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Mortier 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1

The MO-120 RT-61 (factory designator) or MO-120-RT is a heavy mortar of French origin. The RT in the designator stands for rayé, tracté, which means rifled, towed. The RT-61 is currently used by the French Army (where it is known as RT F1 or Mortier de 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1—"120 mm rifled towed mortar, model F1"), and is produced under licence in various countries. The MO-120 RT-61 is issued to artillery units, where it augments the 155 mm towed artillery.

Mortier 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1
MO-120-RT-61
MO-120-RT-61 mortar
TypeHeavy mortar
Place of originFrance
Service history
In serviceFrench Army
United States Marine Corps
Used byFrance, among others (see below)
WarsGulf War[1]
War in Afghanistan
Operation Serval
Production history
DesignerThomson-Brandt
ManufacturerTDA Armements (France), Thomson-CSF/Daimler Benz Aerospace (Germany), Hotchkiss Brandt (Netherlands), MKEK (Turkey), Howa (Japan)
Produced1973
Specifications
Mass582 kg (1,283 lb)
Barrel length280 cm (9 ft 2 in)
Crew4 gunners, 2 vehicle crew

Shell18.7 kg (41 lb)
Calibre120 mm (4.7 in) NATO mortar round
Carriagewheeled
Elevation30–85°
Traverse±14° from centreline
Rate of fire6 to 10 rpm
Effective firing range8,140 m (8,900 yd) with standard projectile
12,850 m (14,050 yd) with rocket projectile


MO-120-RT-61 and Véhicule Tracteur de Mortier 120 during Operation Desert Shield
MO-120-RT-61 and Véhicule Tracteur de Mortier 120 during Opération Daguet.

Contents

DesignEdit

The RT-61 uses standard NATO rounds as well as the specially designed PR-14 (HE) and the PRPA (HERA). The weapon can be fired either by dropping the round down the tube (after aligning of the rifling bands) resulting in an automatic firing once the bomb hits the tube base, or by a controlled firing by dropping the bomb down the tube and pulling on a lanyard that will in turn set off the triggering mechanism in the base of the tube.

Rounds fired from the mortar can reach as high as 8,000 ft (2,400 m) and hit the ground with an effective kill radius of nearly 250 ft (76 m).[2]

ServiceEdit

In French service, this weapon is normally towed by the VTM 120 (Véhicule Tracteur Mortier de 120 mm), a wheeled armored vehicle that is a derivative of the VAB 4x4 series of armored personnel carrier. Towing is accomplished by a towing hitch that is screwed onto the muzzle of the weapon. The VTM 120 also carries 70 rounds for the mortar and offers basic ballistic protection from small arms fire and shrapnel for the crew. The RT-61 can also be towed by the AMX-10 TM (Tracteur de Mortier), which is a version of the AMX-10P tracked APC.

The mortars, which originally equipped infantry regiments, have now all been transferred to the artillery regiments, where they augment the 155 mm towed artillery.

Manufacturers other than Thomson-Brandt as mentioned above include Thomson-CSF/Daimler Benz Aerospace (France/Germany(?)), Hotchkiss Brandt (Netherlands) as the "HB Rayé" and under license by MKEK in Turkey.

VariantsEdit

Turkish copyEdit

It was copied without license in Turkey and manufactured by MKEK as the HY 12 mortar.[3]

Japanese Type 96Edit

The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force have a self-propelled version of the RT-61 with 50 rounds, the Type 96.

2R2MEdit

 
Dragonfire 120mm SP Mortar

The 2R2M is a derivative of the MO-120-RT-61 designed to be carried on light armoured vehicles, with a semi-automatic loading. The system has also been modified by the USMC as the Dragon Fire.[4]

EFSSEdit

The United States Marine Corps began looking for an Expeditionary Fire Support System (EFSS) in 2001 after the start of operations in Afghanistan exposed their lack of expeditionary artillery lighter than a 155 mm howitzer but heavier than a 60 mm mortar. Early on, the weapon became tied to the development of the MV-22 Osprey, which would contain a Growler ITV jeep that would tow it; both efforts were troubled and experienced delays. The EFSS was first used operationally in Afghanistan in February 2011, firing an M1105 illumination projectile.[5] The full EFSS was introduced in 2009, consisting of two light vehicles, one towing the mortar and the other an ammunition trailer, that fit inside an MV-22 or CH-53E Super Stallion; an EFSS battery is made up of roughly 50 Marines.[6]

From 2011 to 2015, the Marines and Raytheon developed the precision extended range munition (PERM) for the EFSS, a GPS-guided round that delivers greater range and better accuracy. The 35 lb (16 kg) round increased range from 8 km (5.0 mi) to 16 km (9.9 mi), falling within 10 meters of the target and as close as two meters, costing $18,000 each, and having 2.5-3 times more lethality. The extra range came from tail fins for stabilization and canards near the nose to make in-flight adjustments and make it glide as it descends, and the greater lethality was a result of this flight path; normal artillery rounds impact at a 45 degree angle, which blows the top half of the round straight up into the air, but descending at a sharp angle places more energy and fragmentation directly on a target. It was even capable of hitting reverse slope positions by shaping its trajectory. Greater accuracy also reduces logistical burdens, as using fewer rounds to destroy one target means a unit can last longer without needing resupply. The PERM was to begin fielding in 2018. Raytheon planned to add semi-active laser (SAL) guidance to PERM rounds to enable them to hit moving targets.[7][8][6][9]

By December 2017, the U.S. Marines had divested the EFSS. With the Marines working to extend the range of their artillery arsenal, the EFSS' limited range was not seen as well suited for future missions, so it was chosen for divestment in favor of moving more resources for precision fires.[10]

OperatorsEdit

Former operatorsEdit

VariantsEdit

  • MO-120-LT — This is a smooth-bore version for the mountain artillery.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (1993). Armies of the Gulf War. Elite 45. Osprey Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 9781855322776.
  2. ^ TBS Marines Witness EFSS Mortar's Impact Archived 27 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine - Marines.com, 12 September 2014
  3. ^ "MKEK 120 mm HY 12 mortar (Turkey), Mortars". Jane's Infantry Weapons. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b Gander, Terry J. (4 June 2001). "TDA 120 mm MO 120 RT rifled mortar". Jane's Infantry Weapons 2002-2003. pp. 1835–1836.
  5. ^ Marines Finally Fire Their Osprey Mortar Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine - Kitup.Military.com, 20 February 2011
  6. ^ a b Marines introduce deadly new mortar round - MarineCorpstimes.com, 16 December 2015
  7. ^ Guided mortar rounds have 20-kilometer range Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine - MarineCorpstimes.com, 2 February 2013
  8. ^ Marines to Receive Precision-Guided Mortar Round in 2018 Archived 12 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine - Military.com, 16 December 2015
  9. ^ Raytheon, IMI to Provide Guided Bombs for Marine Corps Mortars Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine - Defense-Update.com, 10 December 2015
  10. ^ Marine Corps Ditches Towed Mortar System in Push to Fund Modernization Archived 18 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine - Military.com/DoDBuzz.com, 19 December 2017
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  12. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2016). The Military Balance 2016. 116. Routlegde. p. 85. ISBN 9781857438352.
  13. ^ a b The Military Balance 2016, p. 404.
  14. ^ The Military Balance 2016, p. 111.
  15. ^ The Military Balance 2016, p. 339.
  16. ^ The Military Balance 2016, p. 87.
  17. ^ Iraqi army equipment 1930-2017. 2. p. 115.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit