Tun Aung (a.k.a. Tun Tun Hein)|
|Nyaung Shwe||NLD||Win Myint Oo (a.k.a. Nay Myu)|
|Pinlaung||PNO||Khun Maung Thaung|
|Tangyan||SNLD||Sai Aung Pwint|
|Ywangan||NLD||Aung Soe Min|
|Ayeyarwady Region||Bogale||NLD||Min Thaing|
|Hinthada||NLD||Khin Maung Yee|
|Kangyidaunt||NLD||Shwe Hla Kyaing|
|Kyangin||NLD||Tun Lin Maw|
|Kyonpyaw||NLD||Soe Aung Naing|
|Lemyethna||NLD||Zaw Min Thein|
|Myanaung||NLD||Khin Maung Latt|
|Myaungmya||NLD||Soe Moe Thu|
|Pantanaw||NLD||Man Nyunt Thein|
|Pathein||NLD||Wai Hlaing Tun|
|Yekyi||NLD||San Shwe Win|
|Bago Region||Bago||NLD||Shwe Pone|
|Daik-U||NLD||Phone Myint Aung|
|Gyobingauk||NLD||Htay Min Thein|
|Kyauktaga||NLD||Khin Maung Oo|
|Minhla||NLD||Than Aung Soe|
|Monyo||NLD||Kyaw Myo Min|
|Padaung||NLD||Khin Hnin Thit|
|Paukkaung||NLD||Ni Nio Dun|
|Paungde||NLD||Aye Min Aung (a.k.a. Y Min Min)|
|Pyay||NLD||Khin Soe Soe Kyi|
|Shwegyin||NLD||Saw Thalay Saw|
|Taungoo||NLD||Khin Maung Than|
|Yedashe||NLD||Kyi Moe Naing|
|Magwe Region||Chauk||NLD||Bo Gyi|
|Yenangyaung||NLD||Thar Cho (a.k.a. Tin Kyaing)|
|Natmauk||NLD||Aung Tin Lin|
|Sinbaungwe||NLD||Nay Htet Win|
|Aunglan||NLD||Aung Thu Myint|
|Mindon||NLD||Khin Than Nu|
|Ngape||NLD||Soe Myint (a.k.a. Soe Lwin)|
|Sidoktaya||NLD||Kyaw Aung Lwin|
|Minhla||NLD||Kyaw Gyi (a.k.a. Ohn Khin)|
|Yesagyo||NLD||Toe Shwe (a.k.a. Dr Tin Htay Aye)|
|Myaing||NLD||Aung Khin Win|
|Pauk||NLD||Ye Tun Win|
|Gangaw||NLD||Yin Min Hlaing|
|Tilin||NLD||Myat Lay Oo|
|Mandalay Region||Amarapura||NLD||Soe Myint (a.k.a. Aung Zaw Myint)|
|Chanmyathazi||NLD||Sai Hla Thein|
|Dekkhinathiri||NLD||Thant Zin Tun|
|Lewe||NLD||Myo Zaw Oo|
|Madaya||NLD||Zaw Min Lwin|
|Mahlaing||NLD||Hla Tung Aung|
|Maha Aungmye||NLD||Nyein Thit (a.k.a. Taung Tun)|
|Myit Thar||NLD||Lin Lin Kyaw|
|Myingyan||NLD||Thet Lwin (a.k.a. Paw Khin)|
|Natogyi||NLD||Naing Htoo Aung|
|Ottarathiri||NLD||Kyaw Min Hlaing|
|Patheingye||NLD||Thaung Htay Lin|
|Pyigyidagun||NLD||Kyaw Lin Soe|
|Pyin Oo Lwin||NLD||Aung Khin|
|Pyinmana||NLD||Than Soe Aung|
|Sintgaing||NLD||Kyi Moh Moh Lwin|
|Singu||NLD||Zaw Win Myint|
|Tada U||NLD||Soe Nwe Aye|
|Tatkone||NLD||Mae Mae Khine|
|Wundwin||NLD||Khin Maung Soe|
|Yamethin||USDP||Ko Ko Naung|
|Zeyarthiri||USDP||Hla Htay Win|
|Sagaing Region||Ayadaw||NLD||Khin Maung Thin|
|Budalin||NLD||Myint Han Trun|
|Hkamti||NLD||Aung Than Sein|
|Kale||NLD||Aye Aye Mu|
|Kalewa||NLD||Thar Htoo Myint|
|Kanbalu||NLD||Hlaing Myint Han|
|Kani||NLD||Tun Tun Naing|
|Kawlin||NLD||Myo Zaw Aung|
