This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاکستان فوج, romanized: Pākistān Fãuj; pronounced [ˈpaːkɪstaːn faːɔːdʒ]) is the land service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The roots of its modern existence trace back to the British Indian Army that ceased to exist following the Partition of British India, resulting in the parliamentary act that established the independence of Pakistan (as the Dominion of Pakistan) from the United Kingdom on 14 August 1947.:1–2 According to statistics provided by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in 2020, the Pakistan Army has approximately 560,000 active-duty personnel, supported by the Army Reserve and National Guard—effectively making it the 6th largest army in the world in terms of manpower. Pakistani citizens can enlist for voluntary military service upon reaching 16 years of age, but cannot be deployed for combat until age 18 in accordance with the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Army's primary objective and constitutional mission is to ensure the national security and national unity of Pakistan by defending it against external aggression or the threat of war. It can also be requisitioned by the federal government to respond to internal threats by enforcing security to keep the peace within its land borders. During events of national and international calamities and emergencies, it conducts humanitarian rescue operations at home and is an active participant in peacekeeping missions mandated by the United Nations—most notably playing a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers who had requested for a quick reaction force (QRF) during Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia. Troops from the Pakistan Army also had a relatively strong presence as part of a larger UN and NATO coalition during the Bosnian War and larger Yugoslav Wars.:70
The Pakistan Army, a major component of the Pakistani military alongside the Pakistan Navy and Pakistan Air Force, is a volunteer force that has seen extensive combat during three major wars with neighbouring India, several border skirmishes on its porous border with Afghanistan as well as a long-running insurgency in Balochistan which it has been combatting alongside Iranian security forces since 1948.:31 Since the 1960s, elements of the army have been repeatedly deployed to act in an advisory capacity in the Arab states during the events of the Arab–Israeli wars as well as to aid the United States-led coalition against Iraq in the First Gulf War. Other notable military operations during the global War on Terror in the 21st century included: Zarb-e-Azb, Black Thunderstorm, and Rah-e-Nijat.
In violation of its constitutional mandate, it has repeatedly overthrown elected civilian governments overreaching its protected constitutional mandate to "act in the aid of civilian federal governments when called upon to do so". The army has been involved in enforcing martial law against the federal government with the claim of restoring law and order in the country by dismissing the legislative branch and parliament on multiple occasions in past decades—while maintaining a wider commercial, foreign and political interest in the country. This has led it facing allegations of acting as state within a state.
The Pakistan Army has a regimental system but is operationally and geographically divided into command zones, with its most basic fields being the various corps. The Constitution of Pakistan mandates the role of the President of Pakistan as the civilian Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistani military. The Pakistan Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, who is by statute a four-star ranking general and a senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and subsequently affirmed by the President. As of January 2021[update], the current Chief of Army Staff is General Qamar Javed Bajwa, who was appointed to the position on 29 November 2016.
Its existence and constitutional role are protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role is to serve as the land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Constitution of Pakistan establishes the principal land warfare uniform branch in the Pakistan Armed Forces as its states:
The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.— Constitution of Pakistan
Division of British Indian Army and the first war with India (1947–52)Edit
The Pakistan Army came into its modern birth from the division of the British Indian Army that ceased to exist as a result of the partition of India that resulted in the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.:1–2 Before even the partition took place, there were plans ahead of dividing the British Indian Army into different parts based on the religious and ethnic influence on the areas of India.:1–2
On 30 June 1947, the War Department of the British administration in India began planning the dividing of the ~400,000 men strong British Indian Army, but that only begin few weeks before the partition of India that resulted in violent religious violence in India.:1–2 The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) under the chairmanship of British Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck had devised the formula to divide the military assets between India and Pakistan with ratio of 2:1, respectively.:conts.
A major division of the army was overseen by Sir Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi, an Indian civil servant who was influential in making sure that ~260,000 men would be transferred into forming the Indian Army whilst the remaining balance going to Pakistan after the independence act was enacted by the United Kingdom on the night of 14/15 August 1947.:2–3
Command and control at all levels of the new army was extremely difficult, as Pakistan had received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the twelve armoured, forty artillery and twenty-one infantry regiments that went to India.:155–156 In total, the size of the new army was about ~150,000 men strong.:155–156 To fill the vacancy in the command positions of the new army, around 13,500:2 military officers from the British Army had to be employed in the Pakistan Army, which was quite a large number, under the command of Lieutenant-General Frank Messervy, the first commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army.:70
Eminent fears of India's seizing the control over the state of Kashmir, the armed tribes and the irregular militia scouts entered in the Muslim-majority valley of Kashmir to oppose the rule of Hari Singh, a Hindu and the ruling Maharaja of Kashmir, in October 1947.:conts. Attempting to maintain his control over the princely state, Hari Singh deployed his troops to check on the tribal advances but his troops failed to halt the advancing tribes towards the valley.:40 Eventually, Hari Singh appealed to Louis Mountbatten, the Governor-General of India, requesting for the deployment of the Indian Armed Forces but Indian government maintained that the troops could be committed if Hari Singh acceded to India.:40 Hari Singh eventually agreed to concede to the Indian government terms which eventually led to the deployment of the Indian Army in Kashmir– this agreement, however, was contested by Pakistan since the agreement did not include the consent of the Kashmiri people.:40 Sporadic fighting between militia and Indian Army broke out, and units of the Pakistan Army under Maj-Gen. Akbar Khan, eventually joined the militia in their fight against the Indian Army.:40
Although, it was Lieutenant-General Sir Frank Messervy who opposed the tribal invasion in a cabinet meeting with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in 1947, later leaving the command of the army in 1947,:447 in a view of that British officers in the Indian and Pakistan Army would be fighting with each other in the war front.:417 It was Lt-Gen. Douglas Gracey who reportedly disobeyed the direct orders from Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Governor-General of Pakistan, for the deployment of the army units and ultimately issued standing orders that refrained the units of Pakistan Army to further participate in the conflict.:59
By 1948, when it became imperative in Pakistan that India was about to mount a large scale operation against Pakistan, Gen. Gracey did not object to the deployment of the army units in the conflict against the Indian Army.:59
This earlier insubordination of Gen. Gracey eventually forced India and Pakistan to reach a compromise through the United Nation's intervention, with Pakistan controlling the Western Kashmir and India controlling the Eastern Kashmir.:417
20th Century: Cold war and conflict performancesEdit
Reorganization under the United States Army (1952–58)Edit
At the time of the partition of British India, British Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck favored the transfer of the infantry divisions to the Pakistan Army including the 7th, 8th and 9th.:55 In 1948, the British army officers in the Pakistan Army established and raised the 10th, 12th, and the 14th infantry divisions— with the 14th being established in East Bengal.:55 In 1950, the 15th Infantry Division was raised with the help from the United States Army, followed by the establishment of the 15th Lancers in Sialkot.:36 Dependence on the United States grew furthermore by the Pakistan Army despite it had worrisome concerns to the country's politicians.:36 Between 1950–54, Pakistan Army raised six more armoured regiments under the U.S. Army's guidance: including, 4th Cavalry, 12th Cavalry, 15th Lancers, and 20th Lancers.:36
After the incident involving Gracey's disobedience, there was a strong belief that a native commander of the Pakistan army should be appointed, which resulted in the Government of Pakistan rejecting the British Army Board's replacement of Gen. Gracey upon his replacement, in 1951.:34 Eventually, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan approved the promotion paper of Maj-Gen. Iftikhar Khan as the first native commander-in-chief, a graduate of the Imperial Defence College in England, but died in an aviation accident en route to Pakistan from the United Kingdom.
After the death of Maj-Gen. Iftikhar, there were four senior major-generals in the army in the race of promotion but the most junior, Maj-Gen. Ayub Khan, whose name was not included in the promotion list was elevated to the promotion that resulted in a lobbying provided by Iskandar Mirza, the Defense Secretary in Ali Khan administration. A tradition of appointment based on favoritism and qualification that is still in practice by the civilian Prime Ministers in Pakistan. Ayub was promoted to the acting rank of full general to command the army as his predecessors Frank Messervy and Douglas Gracey were performing the duty of commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army in the acting rank of general, the neighbouring country India's first commanders-in-chief were same in this context.
