Pakokku (Burmese: ပခုက္ကူမြို့, [pəkʰoʊʔkù]) is the largest city in the Magway Region of Myanmar. It is situated about 30 km north-east of Bagan on the Irrawaddy River. It is the administration seat of Pakokku Township , Pakokku District and Gangaw District. Pakokku Bridge is part of the India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway and is the longest bridge in Myanmar. It is home of the Pakokku Airport.

Pakokku
ပခုက္ကူမြို့
City
Myanma transcription(s)
 • Burmesepa.hkukku mrui.
Pakokku .jpg
Pakokku is located in Myanmar
Pakokku
Pakokku
Location in Myanmar
Coordinates: 21°20′N 95°54′E / 21.333°N 95.900°E / 21.333; 95.900Coordinates: 21°20′N 95°54′E / 21.333°N 95.900°E / 21.333; 95.900
Country Myanmar
Region Magway Region
DistrictPakokku District
TownshipPakokku Township
Population
 (2014)
 • City322,154[1]
 • Urban
107,557
 • Metro
214,597
Time zoneUTC+6.30 (MST)

The city is the location of Computer University, Pakokku, Pakokku Education College, Technological University, Pakokku, and Pakokku University. Thiho Shin Pagoda (The Lord of Sri Lanka Pagoda), Shwe Ku Pagoda, Shwe Mothtaw Pagoda, Shwe Tant Tit, and Phaung Taw Oo Pagoda are famous pagodas in Pakokku. Pakokku is also the largest rice market city of Upper Myanmar.

HistoryEdit

Before British occupation, Pakokku was a small village and part of Pakhangyi District and Bagan District. The British occupied Upper Burma on 29 November 1885. On 1 December 1887, British India Government established Pakokku Municipal. On 21 December 1887, British India government ordered Pakokku as a town of Pakhangyi District with the population of 1,985. By the order degree (201) of British Government, Pakhangyi District was abolished and Pakokku District was established on 21 July 1888. In 1901,the population of Pakokku was 19,456. During 13 years, Pakokku's population and developments were increased rapidly.

In 1896, Pakokku became a capital city of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts. The area under its administration included Pakokku District, Chin State outside Paletwa township, Gangaw District, Naga Self-Administered Zone, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya outside Shillong township.

In the early months of 1930, political speeches for Burma's colonial separation from British India were held in Shwegu Pagoda. U Lwin was appointed a new mayor of Pakokku on 7 November 1930. Pakokku Municipal election was held on 10 December 1930. In the early morning of 22 March 1931, heavy fire burned in Pakokku and more than 3,000 people were homeless, so Pakokku Fire Brigade was established on 7 April 1931.

When Burma won independence in 1948, Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts was divided into two sections. Pakokku District, Gangaw District, Naga Self-Administered Zone and Chin State became parts of Burma and Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya became a parts of India.

By the 1947 Constitution of the Union of Burma, Pakokku Province was established with two districts in 1948. They are Pakokku District and Kanpetlet District with 11 townships. Townships are Pakokku, Kanpetlet, Yesagyo, Pauk, Seikphyu, Myaing, Gangaw, Htilin, Saw, Mindat and Matupi. Pakokku was occupied by Communist rebels in 1949 and held until 1955, when it was liberated by government forces. In 1958,the name of Kanpetlet District was changed into Mindat District and Kanpetlet District's Capital was moved to Mindat from Kanpetlet. Province's Capital city was Pakokku.

On 2 March 1962, the military led by General Ne Win took control of Burma through a coup d'état, and the government has been under direct or indirect control by the military. A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in 1974.

By the 1974 Constitution, Pakokku Province was abolished and Pakokku District was added to the Magway Division and Mindat District was added to the Chin State. On 4 April 1998, Pakokku District was divided into two districts. Pakokku, Pauk, Yesagyo, Myaing and Seikphyu became Pakokku District and Gangaw, Saw and Htilin became Gangaw District.

Pakokku Bridge construction was started on 15 December 2009 and ended on 31 December 2011. It was opened on 1 January 2012, and is the longest bridge in Myanmar.

Notable PlacesEdit

Thihoshin Pagoda

ClimateEdit

Located in the powerful rain shadow of the Arakan Mountains, Pakokku has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh), receiving only about two-fifteenths as much rain as Sittwe at the same latitude on the Bay of Bengal coast. Unlike most monsoonal semi-arid climates, the rainy season is relatively long at around five to six months, while variability and extreme monthly and daily rainfalls are much lower than usual with this type of climate.[2]

Climate data for Pakokku (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
32.3
(90.1)
36.4
(97.5)
39.0
(102.2)
37.5
(99.5)
35.3
(95.5)
34.9
(94.8)
33.9
(93.0)
33.5
(92.3)
32.7
(90.9)
30.6
(87.1)
28.7
(83.7)
33.7
(92.7)
Average low °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
14.7
(58.5)
18.6
(65.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.2
(75.6)
23.6
(74.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.0
(73.4)
21.6
(70.9)
18.1
(64.6)
15.1
(59.2)
20.1
(68.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.9
(0.04)
0.3
(0.01)
3.9
(0.15)
11.1
(0.44)
88.2
(3.47)
89.7
(3.53)
38.2
(1.50)
90.6
(3.57)
117.8
(4.64)
132.0
(5.20)
29.6
(1.17)
4.0
(0.16)
606.3
(23.88)
Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[3]

TransportEdit

Pakokku's strategic location in Central Myanmar makes it an important hub for transport of people and goods. The city is connected to other parts of the country and to China, Thailand and India by multiple modes of transportation.