|Mawlaik||NLD||Cho Cho Win|
|Myinmu||NLD||Soe San Thet Tun|
|Monywa||NLD||Thant Zin Maung|
|Pale||NLD||Khin San Hlaing|
|Sagaing||NLD||Khin Maung Thein|
|Salingyi||NLD||Win Thein Zaw|
|Shwebo||NLD||A Zin Latt|
|Tabayin||NLD||Win Myint Aung|
|Tamu||NLD||Naing Naing Win|
|Wuntho||NLD||Nay Soe Aung|
|Tanintharyi Region||Bokepyin||NLD||Nay Lin Tun|
|Kyunsu||NLD||Tin Tin Ye|
|Myeik||NLD||Soe Paing Htay|
|Tinnathayi||NLD||Aung Kyaw Hein|
|Yebyu||NLD||Thet Naing Oo|
|Yangon Region||Ahlone||NLD||Ye Lwin|
|Botahtaung||NLD||Myint Myint Soe (a.k.a. May Soe)|
|Dagon||NLD||Thet Thet Khaing|
|Dagon Seikkan||NLD||Kyaw Win|
|Dala||NLD||Sein Mya Aye|
|Dawbon||NLD||Htay Win Aung (Pyone Cho)|
|East Dagon||NLD||Myo Aung|
|Hlaing||NLD||Aung Kyaw Kyaw Oo|
|Htantabin||NLD||Nay Myo Tun|
|Insein||NLD||Maung Maung Oo|
|Kawhmu||NLD||Aung San Suu Kyi|
|Kungyangon||NLD||Soe Thura Tun|
|Kyauktada||NLD||Nay Myo Htet|
|Kyauktan||NLD||Aye Mya Mya Myo|
|Lanmadaw||NLD||Khin Maung Win|
|Latha||NLD||Khin Moh Moh Aung|
|Mayangone||NLD||May Win Myint|
|Mingalar Taung Nyunt||NLD||Phyu Phyu Thin|
|Mingaladon||NLD||Aung Hlaing Win|
|North Dagon||NLD||Khin Maung Maung|
|North Okkalapa||NLD||Than Win|
|Pabedan||NLD||Nay Pho Ba Swe|
|Sanchaung||NLD||Bo Bo Oo|
|Seikkyi Kanaungto||NLD||Tin Tun Naing|
|Seikkan||NLD||Tin Maung Win|
|South Dagon||NLD||Aye Naing|
|South Okkalapa||NLD||Saw Naing|
|Thaketa||NLD||Wai Phyo Aung|
|Thanlyin||NLD||Lwin Ko Lat|
|Thingangyun||NLD||Shwe Hla (a.k.a. Shwe Hla Win)|
|Thongwa||NLD||Su Su Lwin|
|Yankin||NLD||Zin Mar Aung|
|Source: The Myanmar Times|
The list of military appointees was published as the UEC Announcement 1/2016.
State and Regional HluttawsEdit
There are 644 district seats (out of a total of 864)[a][b] in the State and Regional Hluttaws, or Local Assemblies, of which 630 were up for election after 14 seats were cancelled due to the ongoing armed insurgencies in Shan State. These figures exclude the 29 elected Ethnic Affairs Ministers, who have different election parameters and their accountability solely to an ethnic electorate, but also sit alongside the elected district and appointed military members of their respective state/region. There are two members are elected for each township of the state/region. The remaining 220 seats (approximately 25% of each assembly) were not elected, and instead reserved for military appointees (taken from Tatmadaw personnel; officially known as "Defence Services Personnel Representatives").