The department of the army under General Ayub Khan steered the army's needs towards heavy focus and dependence towards the imported hardware acquired from the United States, in spite of acquiring it from the domestic industry, under the Military Assistance Advisory Group attached to Pakistan in 1954–56.:36 In 1953, the 6th Infantry Division was raised and disbanded the 6th Division in 1956 followed by the disbandment of the 9th Infantry Division as the American assistance was available only for one armored and six infantry divisions.:36 During this time, an army combat brigade team was readily made available by Gen. Ayub Khan to deploy to support the American Army's fighting troops in the Korean war.:270
Working as cabinet minister in Bogra administration, Gen. Ayub's impartiality was greatly questioned by country's politicians and drove Pakistan's defence policy towards the dependence on the United States when the country becoming the party of the CENTO and the SEATO, the U.S. active measures against the expansion of the global communism.:60
In 1956, the 1st Armored Division in Multan was established, followed by the Special Forces in Cherat under the supervision of the U.S Army's Special Forces.:55:133 Under Gen. Ayub's control, the army had eradicated the British influence but invited the American expansion and had reorganized the East Bengal Regiment in East Bengal, the Frontier Force Regiment in Northern Pakistan, Kashmir Regiment in Kashmir, and Frontier Corps in the Western Pakistan. The order of precedence change from Navy–Army–Air Force to Army–Navy-Air Force, with army being the most senior service branch in the structure of the Pakistani military.:98
In 1957, the I Corps was established and headquarter was located in Punjab.:55 Between 1956–58, the schools of infantry and tactics, artillery, ordnance, armoured, medical, engineering, services, aviation, and several other schools and training centers were established with or without U.S. participation.:60
Military takeovers in Pakistan and second war with India (1958–1969)Edit
As early as 1953, the Pakistan Army became involved in national politics in a view of restoring the law and order situation when Governor-General Malik Ghulam, with approval from Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin, dismissed the popularly-mandated state government of Chief Minister Mumtaz Daultana in Punjab in Pakistan, and declared martial law under Lt-Gen. Azam Khan and Col. Rahimuddin Khan who successfully quelled the religious agitation in Lahore.:17–18:158 In 1954, the Pakistan Army's Military Intelligence Corps reportedly sent the intelligence report indicating the rise of communism in East Pakistan during the legislative election held in East-Bengal.:75 Within two months of the elections, Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra, with approval from Governor-General Malik Ghulam, dismissed another popularly-mandated state government of Chief Minister Fazlul Huq in East Bengal in Pakistan, and declared governor's rule under Iskandar Mirza who relied in the Pakistan Army to manage the control and security of the East Bengal at all levels of command.:75 With General Ayub Khan becoming the Defense Minister under Ministry of Talents led by Prime Minister Bogra, the involvement of the army in the national politics grew further with the implementation of the controversial One Unit program, abolishing the status of Four Provinces, despite the strong protests by the public and the West Pakistan's politicians.:80 Major defense funding and spending was solely focused towards Ayub's army department and the air force department led by Air Marshal Asghar Khan, giving less priority to the national needs for the Navy.
From 1954–58, Ayub Khan was made subjected with receiving multiple service extensions by the civilian Prime Ministers first receiving in 1954 that extended his commission to last till 1958.:contents:232
The Pakistan Army under Ayub Khan had been less supportive towards the implementation of the first set of Constitution of Pakistan that had established the civilian control of the military, and the army went on to completely endorse and support the first martial law in the country imposed by President Iskander Mirza– the army later took control of the power from President Mirza in mere two weeks and installed Ayub Khan as the second President.:81 The subsequent change of command resulted in Gen. Musa Khan becoming the army commander with Ayub Khan promoting himself as controversial rank of field marshal.:22[self-published source?] In 1969, the Supreme Court reversed its decision and overturned its convictions that called for validation of martial law in 1958.:60
From 1961 to 1962, military aid continued to Pakistan from the United States and they established the 25th Cavalry, followed by the 24th Cavalry, 22nd, and 23rd Cavalry.:36 In 1960–61, the Army Special Forces was reportedly involved in taking over the control of the administration of Dir from the Nawab of Dir in Chitral in North-West Frontier Province over the concerns of Afghan meddling in the region. In 1964–65, the border fighting and tensions flared with the Indian Army with a serious incident taking place near the Rann of Kutch, followed by the failed covert action to take control of the Indian-side of Kashmir resulted in a massive retaliation by the Indian Army on 5 August 1965. On the night of 6 September 1965, India opened the front against Pakistan when the Indian Army's mechanized corps charged forwards taking over the control of the Pakistan-side of Punjab, almost reaching Lahore.:294 At the time of the conflict in 1965, Pakistan's armory and mechanized units' hardware was imported from the United States including the M4 Sherman, M24 Chaffee, M36 Jackson, and the M47 and M48 Patton tanks, equipped with 90 mm guns. In contrast, the Indian Army's armor had outdated in technology with Korean war-usage American M4 Sherman and World War II manufactured British Centurion Tank, fitted with the French-made CN-75 guns.
In spite of Pakistan enjoying the numerical advantage in tanks and artillery, as well as better equipment overall,:69 the Indian Army successfully penetrated the defences of Pakistan's borderline and successfully conquered around 360 to 500 square kilometres (140 to 190 square miles) of Pakistani Punjab territory on the outskirts of Lahore. A major tank battle took place in Chawinda, at which the newly established 1st Armoured Division was able to halt the Indian invasion.:35 Eventually, the Indian invasion of Pakistan came to halt when the Indian Army concluded the battle near Burki.[page needed] With diplomatic efforts and involvement by the Soviet Union to bring two nation to end the war, the Ayub administration reached a compromise with Shastri ministry in India when both governments signed and ratified the Tashkent Declaration. According to the Library of Congress Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States:
The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other. Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan. Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country's military defeat by "Hindu India" and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.
At the time of ceasefire declared, per neutral sources, Indian casualties stood at 3,000 whilst the Pakistani casualties were 3800. Pakistan lost between 200-300 tanks during the conflict and India lost approximately 150-190 tanks.[better source needed]
However, most neutral assessments agree that India had the upper hand over Pakistan when ceasefire was declared, but the propaganda in Pakistan about the war continued in favor of Pakistan Army. The war was not rationally analysed in Pakistan with most of the blame being heaped on the leadership and little importance given to intelligence failures that persisted until the debacle of the third war with India in 1971. There was no military action taken by the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan against the standing Indian Army, and at the end of the Indian army was in possession of 1,920 km2 (740 sq mi) of Pakistani territory and the Pakistan army held 550 km2 (210 sq mi) of Indian territory. The Indian Army's action was restricted to Punjab region of both sides with Indian Army mainly in fertile Sialkot, Lahore and Kashmir sectors, while Pakistani land gains were primarily in southern deserts opposite Sindh and in the Chumb sector near Kashmir in the north.
With the United States' arms embargo on Pakistan over the issue of the war, the army instead turned to the Soviet Union and China for hardware acquisition, and correctly assessed that a lack of infantry played a major role in the failure of Pakistani armour to translate its convincing material and technical superiority into a major operational or strategic success against the Indian Army. Ultimately, the army's high command established the 9th, 16th, and 17th infantry divisions in 1966–68. In 1966, the IV Corps was formed and its headquarter was established, and permanently stationed in Lahore, Punjab in Pakistan.
The army remained involved in the nation's civic affairs, and ultimately imposed the second martial law in 1969 when the writ of the constitution was abrogated by then-army commander, Gen. Yahya Khan, who took control of the nation's civic affairs after the resignation of President Ayub Khan, resulted in a massive labor strikes instigated by the Pakistan Peoples Party in West and Awami League in East Pakistan.
In a lawsuit settled by the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the legality of the martial law was deemed questionable as the Supreme Court settled the suit by retroactively invalidated the martial law that suspended the Constitution and notably ruled that Yahya Khan's assumption of power was "illegal usurpation".:59–60 In light of the Supreme Court's judgement, the army held the publicly televised conference when President Yahya Khan announced to hold the nationwide general elections in 1969–70.:59–60
Suppression, civil conflict in East Pakistan and Indian invasion (1969–1971)Edit
In 1969, President Yahya Khan decided to make administrative changes in the army by appointing the Gen. Abdul Hamid Khan as the Army Chief of Staff (ACOS) of the Pakistan Army, who centralized the chain of command in Rawalpindi in a headquarters known as "High Command".:32 From 1967–69, a series of major military exercises was conducted by infantry units on East Pakistan's border with India.:114–119 In 1970, the Pakistan army's military mission in Jordan was reportedly involved in tackling and curbing down the Palestinian infiltration in Jordan. In June 1971, the enlistment in the army had allowed the Army GHQ in Rawalpindi to raise and established the 18th infantry division, stationed in Hyderabad, Sindh, for the defence of 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Rahimyar Khan to Rann of Kutch, and reestationed the 23rd infantry division for defending the Chhamb-Dewa Sector.
In 1971, the II Corps was established and headquartered in Multan, driven towards defending the mass incursion from the Indian Army. In December 1971, the 33rd infantry division was established from the army reserves of the II Corps, followed by raising the 37th Infantry Division. The Pakistan Army reportedly helped the Pakistan Navy to toward establishing the amphibious branch, the Pakistan Marines, whose battalion was airlifted to East Pakistan along with the 9th Infantry Division. The other battalions of marines were stationed with the army troops in the skirts of Punjab to support the defence in the events of the war with India.
The intervention in East Pakistan further grew when the Operation Searchlight resulted in the overtaking of the government buildings, communication centers, and restricting the politicians opposed to military rule.:263 Within a month, Pakistani national security strategists realized their failure of implementing the plan which had not anticipated civil resistance in East, and the real nature of Indian strategy behind their support of the resistance.:2–3
The Yahya administration is widely accused of permitting the army to commit the war crimes against the civilians in East and curbing civil liberties and human rights in Pakistan. The Eastern Command under Lt-Gen. A. A. K. Niazi, who had area responsibility of the defending the Eastern Front and had the responsibility to protect, was leveled with accusations of escalating the political violence in the East by the serving military officers, politicians, and journalists in Pakistan. Since the general elections in 1970, the army had detained several key politicians, journalists, peace activists, student unionists, and other members of civil society while curbing the freedoms of movement and speech in Pakistan.:112 In East Pakistan, the unified Eastern Military Command under Lt-Gen. A.A.K. Niazi, began its engagement with the armed militia that had the direct terror support from India in April 1971, and eventually fought against the Indian Army in December 1971.:596:596 The army, together with marines, launched ground offensives on both fronts but the Indian Army successfully held its ground and initiated well-coordinated ground operations on both fronts, initially capturing 15,010 square kilometres (5,795 sq mi):239 of Pakistan's territory; this land gained by India in Azad Kashmir, Punjab and Sindh sectors.:239
Responding to the ultimatum issued on 16 December 1971 by the Indian Army in East, Lt-Gen. Niazi agreed to concede defeat and move towards signing the documented surrender with the Indian Army which effectively and unilaterally ended the armed resistance and led the creation of Bangladesh, only after India's official engagement that lasted 13 days. It was reported that the Eastern Command had surrendered ~93,000–97,000 uniform personnel to Indian Army– the largest surrender in a war by any country after the World War II. Casualties inflicted to army's I Corps, II Corps, and Marines did not sit well with President Yahya Khan who turned over control of the civic government to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto through an executive decree.