AirEdit

RiverEdit

The irrawaddy River remains an important arterial route for transporting goods such as farm produce including rice, beans and pulses, cooking oil, pottery, bamboo and teak. Pakokku river port is one of the most important ports, the third largest port in Myanmar after Yangon port and Mandalay port. Pakokku port is a major port of Magway Region.

RailEdit

[4]

 
Myanmar Railways station map
Division 10 Pakokku

Pakokku Railway Station is the terminus of Myanmar Railways's main rail line from Yangon and the starting point of branch lines to Pyin U Lwin (Maymyo), Monywa, Mandalay, Kalay, Gangaw, and to the south, Bagan, Minbu, Thayet, Pyay and Kyangin.Pakokku Railway Station is the major Railway Station of Magwe Division.

Pakokku does not have an intra-city metro rail system.

RoadsEdit

Pakokku is a part of Myanmar's road network. The highway network includes roads towards:[5]

  • Upper Burma and China—

Pakokku—Myingyan-Mandalay-TagaungBhamoMyitkyina Road, Pakokku-Chaung Oo-Sagaing-Mandalay Road, Pakokku-MandalayLashioMuse Road (part of Asian Highway)[6]

  • Western Burma and India—

Pakokku-Pauk-Saw-Htilin-Gangaw-Kale-Tamu Road, Pakokku-Pauk-Kyaukhtu-Mindat-Matupi Road, Pakokku—Chaung OoMonywaKalewaTamu Road (part of India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway)[6]

  • Lower Burma and Thailand—

Pakokku-Nyaung-Oo-Chauk-Pyay-Bago-Yangon Road, Pakokku-MeiktilaNay Pyi TawThatonHpa-anKawkareikMyawaddy Road (part of India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway)[6]

Most stretches of these highways are one-lane roads in poor condition. Pakokku Bridge is part of the India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway and is the longest bridge in Myanmar.

EconomyEdit

Pakokku Industrial Zone

The Largest Rice Market of Upper MyanmarEdit

Pakokku is the biggest rice market in Upper Myanmar due to the rice requirement of the region itself and being a door to Chin State which also needs rice. Of the incoming rice to Pakokku, 70% is from the Ayeyawady Region (Myaungmya, Hinthada and Myanaung) and 30% is from Shwebo and Ye-U of the Sagaing Region. Some 20% of rice coming into the market of Pakokku is consumed by Pakokku itself, and the remaining 80% is sent to other township markets. Most buyers are from Myaing, Yesagyo, Pauk, Kalaymyo and Chin State. In the Pakokku market, consumption is 15% for top class, 50% for middle class and 35% for lower class rice. There are about 5 large rice wholesalers and 10 small rice wholesalers. A large rice wholesaler sells 500 to 1,500 bags per day, so it can sell 180,000 to 200,000 bags (9,000-10,000 tons) a year. Due to the smooth transportation and the booming market, the rice price becomes very high. Thus, the rice market in Pakokku has increased to double that of the Mandalay market.

EducationEdit

List of universities and colleges in PakokkuEdit

SportsEdit

The 7,000-seat Pakokku Stadium is a multi-use stadium used mostly for football matches.

List Of Ethnic Groups In PakokkuEdit

Ethnic Composition in Pakokku Township (Rough Estimate)
Bamar
94.81%
Chin
2.09%
Yaw
1.02%
Mon
0.5%
Rakhine
0.3%
Kayin
0.02%
Shan
0.02%
Kachin
0.01%
Kayah
0.01%
Other groups including
Pa'O, Wa, Naga, Lahu, Lisu and Palaung
0.96%

ReligionEdit

Religion in Pakokku (2014)[7]

  Buddhism (99%)
  Islam (0.5%)
  Christianity (0.29%)
  Hinduism (0.16%)
  Atheist (0.05%)

Buddhism is the practised by the majority of the population. A sizable minority, however, adheres to Islam, Christianity, Atheism, and Hinduism.

Pakokku is the second most important and populated city of Buddhist monks in Myanmar with three Pali university of Buddhism.

Health careEdit

Public HospitalsEdit

  • Pakokku General Hospital
  • Pakokku Traditional Medicine Hospital
  • Pakokku Women's and Children's Hospital
  • Pakokku Sangha Hospital

Private HospitalsEdit

  • ChanMyae Hospital
  • ThaPyaeNyo Hospital

Future PlansEdit

  • Pakokku Airport as an international Airport
  • Pakokku Inland port development project in Irrawaddy River
  • A new bus terminal as a largest bus terminal in Upper Myanmar
  • Fuel Refineries economic Zone
  • Shopping Malls and Supermarkets
  • Pakokku-Bagan Circular high speed Railway

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Census Report. The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census. Vol. 2. Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015.
  2. ^ See Camberlin, Pierre (2010). "More variable tropical climates have a slower demographic growth" (PDF). Climate Research. 41: 157–167. doi:10.3354/cr00856.
  3. ^ "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 23–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  4. ^ Division 10 Pakokku
  5. ^ Thiha Aung (13 February 2005). "Mandalay Division marching to new golden land of unity and amity". New Light of Myanmar.
  6. ^ a b c "Asian Highway in Myanmar" (PDF). unescap.org. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  7. ^ Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR (July 2016). The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census Census Report Volume 2-C. Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR. pp. 12–15.