|National League for Democracy||476||New|
|Union Solidarity and Development Party||73||–411|
|Shan Nationalities League for Democracy||25||+21|
|Arakan National Party||22||+4|
|Ta'ang National Party||7||+3|
|Pa-O National Organisation||6||0|
|Kachin State Democracy Party||3||New|
|Lisu National Development Party||2||New|
|Mon National Party||2||New|
|Wa Democratic Party||2||+2|
|Zomi Congress for Democracy||2||+2|
|All Mon Region Democracy Party||1||–7|
|Kayin People's Party||1||–1|
|Kokang Democracy and Unity Party||1||+1|
|Lahu National Development Party||1||0|
|Shan Nationalities Democratic Party||1||–30|
|Tai-Leng Nationalities Development Party||1||New|
|Unity and Democracy Party of Kachin State||1||–1|
|Wa National Unity Party||1||+1|
|Source: The Irrawaddy,[failed verification] The Myanmar Times,|
The list of military appointees was published as the UEC Announcement 3/2016.
Ethnic Affairs MinistersEdit
29 Ministers of Ethnic Affairs for the State and Regional Assemblies were up for election.
"Under the 2008 Constitution, ethnic affairs ministers are elected to a given state or division if that division is comprised of an ethnic minority population of 0.1 percent or greater of the total populace [roughly 51,400 people]. If one of the country's ethnic minorities counts a state as its namesake, however, it is not granted an ethnic affairs minister (e.g., there is no Mon ethnic affairs minister in Mon State). Only voters who share an ethnic identity with a given ethnic affairs minister post are allowed to vote for candidates to the position." Ministers are not elected for ethnicities that are a majority of their state or region, or where a state/region already has a self-administered region or self-administered division dedicated to those ethnic groups.
|National League for Democracy||21||New|
|Union Solidarity and Development Party||2||–9|
|Arakan National Party||1||+1|
|Akha National Development Party||1||+1|
|Lahu National Development Party||1||+1|
|Lisu National Development Party||1||+1|
|Tai-Leng Nationalities Development Party||1||New|
|Shan Nationalities League for Democracy||0||–1|
|Kachin State (4)||Bamar||NLD||Khin Maung Myint (a.k.a. U Dake)|
|Lisu||NLD||Arti Yaw Han|
|Rawang||NLD||Yan Nann Phone|
|Shan||NLD||Sai Sein Lin|
|Kayah State (1)||Bamar||USDP||Hla Myo Swe|
|Kayin State (3)||Bamar||NLD||Taza Htut Hlaing Htwe|
|Pa-O||NLD||Khun Myo Tint|
|Mon||NLD||Min Tin Win|
|Mon State (3)||Bamar||NLD||Shwe Myint|
|Kayin||NLD||Aung Myint Khaing|
|Pa-O||NLD||San Wint Khaing|
|Rakhine State (1)||Chin||NLD||Pone Bwe|
|Shan State (7)||Akha||ANDP||Are Bay Hla|
|Bamar||USDP||Aung Than Maung|
|Kayan (a.k.a. Padaung)||NLD||Khun Aye Maung|
|Ayeyarwady Region (2)||Kayin||NLD||Gar Moe Myat Myat Thu|
|Bago Region (1)||Kayin||NLD||Naw Pwal Say|
|Magway Region (1)||Chin||NLD||Hla Tun|
|Mandalay Region (1)||Shan||NLD||Sai Kyaw Zaw|
|Sagaing Region (2)||Chin||NLD||Lal Htaung Htan|
|Shan||TLNDP||Hmwe Hmwe Khin|
|Tanintharyi Region (1)||Kayin||NLD||Saw Lu Ka|
|Yangon Region (2)||Kayin||NLD||Pan Thinzar Myo|
|Rakhine||ANP||Zaw Aye Maung|
On 9 November 2015, former chairperson of the Union Solidarity and Development Party and Speaker of the House of Representatives, Shwe Mann, conceded defeat to the National League for Democracy's Than Nyunt in his hometown constituency of Phyu, announcing on his Facebook that he had 'personally congratulated' his opponent for the victory.
On 9 November 2015, acting chairperson of the Union Solidarity and Development Party, Htay Oo, announced that the party had conceded defeat in a statement to Reuters.