Commenting on the defeat, the military observer in the Pakistan Army, Major A.H. Amin, reported that the war strategists in the army had not seriously considered a full-fledged invasion from India until December 1971, because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk intervention by China or the United States, and the high command failed to realize that the Chinese would be unable to intervene during the winter months of November to December, due to snowbound Himalayan passes, and the Americans had not made any real effort to persuade India against attacking East Pakistan.
Restructuring of armed forces, stability and restoration (1971–1977)Edit
In January 1972, the Bhutto administration formed the POW Commission to investigate the numbers of war prisoners held by the Indian Army while requesting the Supreme Court of Pakistan to investigate the causes of the war failure with India in 1971.:7–10 The Supreme Court formed the famed War Enquiry Commission (WEC) that identified many failures, fractures, and faults within the institution of the department of the army and submitted recommendations to strengthen the armed forces overall. Under the Yahya administration, the army was highly demoralized and there were unconfirmed reports of mutiny by soldiers against the senior army generals at the Corps garrisons and the Army GHQ in Rawalpindi.:5
Upon returning from the quick visit in the United States in 1971, President Bhutto forcefully dishonorably discharge the commission of seven senior army generals, which he called the "army waderas" (lit. Warlords).:71 In 1972, the army leadership under Lt-Gen. Gul Hassan refrained from acting under Bhutto administration's order to tackle the labor strikes in Karachi and to detained the labor union leaders in Karachi, instead advising the federal government to use the Police Department to take the actions.:7
On 2 March 1972, President Bhutto dismissed the commission of Lt-Gen. Gul Hassan as the army commander, replacing with Lt-Gen. Tikka Khan who was later promoted to four-star rank and appointed as the first Chief of Army Staff (COAS).:8 The army under Bhutto administration was reconstructed in its structure, improving its fighting ability, and reorganized with the establishment of the X Corps in Punjab in 1974, followed by the V Corps in Sindh and XI Corps in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan in 1975. The trilateral agreement in India, the Bhutto administration transferred all the war prisoners back to the country but the military struggle to fill in the vacancies and employments due to some suffering from the PTSD and other mental health complications, while others simply did not wanted to serve in the military any longer.:19–20 Under Bhutto administration, the army engage in self-reliance production and eventually reached to China for establishing the material and metal industries to overcome the material shortage and manufacturing of weapons industry in the country.
In 1973, the Bhutto administration dismissed the state government in Balochistan that resulting in another separatist movement, culminating the series of army actions in largest province of the country that ended in 1977.:319 With the military aid receiving from Iran including the transfer of the Bell AH-1 Cobra to Aviation Corps,:319 the conflict came to end with the Pakistani government offering the general amnesties to separatists in the 1980s.:151:319:319 Over the issue of Baloch conflict, the Pakistani military remained engage in Omani civil war in favor of Omani government until the rebels were defeated in 1979. The War Enquiry Commission noted the lack of joint grand strategy between the four-branches of the military during the first, the second, and the third wars with India, recommending the establishment of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to maintain strategic military communication between the inter-services and the federal government, that is to be chaired by the appointed Chairman joint chiefs as the government's principal military adviser.:145 In 1976, the first Chairman joint chiefs was appointed from the army with Gen. Muhammad Shariff taking over the chairmanship, but resigned a year later.:145 In 1975, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto controversially superseded at least seven senior army generals to promote Lt-Gen. Zia-ul-Haq to the four-star rank, appointing him the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) in spite of army recommendations forwarded to the federal government.:24
In the 1970s, the army's engineering formations, notable the Corps of Engineers, played a crucial role in supporting the clandestine atomic bomb program to reach its parity and feasibility, including the constructions of iron-steel tunnels in the secretive nuclear weapons-testing sites in 1977–78.:144–145
PAF and Navy fighter pilots voluntarily served in Arab nations' militaries against Israel in the Yom Kippur War (1973). In the 1973 war one of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt. Sattar Alvi flying a MiG-21 shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and was honoured by the Syrian government.
Middle East operations, peacekeeping missions, and covert actions (1977–1999)Edit
The political instability increased in the country when the conservative alliance refused to accept the voting turnout in favor of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) after the general elections held in 1977.:25–26 The army, under Gen. Zia-ul-Haq–the army chief, began planning the military takeover of the federal government under Prime Minister Zulfikar Bhutto, eventually leading the coup d'état that suspended the writ of the Constitution amid responding to the call from one of the opposition leader of threatening to call for another civil war.:27 The military interference in civic matters grew further when the martial law was extended for an infinite period despite maintaining that the elections to be held in 90-days prior.:30–31 At the request from the Saudi monarchy, the Zia administration deployed the company of the special forces to end seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca from Islamists.:265–280
The army under President Zia weakened due to the army officers were needed in running the affairs of civic government and the controversial military courts that held trials of the communists, dissidents, and the oppositions of Zia's administration.:31–32 In 1984–85, Pakistan lost the control of her northern glaciers due to the successful expedition and penetration by the Indian Army, and army had to engage in years long difficult battles with Indian Army to regain their areas from the Indian Army.:45 Concerns over the military officers and army personnel needed to counter the further advances by the Indian Army in Northern fronts in 1984, the martial law was lifted following the referendum that approved Zia's presidency and provided a way of holding the general elections in 1985.:45 The military control the under army administration had successfully stabilized the law and order in Balochistan despite the massive illegal immigration from Afghanistan, and issued the general amnesties to separatists and rebels. To address the Afghan containment and security, the army established the XII Corps in 1985 that is permanently headquartered in Quetta, that is designed to provide defence against the infiltration by the Afghan National Army from Afghanistan.
In 1985, the United States approved the military aid package, worth $4.02 billion, to Pakistan when the mujaheddin fighting with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan increased and intensified, with Soviet Army began violating and attacking the insurgents in the tribal areas in Pakistan.:45–46 In 1986, the tensions with India increased when the Indian Army's standing troops mobilized in combat position in Pakistan's southern frontier with India failing to give notification of exercise to Pakistan prior.:46 In 1987–88, the XXX Corps, headquartered in North of Punjab, and the XXXI Corps, headquartered in South of Punjab, was raised and established to provide defence against the Indian army's mass infiltration.
After the aviation accident that resulted in passing of President Zia in 1988, the army organized the massive military exercise with the Pakistan Air Force to evaluate the technological assessment of the weapon systems and operational readiness.:57 In the 1980s, Pakistan Army remained engage in the affairs of Middle East, first being deployed in Saudi Arabia during the Iran–Iraq War in 1980–1988, and later overseeing operational support measures and combat actions during the Gulf War in 1990–91.
The period from 1991–98 saw the army engaged in professionalism and proved its fighting skills in the Somalian theater (1991–94), Bosnian-Serb War (on Bosnian side from 1994–98), and the other theaters of the Yugoslav Wars, as part of the United Nation's deployment.:69–73 In 1998, the army's Corps of Engineers played a crucial role in providing the military administration of preparing the atomic weapon-testing in Balochistan when the air force's bombers flown and airlifted the atomic devices. The controversial relief of Gen. Jehangir Karamat by the Sharif administration reportedly disturbed the balance of the civil-military relations with the junior most Lt-Gen. Pervez Musharraf replacing it as chairman joint chiefs and the army chief in 1999.
In May 1999, the army's northern light infantry, the paramilitary unit at that time, slipped into Kargil that resulted in heavy border fighting with the Indian Army, inflicted with heavy casualties on both sides. The ill-devised plan without meaningful consideration of the outcomes of the border war with India, the army under Chairman joint chiefs Gen. Pervez Musharraf (also army chief at that time) failed to its combat performance and suffered with similar outcomes as the previous plan in 1965, with the American military observers in the Pakistan military famously commenting to news channels in Pakistan: Kargil was yet another example of Pakistan's (lack of) grand strategy, repeating the follies of the previous wars with India.":200
After its commendable performance, the President of Pakistan commissioned the Northern Light Infantry as a regular regiment in the army and its personnel eventually becoming officers and enlisted personnel in the army in 1999.
21st Century: War performancesEdit
Religious insurgency and War on terror (2001 – present)Edit
In October 1999, the army engaged in another military takeover of the federal government from the Sharif administration when the Army GHQ refused to accept the relief of commission of Gen. Pervez Musharraf over his failure in succeeding the control of Kargil sector from India.:142 This controversial takeover of the federal government was subjected to a lengthy and an expensive lawsuit fought between the lawyers of the department of army and the former Sharif administration at the Supreme Court, with the landmark verdict rendered in 2009 ultimately sided and favored the Sharif administration's arguments as the Justices of the Supreme Court accepted the fact that the army's takeover was in fact a direct violation of the constitution and breach of its given constitutional mandate.:119–120:112–115
Responding to the terror attacks in New York in the United States, the army joined the combat actions in Afghanistan with the United States and simultaneously engage in military standoff with Indian Army in 2001–02. In 2004–06, the military observers from the army were deployed to guide the Sri Lankan army to end the civil war with the Tamil fighters.