On 11 November 2015, chairperson of the National League for Democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi, called for 'national reconciliation' talks with incumbent president, Thein Sein, commander-in-chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, and Speaker of the House of Representatives, Shwe Mann to be set for a later date. All have accepted her invitation.
On 12 November 2015, incumbent President of Myanmar, Thein Sein, who has led political reforms during his tenure, congratulated Aung San Suu Kyi and her party on his Facebook, promising that his current government will 'respect and obey' the election results and 'transfer power peacefully'. Commander-in-chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, also took to his Facebook to congratulate Suu Kyi, vowing that the Tatmadaw will co-operate with the new government following the transition. This was after a meeting conducted within the Tatmadaw's top ranks. US President Barack Obama and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon congratulated Suu Kyi on her victory and praised Thein Sein for his organisation of the election. Suu Kyi also received calls from French President François Hollande, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Philippine President Benigno Aquino III.
Myanmar's recent political history is underlined by its struggle to establish democratic structures amidst conflicting factions. This political transition from a closely held military rule to a free democratic system is widely believed to be determining the future of Myanmar. The resounding victory of Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy in 2015 general elections has raised hope for a successful culmination of this transition.
The 2017 murder of Ko Ni, a prominent Muslim lawyer and a key member of Myanmar’s governing National League for Democracy party and the Rohingya genocide is seen as a serious blow to the country’s fragile democracy. Mr. Ko Ni’s murder has caused fears about the removal of a trusted advisor for Aung San Suu Kyi, particularly in regards to reforming Myanmar’s military-drafted Constitution and ushering the country to democracy.
Controversy has been raised over such issues as inaccurate voter lists, cancellation of voting in some violent areas, vilification of Burmese Muslims as a campaign tool, and the ineligibility to vote of the Muslim Rohingyas. According to The Economist, "No matter how many millions of Burmese vote against the Union Solidarity and Development Party, which rules the country and is backed by the army, the army will remain the real power in Myanmar."
There have been allegations of fraud in many townships where unknown ballots cast as advance votes boosted the results of the Union Solidarity Development Party. The Union Election Commission has defended these votes, stating that they had arrived before the polling booths closed, and thus they were legitimate votes. In Lashio, where the National League for Democracy was expected to win, there are allegations of voting fraud which pulled USDP candidate and incumbent vice-president Sai Mauk Kham forward by more than 4000 votes. The NLD, Shan Nationalities League for Democracy and Shan Nationalities Democratic Party have agreed to file a complaint with the Union Election Commission. The UEC responded by declaring that the victory of Sai Mauk Kham was legal and that no fraud had taken place.
- ^ Jap, Jangai; Ziegfeld, Adam (1 June 2020). "Ethnic Parties in New Democracies: The Case of Myanmar 2015". Electoral Studies. 65: 102131. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2020.102131. ISSN 0261-3794. S2CID 216417931.
- ^ "Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy Wins Majority in Myanmar". BBC News. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ "Political parties gear up for 2015 election". Mizzima.com. 15 October 2013. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- ^ "Suu Kyi's party says it will contest 2015 Myanmar election even if constitution is not amended". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- ^ "#MyanmarElections2015: UEC issues procedures for international observers". MyanmarBusinessNews.com. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- ^ "Official Confirms Burma By-Elections Due This Year". Irrawaddy.org. 21 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- ^ a b "Myanmar to Hold By-Elections at End of Year". Rfa.org. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- ^ "General Election will be Nov- Dec 2015, says EC chairman | DVB Multimedia Group". Dvb.no. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- ^ "Burma plans by-elections for 28 seats this year". Asian Correspondent. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- ^ Aung Hla Tun (7 September 2014). "Myanmar cancels by-elections". Yahoo!News. Reuters. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- ^ "By-elections cancelled". DVB News. 7 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- ^ "Aung San Suu Kyi: 'I want to be Burma's president'". BBC. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- ^ "Myanmar's parliament blocks changes to constitution". U.S. News & World Report.