To overcome the governance crises in 2004–07, the Musharraf administration appointed several army officers in the civilian institutions with some receiving extensions while others were deployed from their combat service– thus affecting the fighting capabilities and weakening the army.:37 Under Gen. Musharraf's leadership, the army's capabilities fighting the fanatic Talibans and Afghan Arab fighters in Pakistan further weakened and suffered serious setbacks in gaining control of the tribal belt that fell under the control of the Afghan Arabs and Uzbek fighters.:37 From 2006–09, the army fought the series of bloody battles with the fanatic Afghan Arabs and other foreign fighters including the army action in a Red Mosque in Islamabad to control the religious fanaticism.:37 With the controversial assassination of Baloch politician in 2006, the army had to engage in battles with the Baloch separatists fighting for the Balochistan's autonomy.:37
In April 2007, the major reorganization of the commands of the army was taken place under Gen. Ahsan S. Hyatt, the vice army chief under Gen. Musharraf, establishing the Southern, Central, and the Northern Commands to "improve the operational efficiency and working of its land forces."[failed verification] With Gen. Musharraf's resignation and Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani becoming the army chief, the army realigned itself to review its combat policies and withdrew officers in civilian institutions to focus on its primary constitutional mission to protect and responsible in 2009–14.:37 In 2012, there was a serious accident involving the entire battalion from the Northern Light Infantry when the avalanche struck the battalion base in Siachen, entrapping 135 soldiers and including several army officers.
In 2013–16, the homegrown far-right guerrilla war with the Taliban, Afghan Arabs, and the Central Asian fighters took the decisive turn in favor of the army under Sharif administration, eventually gaining the control of the entire country and established the writ of the constitution in the affected lawless regions. As of its current deployment as of 2019, the army remained engage in border fighting with the Indian Army while deploying its combat strike brigade teams in Saudi Arabia in a response of Saudi intervention in Yemen.
UN peacekeeping missionsEdit
In the wake of the new world power equilibrium, a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics
- UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960–1964
- UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF) 1962–1963 (14 Punjab Regiment)
- UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964
- UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989–1990
- UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003
- UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993–1996
- UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993
- UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992–1995
- UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992–1995
- UN Observer Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) 1993–1996
- UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997
- UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) 1996–1997
- UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002
- UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005
- UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date
- UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1999-to-date
|Start of operation||Name of operation||Location||Conflict||Contribution|
|1999||United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)||Democratic Republic of Congo||Second Congo War||3,556 troops|
|2003||United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)||Liberia||Second Liberian Civil War||2,741 troops|
|2004||United Nations Operation in Burundi ONUB||Burundi||Burundi Civil War||1,185 troops|
|2004||United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)||Côte d'Ivoire||Civil war in Côte d'Ivoire||1,145 troops|
|2005||United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)||Sudan||Second Sudanese Civil War||1,542 Troops.|
- The total number of Pakistani troops serving in peacekeeping missions is 7,533, as of August 2015, which is one of the biggest number among rest of participants.
Command and control structureEdit
Leadership in the army is provided by the Minister of Defense, usually leading and controlling the direction of the department of the army from the Army Secretariat-I at the Ministry of Defense, with the Defense Secretary who is responsible for the bureaucratic affairs of the army's department. The Constitution allows the President of Pakistan, an elected civilian official, to act as the civilian Commander-in-Chief while the Prime Minister, an elected civilian, to act as the Chief Executive. The Chief of Army Staff, an appointed four-star rank army general, is the highest general officer who acts as the principal military adviser on the expeditionary and land/ground warfare affairs, and a senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee– a military body that advises and briefs the elected civilian Prime Minister and its executive cabinet on national security affairs and operational military matters under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
The single combat headquarter, the Army GHQ, is located in Rawalpindi Cantonment in Punjab in Pakistan, in the vicinity of the Joint Staff Headquarters. The Chief of Army Staff controls and commands the army at all levels of operational command, and is assisted the number of Principal Staff Officers (PSOs) who are commissioned at the three-star rank generals.
- Chief of General Staff, under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function.
- Chief of Logistics Staff.
- Quartermaster General (QMG).
- Master General of Ordnance (MGO).
- Engineer-in-Chief, the chief army engineer and topographer.
- Judge Advocate General.
- Military Secretary.
- Comptroller of Civilian Personnel.
In 2008, a major introduction was made in the military bureaucracy at the Army GHQ under Gene. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector-General of Arms and the Inspector-General Communications and IT.
The commissioned army ranks and insignia authorized in the Pakistan Army are modified and patterned on the British Army's officer ranks and insignia system. There are several paths of becoming the commissioned officer in the army including the admission and required graduation from the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul, Cadet Colleges or the Officer Candidate Schools (OCS i.e. Sui or Jhelum).:134 To become an officer in the army, the academic four-year college degree is required for the candidates to become officers in the army, and therefore they are designated by insignia unique to their staff community.:134
Selection to the officer candidates is highly competitive with ~320–700 individuals are allowed to enter in the Pakistan Military Academy annually, with a small number of already graduated physicians, specialists, veterinaries and the engineers from the civilian universities are directly recruited in the administrative staff corps such as Medical Corps, Veterinary Corps, Engineering Corps, Dental Corps— and these graduated individuals are the heart of the administrative corps.:293 The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the staff corps have completed twelve years of education in their respected fields (such as attending the schools and universities), and has to spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.:293 The Department of Army also offers employment to civilians in financial management, accountancy, engineering, construction, and administration, and has currently employed 6,500 civilians.
The military officers in the Pakistani military seek retirement between the ages of forty-two and sixty, depending on their ranks, and often seeks employment in the federal government or the private sector where the pay scales are higher as well as the opportunity for gain considerably greater.:294
Estimations by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) the Pakistan Army's combined strength of the standing army is ~815,000 including the active duty personnels from the Regular Army, Army Reserve, Army National Guard, and is additionally supported by the ~70,000 personnel from the Frontier Corps–the military provost under the command of the Pakistan Army as of 2018.
|Title||Field Marshal||General||Lieutenant-General||Major-General||Brigadier||Colonel||Lieutenant-Colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||Second Lieutenant|
The Pakistan Army uniquely uses the junior commissioned officer (JCO) ranks, equivalent of the Warrant officers or the Limited duty officers in the United States military, inherited from the former British Indian Army introduced by the British Army in India between the enlisted and officer ranks.:134 The JCOs are single-track specialists with their subject of expertise in their particular part of the job and initially appointed (NS1) after risen from their enlisted ranks, receiving the promotion (SM3) from the commanding officer.:134
The usage of the junior commissioned officer is the continuation of the former Viceroy's commissioned officer rank, and the JCO ranking system benefited the army since there was a large gap existed between the officers and the enlisted personnel at the time of the establishment of the new army in 1947.:134 Over the several years, the JCOs rank system has outlived its usefulness because the educational level of the enlisted personnel has risen and the army has more comfortably adopted the U.S. Army's ranking platform than the British.:134 Promotion to the JCOs/WO ranks remains a powerful and influential incentive for that enlisted personnel desire not to attend the accredited four-year college.:134
|Infantry/other title||Subedar-Major||Subedar||Naib Subedar|
|Cavalry/armor title||Risaldar Major||Risaldar||Naib Risaldar|
The recruiting and enlistment in the army is nationwide but the army's recruiting command maintains an ethnic balance, with those who turned away are encourage to join the either the Marines or the Air Force.:292 Most enlisted personnel had come from the poor and rural families with many had only rudimentary literacy skills in the past, but with the increase in the affordable education have risen to the matriculation level (12th Grade).:292 In the past, the army recruits had to re-educate the illiterate personnel while processing them gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, teaching the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts.:292
In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village.:292 Enlisted personnel usually serve for eighteen to twenty years, before retiring or gaining a commission, during which they participate in regular military training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.:292
The noncommissioned officers (or enlists) wear respective regimental color chevrons on the right sleeve.:292 Center point of the uppermost chevron must remain 10 cm from the point of the shoulder.:292 The Company/battalion appointments wear the appointments badges on the right wrist.:292 Pay scales and incentives are greater and attractive upon enlistment including the allocation of land, free housing, and financial aid to attend the colleges and universities.:294 Retirement age for the enlisted personnel varies and depends on the enlisted ranks that they have attained during their services.:294
|Insignia||No insignia||No insignia|
|Title||Battalion Havildar Major||Battalion Quartermaster Havildar||Company Havildar Major||Company Quartermaster Havildar||Havildar||Naik||Lance Naik||Sepoy||No Equivalent|
Recruitment and trainingEdit
Prior to August 1947, the British Army's recruiting administration had recruited the enlists from the districts of the Jhelum, Rawalpindi, and Campbellpur that dominated the recruitment flows. From 1947–71, the Pakistan Army was predominantly favored to recruit from Punjab and was popular in the country as the "Punjabi Army" because of heavy recruiting interests coming from the rural and poor families of villages in Punjab as well as being the most populous province of Pakistan.:149
Even as of today, the Pakistan Army's recruiters struggle to enlist citizens and their selfless commitment to the military from the urban areas (i.e. Karachi and Peshawar) where the preference of the college education is quite popular (especially attending post-graduate schools in the United States and the English-speaking countries) as well as working in the settled private industry for lucrative salaries and benefits, while the military enlistment still comes from the most rural and remote areas of Pakistan, where commitment to the military is much greater than in the metropolitan cities.:31
After 1971, the Bhutto administration introduced the Quota system and drastically reduced the officers and enlists from Punjab and gave strong preference to residents in Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and such policy continue to exists to maintain an ethnic balance in the army.:163 Those who are turned away are strongly encourage to join the Marines Corps or the Air Force.
In 1991, the department of army drastically reduced the size of personnel from Punjab, downsizing the army personnel to 63%, and issues acceptable medical waivers interested enlists while encouraging citizens of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh. This decision has given a fair chance to every citizen of Pakistan to be part of the Pakistan Army as each district possesses a fixed percentage of seats in all branches of the Army, as per census records. By 2003–05, the department of army continued its policy by drastically downsizing the personnel from Punjab to 43–70%.
The Department of Army has relaxes its recruitment and medical standards in Sindh and Balochistan where the height requirement of 5 feet 4 inches is considered acceptable even with the enlists educational level at eight grade is acceptable for the waiver; since the army recruiters takes responsibility of providing education to 12th grade to the interested enlists from Balochistan and Sindh.:31 In Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa where the recruitment is popular, the height requirement remains to be at 5 feet 6 inches with minimum education of 10th grade.You must read om how to join Pakistan army.:31
The army has only one bootcamp that is located in Kakul at the Pakistan Military Academy where basic training takes place. Such training usually lasts for two years until the cadets are able to meet their graduation requirements from the Academy. All the recruits, enlists, and officer candidates have to attend and be trained at the PMA regardless of attending the military schools and colleges in other parts of the country.
It is one of the longest boot camp in the country, and the boot camp training continues for two years until the cadet is being able pass out from the academy, before selecting the college to start their career of their choice in the military.
Women and religion in the Pakistan ArmyEdit
Women have been part of the Pakistan Army since 1947, and currently there are approximately 4,000 women serving in administrative positions. In the years of 1947, '48 and '49, women were inducted into the Women's Guard Section of the National Guard and trained in medical work, welfare, and clerical positions (this was later disbanded). Pakistan Army has a separate cadet course for women which is known as 'Lady Cadet Course', female cadets are in trained in Pakistan Military Academy. After induction, women army officers go through a six-month military training at the Pakistan Military Academy like their male counterparts. The comprehensive training includes military education and development of physical efficiency skills. Women wear regular military khaki uniforms.[clarification needed]
Pakistan is the only Muslim-majority nation which appoints women to general officer ranks, such as Major-General Shahida Malik, the first woman army officer and military physician by profession who was promoted to a two-star rank. In July 2013, the Army trained female paratrooper officers for the first time. In 2020 Nigar Johar became the first Lieutenant General in the army, she was from the Pakistan Army Medical Corps.
The Army recruits from all religions in Pakistan including Hindus, Sikhs, Zoroastrians, Christians who have held command-level positions. Religious services are provided by the Chaplain Corps for Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, and Zoroastrians.
In 1993, Major-General Julian Peter was the first Christian to be appointed at the command position while Hercharn Singh became the first Sikh to be commissioned in the army. Between 1947–2000, a policy of restricting Hindus prior enlisting in the Pakistan Army was in practice until the policy was reversed by the federal government. In 2006, army recruiters began recruiting Hindus into the army and people of all faith or no faith can be promoted to any rank or commanding position in the army.
Components and structureEdit
Army components and branchesEdit
Since its organization that commenced in 1947, the army's functionality is broadly maintained in two main branches: Combat Arms and Administrative Services.:46:570:127 From 1947–71, the Pakistan Army had responsibility of maintaining the British-built Forts, till the new and modern garrisons were built in post 1971, and performs the non-combat duties such as engineering and construction.
Currently, the Army's combat services are kept in active-duty personnel and reservists that operates as members of either Reserves and National Guard. In addition, the workforce of the army is supported by the Frontier Corps (a paramilitary) and Rangers that performs military police duty within the state governments in Pakistan to help control and manage the law and control situation.
The two main branches of the army, Combat Arms and Administrative Services, are also consists of into several branches and functional areas that includes the army officers, junior commissioned (or warrant officers), and the enlisted personnel who are classified from their branches in their uniforms and berets. In Pakistan Army, the careers are not restricted to military officials but are extended to civilian personnel and contractors who can progress in administrative branches of the army.
|Combat Arms||Insignia||Administrative Services||Insignia|
|Armoured Corps (AR)||Service Corps (ASC)|
|Air Defence Corps (AD)||Military Police (MP)|
|Aviation Corps (AVN)||Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME)|
|Artillery Corps (Art)||Medical Corps (AMC)|
|Signals Corps (Sigs)||Education Corps (EC)|
|Engineer Corps (EN)||Remount Veterinary and Farms (RVF)|
|Infantry Regiments (Inf)||Ordnance Corps (AOC)|
|Special Forces (SSG)||Military Intelligence Corps (MI)|
|Coast Guards (CG)||Chaplain Corps (ChC)|
|—||—||Dental Corps (DC)|
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The reorganization of the position standing army in 2008, the Pakistan Army now operates six tactical commands, each commanded by the GOC-in-C, with a holding three-star rank: Lieutenant-General.[failed verification] The each of the six tactical commands directly reports to the office of Chief of Army Staff, operating directly at the Army GHQ.[failed verification] Each command consists of two or more Corps– an army field formation responsible for zone within a command theater.[failed verification]
There are nine active Corps in the Pakistan Army, composing of mixed infantry, mechanized, armored, artillery divisions, while the Air Defense, Aviation, and the Aviation and Special Forces are organized and maintained in separate level of their commands.[failed verification]
Established and organized in March 2000, the Army Strategic Forces Command is exercise its authority for responsible training in safety, weapons deployments, and activation of the atomic missile systems.
Combat maneuvering organizationsEdit
In an events involving the large and massive foreign invasion by the Indian Army charging towards the Pakistan-side Punjab sector, the Pakistan Army maintains the Pakistan Army Reserves as a strategic reserve component for conducting the offense and defense measures against the advancing enemy.
In the infantry branch, there are originally six regiments are in fact the administrative military organization that are not combat field formation, and the size of the regiments are vary as their rotation and deployments including assisting the federal government in civic administration.
In each of original six regiments, there are multiple battalions that are associated together to form an infantry regiment and such battalions do not fight together as one formation as they are all deployed over various formations in shape of being part of the brigade combat team (under a Brigadier), division, or a being part of much larger corps.
After the independence from the Great Britain in 1947, the Pakistan Army begin to follow the U.S. Army's standing formation of their Infantry Branch, having the infantry battalion serving for a time period under a different command zone before being deployed to another command zone, usually in another sector or terrain when its tenure is over.
|The Infantry Regiments by seniority||Insignia||Activation Date||Commanding Regimental Center||Motto||War Cry|
|Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa||Urdu: نارا-یا-حیدری یا علی |
(English lit. Ali the Great)
غازی یا شہید
(English lit. Honored or Martyr)
کی کی بلوچ
(English lit. Of the Baloch)
|Frontier Force Regiment||
(English lit. Lucky)
|Northern Light Infantry Regiment||
|Gilgit, Gilgit Baltistan||
(English lit. Consistent)
|Azad Kashmir Regiment||
|Other type of Regiments||Insignia||Activation Date||Regimental Center||Motto||War Cry|
|Regiment of Artillery||
|Mujahid Force Regiment||
|Bhimber, Azad Kashmir|
|Regiment of Air Defense||
Special operations forcesEdit
The Pakistan Army has a military division dedicated towards conducting the unconventional and asymmetric warfare operations, established with the guidance provided by the United States Army in 1956. This competitive special operation force is known as the Special Services Group (Army SSG, distinguishing the Navy SSG), and is assembled in eight battalions, commanded by the Lieutenant-Colonel, with addition of three companies commanded by the Major or a Captain, depending on the availability.
The special operation forces training school is located in Cherat in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan where the training and education on the philosophy of military arts and tactics takes place by the army instructors.
Each battalion in the Pakistan Army Special Forces is specifically trained for a specific type of operation, and each battalion is a specialist in their nature of conducting the operation. Due to their distinctive service headgear, the Army SSG is colloquially known as the Maroon Berets. In 2000, the Pakistan Army established the Army Strategic Forces Command that is charged with overseeing the operational readiness and various deployment of the Army SSG, Special Forces, Special Support Group, Army Rangers, and the Strategic Plans Division Force— the CBRN defense component of the department of army.
Besides the Army SSG and the Special Forces (SF), the Pakistan Army has trained a specific Rangers team that is especially trained in counter tactics, and is trained for carrying out the difficult counter-terrorism operation involving the civilian hostages in Karachi, and helping the state governments in Sindh and Punjab maintaining the law and order situation intact.
Implementing the counterterrorism tactics in 2004, the Army has been training the specific Army Ranger company, known as the Rangers Anti-terrorist Force (ATF), along with the Army SSG company, often conduct training with the U.S. Army Ranger in terror and infantry tactics.