- ^ Suu Kyi 'will be above president' if NLD wins Myanmar election BBC News, 5 November 2015
- ^ Krause, Flavia (3 May 2012). "Myanmar's Leader May Step Aside After 2015 Elections, Aide Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- ^ Campbell, Charlie (13 August 2015). "Burmese President Purges Party Chief". Time.
- ^ Ei Ei Toe Lwin. "Daw Suu eyes foreign minister role".
- ^ Ei Ei Toe Lwin. "Who will her president be?".
- ^ Dinmore, Guy (13 November 2015). "NLD Wins Absolute Majority in Parliament". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ "Announcement 95/2015". Union Election Commission. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- ^ Union Election Commission (19 January 2016). "(please fill in the original title)" [Announcement 2/2016: Defence Services Personnel Representatives for Amyotha Hluttaw] (PDF). Myanmar Alin (in Burmese). Ministry of Information (Myanmar). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- ^ Oliver Holmes (11 November 2015). "Myanmar election: Aung San Suu Kyi calls for reconciliation talks with military". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- ^ a b "Myanmar Times – Election Winners.xlsx – Google Sheets".
- ^ Union Election Commission (19 January 2016). "(please fill in the original title)" [Announcement 1/2016: Defence Services Personnel Representatives for Pyithu Hluttaw] (PDF). Myanmar Alin (in Burmese). Ministry of Information (Myanmar). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- ^ a b "European Union Election Observation Mission. Myanmar, General Elections, 2015. Preliminary Statement" (PDF). Election Observation and Democratic Support. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- ^ "တပ်မတော်သား တိုင်းဒေသကြီးလွှတ်တော် သို့မဟုတ် ပြည်နယ်လွှတ်တော်ကိုယ်စားလှယ် အမည်စာရင်း ကြေညာချက် အမှတ် (၃/၂၀၁၆)" [Announcement 3/2016: Defence Services Personnel Representatives for State or Regional Hluttaws] (Press release) (in Burmese). Union Election Commission. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- ^ "That's a Wrap: UEC (Finally) Calls Last 11 Election Races". The Irrawaddy. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ Union Election Commission (19 January 2016). "တပ်မတော်သား တိုင်းဒေသကြီးလွှတ်တော် သို့မဟုတ် ပြည်နယ်လွှတ်တော်ကိုယ်စားလှယ် အမည်စာရင်း ကြေညာချက် အမှတ် (၃/၂၀၁၆)" [Announcement 3/2016: Defence Services Personnel Representatives for State or Regional Hluttaws] (PDF). Myanmar Alin (in Burmese). Ministry of Information (Myanmar). pp. 9–10. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- ^ a b Myanmar 2015 General Elections Fact Sheet
- ^ Zaw, Nobel (15 January 2015). "Ethnic Affairs Ministers Defend Seat at Negotiating Table after Suu Kyi Remarks". The Irrawaddy.
- ^ "Announcement 94/2015". Union Election Commission. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ "Myanmar's Ex-USDP Chair Shwe Mann Concedes Defeat". 9 November 2015.
- ^ Mclaughlin, Timothy; Yadana Zaw, Hnin (11 November 2015). "Myanmar Army, President Endorse Suu Kyi Victory, Vow Stable Transition". Reuters.
- ^ "President Thein Sein Accepts Suu Kyi's Call for Talks". Channel NewsAsia. 11 November 2015.
- ^ "Thein Sein congratulates NLD". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- ^ "Aung San Suu Kyi's party wins majority, Burma election officials confirm". CBC News. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ Sherwell, Philip (13 November 2015). "Burma Election: Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD Party Clinches Landslide Victory". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ "Modi Calls up to Congratulate Suu Kyi on Myanmar Election Win". The Times of India. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ "Myanmar under Transition". Asian Review. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- ^ "Hundred days of Myanmar's democracy". BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- ^ "A Blow to Myanmar's Democracy". New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- ^ "Why Burmese monks accuse Aung San Suu Kyi of being an Islamist". The Economist. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- ^ "The first proper election in a generation is a stepping stone to an uncertain future". The Economist. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Myanmar's poll will be less rigged than previous ones, but military rule is far from over". The Economist. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Lashio Voting".