Combat doctrine (1947–2007)Edit
In 1947, the Pakistan Army's war strategists developed a combat doctrine which was called "The Riposte", which featured a strategy of "offensive-defense".:310 In 1989, the first and official implementation of this strategy was refined and featured in the major military exercise, Exercise Zab-e-Momin, organized under Lt-Gen. Hamid Gul– this combat doctrine was fully focused in engaging towards its primary adversary, Indian Army.:310
In 1989–99, the JS HQ, working with the Army GHQ to identify several key factors considering the large conventional attacks from the better equipped and numerically advantage adversary, the Indian Army, derived the combat doctrine to assess the vulnerability of Pakistan where its vast majority of population centers as well as political and military targets lies closer to the international border with India.
The national security strategists explored the controversial idea of strategic depth in form of fomenting friendly foreign relations with Afghanistan and Iran while India substantially enhancing its offensive capabilities designed in its doctrine, the Cold Start Doctrine. Due to the numerical advantage of Indian Army over its small adversary, the Pakistan Army, the Pakistani national security analysts noted that any counterattack on advancing Indian Army would be very tricky and miscalculated– the ideal response of countering the attacks from the Indian ground forces would be operationalizing the battle-ranged Hatf-IA/Hatf-IB missiles. The Pakistan Army Reserves, supported by the Army National Guard, and India's Territorial Army would eventually forward towards the defensive positions and fortifications in less than 24 hours. However, the Corps in both nation's commands with large stockpiles of ordnance will take between 24–72 hours for logistically mobilized its combat assets after the orders are authorized; therefore, both nation's armies will be evenly matched in the first 24 hours since the Pakistani units have to travel a shorter distance to their forward positions.
The war doctrine of "offensive-defense" entailed Pakistan of not waiting to be attacked but instead launching an offense of its own, with an offense being a limited advance along with narrow fronts aiming towards occupying enemy territory near the border to a depth of 40–50 km. Pakistani national security calculated that since Indian forces will not reach their maximum strength near the border for another 48–72 hours, Pakistan might have parity or numerical superiority against the India. Earlier studies in "Offensive-defense" doctrine validated results of finding and keeping the enemy forces off-balance as the Indian Army engage in containing the Pakistan Army forces into its territory rather than concentrating towards launching an attack onto Pakistan's territory. The strategic calculations by Pakistan Army's war strategists hoped that the Pakistan Army's soldiers would keep the Indian Army soldiers engage in fighting on the Indian territory, therefore the collateral damage being suffered by the Indian Army at most. An important aspect in "offensive-defense" doctrine was to seize sizable Indian territory which gives Pakistan an issue to negotiate with India in the aftermath of a ceasefire brought about by international pressure after 3–4 weeks of fighting.
Due to fortification of LoC in Kashmir and difficult terrains in Northern Punjab, the Army created the Pakistan Army Reserves in the 1990s that is concentrated in desert terrain of Sindh-Rajasthan sector, The Army Reserve South of the Pakistan Army Reserves is grouped in several powerful field-level corps and designed to provide a defensive maneuvers in case of war with the Indian Army.
The limitation and constraint of the "offensive-defense" doctrine was eventually exposed by the Indian Army's performance in the Kargil war in 1999, as Indian Army decided to take an action with full offense that forced Pakistan Army to go into full defense. Without the synergy between the Air Force, Navy and Marines, the doctrine became redundant, and the Pakistan Army had to rely on international pressure on India to desist from an assault as it exactly happened, according to the Indian author, RSN Singh in 2011.[disputed ]
Threat Matrix (2010 – present)Edit
After the failure of the "Offensive-defense" in 1999, the national security institutions engaged in critical thinking to evaluate new doctrine that would provide a comprehensive grand strategy against the infiltrating enemy forces, and development began 2010–11 for the new combat doctrine. In 2013, the new combat doctrine, the Threat Matrix, was unveiled by the ISPR, that was the first time in its history that the army's national security analysts realized that Pakistan faces a real threat from within, a threat that is concentrated in areas along western borders. The Threat Matrix doctrine analyze the military's comprehensive operational priorities and goes beyond in comprehensively describing both existential and non-existential threats to the country.
Based on that strategy in 2013, the Pakistani military organized a four-tier joint military exercise, code named: Exercise Azm-e-Nau, in which the aim was to update the military's "readiness strategy for dealing with the complex security threat environment." The objective of such exercises is to assess tactics, procedures and techniques, and explore joint operations strategies involving all three branches of the military: the Army, Air Force, and Navy. In successive years, the Pakistani military combined all the branch-level exercises into joint warfare exercises, in which all four branches now participate, regardless of the terrain, platforms and control of command.
Corporate and business activitiesEdit
According to the international news agencies and investigation reports by international financial regulatory institutions, the department of army controls, manages, and runs the large number of business enterprises and conglomerates, that is estimated to be revenue at US$ 20 billion in 2007–08. One of the largest real estate conglomerate that is run by the army is known as the Defense Housing Authority (DHA), as well as the Army Welfare Trust (AWT), and out 46 housing schemes directly built by the armed forces, none of the scheme is for ordinary soldiers or civilian officers and personnel employed by the army.
The Fauji Foundation (lit. Military Foundation) has shares in the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) and involves in manufacturing and selling the process meat, stud, and dairy farms meant for the military's own use while there are enterprises perform functions in local civilian economy such as bakeries, security and the banking services. The army factories managed by the Fauji Foundation produces such goods such as sugar, Fauji Fertilizer, brass castings, and sells its products to civilian consumers albeit at prices higher than those charged from military personnel. The Pakistani military has a largest shares in the PSX and has financial stakes in commercial banking, airlines, steel businesses, cement, telecoms, petroleum and energy, education, sports, health care and even chains of grocery shops and bakeries.
Involvement in Pakistani societyEdit
The Pakistan Army has played an integral part in the civil society of Pakistan, almost since its inception. In 1996, General Jehangir Karamat described Pakistan armed forces' relations with the society:
In my opinion, if we have to repeat of past events then we must understand that Military leaders can pressure only up to a point. Beyond that their own position starts getting undermined because the military is after all is a mirror image of the civil society from which it is drawn.— General Jehangir Karamat on civil society–military relations
In times of national calamities and natural disasters, including the devastating earthquake in 2005 or the great floods in 2010, the army engineering corps, medical, logistical personnel, and other armed forces services have played a major role in area rehabilitation and reconstruction of cities and towns while distributing the relief goods and military rations to the affected civilians. Since 1948, the army has been involved in providing power generation to affected areas, building dams, and construction of towns and cities, and conducting rescue operations for evacuations of general public and animals from endangerment.
To coordinate and manage the proper relief operations, reconstructions, and rehabilitation, the federal government appoints the active-duty officers, as an external billets appointments, to lead federal agencies such as ERRA and the NDMA. Besides relief activities in the country, the Pakistan Army has also engaged in other parts of the world such as coordinating and leading the relief efforts in Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka after these countries were affected by the underwater earthquake that resulted in tsunami in 2004.
Education and trainingEdit
Schooling, teachings, and institutionsEdit
The Pakistan Army offers wide range of extensive and lucrative careers in the military to young high school graduates and the college degree holders upon enlistment, and Pakistan Army operates the large number of training schools in all over the country. The overall directions and management of the army training schools are supervised and controlled by the policies devised by the Education Corps, and philosophy on instructions in army schools involves in modern education with combat training.
At the time of its establishment of the Pakistan Army in 1947, the Command and Staff College in Quetta was inherited to Pakistan, and is the oldest college established during the colonial period in India in 1905. The British officers in the Pakistan Army had to established the wide range of schools to provide education and to train the army personnel in order to raise the dedicated and professional army. The wide range of military officers in the Pakistani military were sent to attend the staff colleges in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada who were trained and excelled in courses in armory, infantry, artillery, and ordnance in 1950–1961.:293
The United States eventually took over the overall training programs in the Pakistan Army under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) but the U.S. coordination with Pakistan varied along with the vicissitudes of the military relations between two countries.:12 In the 1980s, the army had sent ~200 army officers abroad annually, two-thirds actually decided to attend schooling in the United States but the cessation of the United States' aid to Pakistan led the suspension of the IMET, leading Pakistani military officers to choose the schooling in the United Kingdom.:294
After the terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001, the IMET cooperation was again activated with army officers begin attending the schooling in the United States but the training program was again suspended in 2018 by the Trump administration, leveling accusations on supporting armed Jihadi groups in Afghanistan.
During the reconstruction and reorganization of the armed forces in the 1970s, the army established more training schools as below:
The Pakistan Army's training schools are not restricted to the department of army only but inter-services officers and personnel have been trained and educated as part of the interdepartmental cooperation. The Pakistan Army takes responsibility of providing the military training and education to Pakistan Marines at their School of Infantry and Tactics, and military officers in other branches have attended and qualified psc from the Command and Staff College in Quetta. Officers holding the ranks of captains, majors, lieutenants and lieutenant-commanders in marines are usually invited to attend the courses at the Command and Staff College in Quetta to be qualified as psc.:9
Established in 1971, the National Defense University (NDU) in Islamabad is the senior and higher education learning institution that provides the advance critical thinking level and research-based strategy level education to the senior military officers in the Pakistani military. The NDU in Islamabad is a significant institution of higher learning in understanding the institutional norms of military tutelage in Pakistan because it constitutes the "highest learning platform where the military leadership comes together for common instruction", according to thesis written by Pakistani author Aqil Shah.:8 Without securing their graduation from their master's program, no officer in the Pakistani military can be promoted as general in the army or air force, or admiral in the navy or marines as it is a prerequisite for their promotion to become a senior member at the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.:8–9
Besides, the platform provided at the NDU in Islamabad represents a radical shift from the emphasis on operational and staff functions and the level of ranks are imposed as qualification to attend the master's program at the NDU, usually brigadiers, air commodores, and commodores, are invited to given admission in broad range of strategic, political, social, and economic factors as these factors affects the country's national security.:8–9 In this sense, the NDU becomes the critical thinking institution as its constitutes active-duty senior military officers corps' baptism into a shared ideological framework about the military's appropriate role, status, and behavior in relation to state and society, and shared values affect how these officers perceive and respond to civilian governmental decisions, policies, and political crises.:9–10 Admissions to the army's military engineering colleges and NDU is not restricted to military officials but the civilians can also attend and graduate from the NDU, allowing the civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security.:8–9
Established in 1991, the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) has now absorbed and amalgamated the existing military engineering colleges of engineering, signals, aeronautical, and medicines, and is a counterpart institution in science and technology to that of the National Defense University (NDU) in Islamabad.
The foreign military officials and students, including from the United States, have attended the Command and Staff College in Quetta and the National Defense University (NDU) in Islamabad but the American instructors and observers have penned critical analysis by reporting the curriculum offered by the Command and Staff College in Quetta to be narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.:293:518
Civil engineering and constructionEdit
Since the 1970s, the Pakistan Army's engineering formations have been involved in civil engineering of the important landmarks in the country, hydroelectricity, power generation, dams, and national freeways.
The Pakistan Army builds major civil engineering landmarks in the country, including the Karakoram Highway, Skardu Airport, and the national security sites in Kahuta. The Frontier Works Organization of the army, has built several infrastructure with the Corps of Engineers in all over the country, and has built the communications lines in Northern Pakistan through its Special Communications Organization (SCO).
The Corps of Engineers are the major civil engineering contractor and engineering consultant employed by the federal government, advising on construction management and on to improving the efficiency of construction measures in times of natural calamities.
The Pakistan Army's landmark civil engineering projects included the Lyari Expressway in Karachi, Makran Coastal Highway in Balochistan, and the Khanpur Dam in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Besides their infrastructure projects in Pakistan, the Pakistan Army has built several infrastructures projects in other part of the world as part their deployment in United Nation's peacekeeping missions.
Awards and honorsEdit
In military awards hierarchy, the Nishan-i-Haidar (lit. Order of Lion; Urdu: نشان حیدر) is the highest and most prestigious honor awarded posthumously for bravery and actions of valor in event of war.:220 The honor is a namesake of Ali and the recipients receiving this honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr.:4
Since 1947–2019, there has been ten Pakistani military officers and personnel who have honored with this prestigious medal— out of which, nine have been officers and soldiers in the Pakistan Army, bestowed to those who engaged in wars with India.
|Order||Recipients||Rank||Regiment/Corps of the recipient||Year of conflict||War and Gallantry Ribbon|
|Raja Muhammad Sarwar||Captain||Punjab Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1947|
|Tufail Mohammad||Major||Punjab Regiment||1958 India-East Pakistan border skirmishes|
|Raja Aziz Bhatti||Major||Punjab Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1965|
|Shabbir Sharif||Major||Frontier Force Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1971|
|Muhammad Hussain Janjua||Sepoy (Pvt.)||Armoured Corps||Indo-Pakistani war of 1971|
|Muhammad Akram||Major||Frontier Force Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1971|
|Muhammad Mahfuz||Lance Naik (Lance Corporal)||Punjab Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1971|
|Karnal Sher||Captain||Sindh Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1999|
|Lalak Jan||Havildar (Sgt.)||Northern Light Infantry Regiment||Indo-Pakistani war of 1999|
Recipient of the foreign awardsEdit
The Pakistan Army has been conferred with the foreign awards for its services provided to the foreign nations, including the honoring of two army pilots from the Aviation Corps who conducted a difficult operation in extracting the Slovenian mountaineer, Tomaz Humar, who got stranded on the western end of the 8,125-metre-high (26,657 ft) Nanga Parbat and the Slovenian President presented Lt-Col. Rashiduhlla Beg and Lt-Col. Khalid Amir with the Golden Order for Services in the country's capital, Ljubljana, for risking their lives during the rescue mission, a Pakistan Army statement said.
In addition, there are numbers of the army general officers have been honored multiple times with the United States's Legion of Merit for cooperation and strengthening bilateral ties with the United States 1980s–2015.:261 In 2010, the Pakistan Army was awarded with a gold medal at the Exercise Cambrian Patrol held in Wales in the United Kingdom.
The equipment and weapon system of Pakistan Army is developed and manufactured by the local weapons industry and modern arms have been imported from the United States, China, United Kingdom, France, and the other countries in the European Union.
The Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO), Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF), and the National Development Complex (NDC), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) are the one of the major defense contractor for the Department of the Pakistan Army.
The Heavy Industries Taxila designs and manufactured main battle tanks (MBT) in cooperation with the China and the Ukraine, while the fire arms and standard rifles for the army are licensed manufactured by the Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF). The Chinese cooperation and further assistance with the Pakistan Army is vital in designing, vehicular construction, and material manufacturing of the main battle tanks.:xxxv The standard rifle for the army is the German designed and POF manufactured Koch G3P4.
The defense funding for the army was preferential, which was described as the "lion’s share", however, in light of CPEC's security demanding to secure the seaborne borders, the army financial planners significantly lowered its share in a view of strengthening the under-funded department of the navy.
From 1947–71, the army service uniform of the Pakistan Army closely resembled to the army uniform of the British Army, but the uniform changed in preference of Sherwani.:172 The army service uniform in the Pakistan Army consists of the Sherwani with two front pockets, cap of a synthetic material, trousers with two pockets, with Golden Khaki colors.:222
In the 1970s, the Ministry of Defense introduced the first camouflage pattern in the army combat uniform, resembling the British-styled DPM but this was changed in 1990 in favor of adopting the U.S. Woodland which continued until 2010. In winter front such as in the Siachen and near the Wakhan Corridor, the Pakistan Army personnel wears the heavy winter all white military gear.
As of 2011, the camouflage pattern of the brown and black BDU was issued and is worn by the officers and the army troops in their times of deployments. The Pakistan Army has introduced arid camouflage pattern in uniform and resized qualification badges which are now service ribbons and no longer worn along with the ranks are now embroidered and are on chest. The name is badged on the right pocket and the left pocket displays achievement badges by Pakistan Army.
Flag of Pakistan is placed over the black embroidered formation sign on the left arm and class course insignias are put up for the Goldish uniform, decorations and awards and the ranks.
- Military Uniforms in the Pakistan Army
The standard army service uniform of the Pakistan Army, worn by officers and enlisted personnel
- name="International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (2020). The Military Balance 2020. London: Routledge. pp. 300. ISBN 9780367466398.}}.
- Khan, Hameed (1 June 2003). "Command and Structure of Pakistan Army". www.pakdef.org. PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Infrastructures Development". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Army – Home Page". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Lt General Sahir Shamshad Mirza Appointed New Chief of Joint Staff: Pak Army". News18. 26 November 2019. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- Cloughley, Brian (2016). A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections (1st ed.). London UK.: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781631440397. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- (Iiss), The International Institute of Strategic Studies (14 February 2020). The Military Balance 2020. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Incorporated. ISBN 9780367466398.
- "2020 Pakistan Military Strength". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- Desk, Editorial (17 March 2019). "Things about Pakistan Army none of us knew!". CurryFlow. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "World's largest armies by active military personnel 2020". Statista. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "Pakistan Military 2016". CIA world Fact BOOK. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Article 245(1)–Article 245(4) Archived 21 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine in Chapter 2: Armed Forces in Part XII: Miscellaneous of Constitution of Pakistan.
- Harper, Stephen (2017). "The Bosnian War Goes to East: Identity and Internationalism in Alpha Bravo Charlie." (google books). Screening Bosnia: Geopolitics, Gender and Nationalism in Film and Television Images of the 1992–95 War (1st ed.). Indiana, U.S.: Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 155. ISBN 9781623567071. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Fair, C. Christine (2014). "Recruitment in Pakistan Army" (google books). Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army's Way of War. Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780199892716.
- "History of Pakistan Army". Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "ISPR". Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Article 245(1)&Article 245(3) Archived 21 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine in Chapter 2: Armed Forces in Part XII: Miscellaneous of Constitution of Pakistan.
- Javid, Hassan (23 November 2014). "COVER STORY: The Army & Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan". DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspapers. Dawn Newspapers. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Aqil, Shah (1973). The army and democracy : military politics in Pakistan. ISBN 9780674728936.
- Aziz, Mazhar (2007). Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State. Routledge. ISBN 9781134074099. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Alam, Dr Shah (2012). Pakistan Army: Modernisation, Arms Procurement and Capacity Building. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789381411797. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Article 243(2) Archived 21 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine in Chapter 2: Armed Forces in Part XII: Miscellaneous of Constitution of Pakistan.
- Butt, Tariq (16 November 2016). "Nawaz to appoint third army chief". thenews.com.pk. The News International. News International. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "General Mian Usama takes charge as Pakistan's 16th army chief". DAWN. 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Gen Bajwa assumes command as Pakistan's 16th army chief". The Express Tribune. 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "[Chapter 2. Armed Forces] of [Part XII: Miscellaneous]". Pakistani.org. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Chandar (Retd), Col Y. Udaya (2018). "(Partition of the British Indian Armed Forces)" (google books). Independent India's All the Seven Wars. Chennai, Ind.: Notion Press. ISBN 9781948473224. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Roy, Kaushik (2013). "§Decolonization" (google books). The Army in British India: From Colonial Warfare to Total War 1857 – 1947 (1st ed.). London, Uk.: A&C Black. p. 220. ISBN 9781441177308. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Khanna, K. K. (2015). Art of Generalship (1st ed.). Delhi India: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 295. ISBN 9789382652939. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Schofield, Victoria (2003). "(Chapter 3: The Accession)". Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War (Internet Archive) (2nd ed.). London, Eng. UK: I.B.Tauris. pp. 250. ISBN 9781860648984. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
after large numbers of tribesmen.
- Mahapatra, Debidatta Aurobinda (2017). "§(India, Pakistan, and Kashmir)" (google books). Conflict Management in Kashmir: State-People Relations and Peace (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108423892. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Hodson, H. V. (1969), The Great Divide: Britain, India, Pakistan, London: Hutchinson, ISBN 9780090971503, archived from the original on 9 November 2018, retrieved 2 January 2019
- Hiro, Dilip (2015). "(Overviews and Conclusions)" (google book). The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India and Pakistan (1st ed.). Washington DC, US: PublicAffairs. p. 475. ISBN 9781568587349. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Malik, Hafeez (2016). "§(Problems of Initial Adaptation)" (google books). Soviet-Pakistan Relations and Post-Soviet Dynamics, 1947–92 (1st ed.). Pennsylvania, US: Springer. p. 400. ISBN 9781349105731. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Major Nasir Uddin, Juddhey Juddhey Swadhinata, pp55
- Higgins, David R. (2016). "(Pakistan)" (google books). M48 Patton vs Centurion: Indo-Pakistani War 1965 (1st ed.). Bloomsbury, Ind. US: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 100. ISBN 9781472810939. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Khan, Mohammad Ayub (1967). Friends Not Masters: A Political Autobiography (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780192111784. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Sydney Morning Herald Wednesday 14 December 1949
- paksoldiers.com (4 December 2013). "Appointments of Pakistan Army Commanders and Historic Facts – Pakistan Military & Defence News". Original work published by the News International. paksoldiers.com. paksoldiers.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- Burke, S. M.; Ziring, Lawrence (1990). Pakistan's foreign policy: an historical analysis (snippet view) (2nd ed.). Oxford, Eng. UK: Oxford University Press. p. 498. ISBN 9780195774078.
- Cheema, P. I. (2002). "(The Evolution of the Army)". The Armed Forces of Pakistan (google boosk). NY, US: NYU Press. p. 200. ISBN 9780814716335. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Hamid Hussain. "Tale of a love affair that never was: United States-Pakistan Defence Relations". Hamid Hussain, Defence Journal of Pakistan. Hamid Hussain, Defence Journal of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Nawaz, Shuja (2008). "§(Stay Behind Forces)". Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within (snippet view) (1st ed.). Oxford, Eng, UK.: Oxford University Press. p. 655. ISBN 978-0195476606. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "School of Infantry and Tactics". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "School of Artillery". Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "Ordnance College". Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "School of Armoured and Mechanized Warfare". Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "Army Aviation School". Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Shah, Aqil (2014). "§(Marching Toward Martial Law)". The Army and Democracy (google books) (1st ed.). Cambridge, Mass. U.S.: Harvard University Press. p. 380. ISBN 9780674728936. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Mohiuddin, Yasmeen Niaz (2007). Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851098019. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Ghani, Nadia (11 July 2010). "NON-FICTION: The narcissist". DAWN.COM. Dawn newspapers, Ghani. Dawn newspapers. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- Sridharan, E. (2014). International Relations Theory and South Asia (OIP): Volume I: Security, Political Economy, Domestic Politics, Identities, and Images. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199089390. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Ahmad, Syed Sami (2004). History of Pakistan And Role of the Army (snippet view). Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan: Royal Book Company. p. 440. ISBN 9789694073064. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Anwar, Muhammad; Baig, Ebad (2012). "(Military and Politics)" (google books). Pakistan: Time for Change. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781477250303. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Omar, Imtiaz (28 March 2002). "Extra-Constitutional Emergency Powers: Martial Law" (google books). Emergency Powers and the Courts in India and Pakistan. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 59–60. ISBN 904111775X. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Martial Law Under Field Marshal Ayub Khan—Provincial Assemblies were dissolved and all political activities were banned". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Amin, A.H. (February 2002). "Remembering Our Warriors: Brig. Shamim Yasin Manto". www.defencejournal.com. Karachi: Defence Journal Shamim. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Almeida, Cyril (30 August 2015). "Gibraltar, Grand Slam and war". Dawn. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Praagh, David (2003). The greater game: India's race with destiny and China. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 2003. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-7735-2639-6.
- 90mm M36 GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE "Jackson" Archived 24 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Post W.W.II, the M36 was employed by the US Army in Korea and was distributed to friendly nations including France, where it was used in Indo-China (Vietnam), Pakistan.
- The Battle for Ravi-Sutlej Corridor 1965 A Strategic and Operational Analysis Archived 7 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Major A.H. Amin, 30 December 2001 Orbat
- Seidenman Harrison, Selig (1978). The Widening Gulf: Asian Nationalism and American Policy. Free Press. p. 269.
- A history of the Pakistan Army Archived 7 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine – Defence Journal, Pakistan
- Musharraf, In the Line of Fire, page 45.
- Melville de Mellow (28, November 1965). "Battle of Burki was another outstanding infantry operation". Sainik Samachar.
- Zaloga, Steve; Laurier, Jim (1999). The M47 and M48 Patton tanks. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-85532-825-9.
- Hagerty, Devin T. (2005). South Asia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2587-0.
- William M. Carpenter, David G. Wiencek. Asian security handbook: terrorism and the new security environment. M.E. Sharpe, 2005. ISBN 0-7656-1553-3.
- John Keay. India: A History. Grove Press, 2001. ISBN 0-275-97779-X.
- "The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965". Memory.loc.gov. 5 July 1977. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Sumit Ganguly. "Pakistan". In India: A Country Study Archived 1 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine (James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (September 1995).
- "Indo-Pakistan Wars". Microsoft Encarta 2008. also Archived 31 October 2009.
- Thomas M. Leonard (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 978-0-415-97663-3.
- Tucker, Spencer (2004). Tanks: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576079959. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018.
- Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415976633.
- Hagerty, Devin T. (2005). South Asia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7425-2587-0.
The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat.
- Pakistan :: The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Library of Congress Country Studies, United States of America. April 1994. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2010. Quote: Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan.
- Wolpert, Stanley (2005). India (3rd ed. with a new preface. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0520246966.
won a clear victory.Quote: India, however, was in a position to inflict grave damage to, if not capture, Pakistan's capital of the Punjab when the cease-fire was called, and controlled Kashmir's strategic Uri-Poonch bulge, much to Ayub's chagrin.
- Kux, Dennis (1992). India and the United States : Estranged democracies, 1941–1991. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0788102790. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Quote: India had the better of the war.
- "Asia: Silent Guns, Wary Combatants". Time. 1 October 1965. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Quote: India, by contrast, is still the big gainer in the war. Alternate link: http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,834413,00.html Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- The Pakistan Army From 1965 to 1971 Analysis and reappraisal after the 1965 War Archived 7 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Maj (Retd) Agha Humayun Amin
- Editorial: The army and the people Archived 22 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine Daily Times 1 June 2007
- "Delhi plans carnival on Pakistan war- Focus on 1965 conflict and outcome". Archived from the original on 2 June 2015.
- Arif, General K. M. (2001). Khaki Shadows. Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-579396-3.
- The Story of My Struggle By Tajammal Hussain Malik 1991, Jang Publishers, p. 78
- Amin, Maj. Agha Humayun (1 November 2000). "The Pakistan Army From 1965 to 1971". www.defencejournal.com. Islamabbad: Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Alam, Dr Shah (2012). Pakistan Army: Modernisation, Arms Procurement and Capacity Building. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789381411797. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Omar, Imtiaz (2002). "(Second Proclamation of Martial Law: 1969)" (google books). Emergency Powers and the Courts in India and Pakistan (1st ed.). New Southland, Aus.: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 206. ISBN 9789041117755. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Shafiullah, Maj. Gen. K.M., Bangladesh at War, pp32
- Ali, Maj. Gen. Rao Farman, How Pakistan Got Divided, pp114 – pp119
- "Islam and imperialism". socialistreviewindex.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Marines (PM)". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Ṣiddīq Sālik (1977). Witness to surrender. Oxford University Press. pp. 63, 228, 229. ISBN 978-0-19-577257-9. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Pakistan Defence Journal, 1977, Vol 2, pp. 2–3
- "Lt Gen(R) Jamshaid Gulzar Kiyani exposes Musharraf's evil actions". Geo news tv. 3 June 2008. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- Kiessling, Hein (2016). "§Domestic Politics: General Beg" (google books). Faith, Unity, Discipline: The Inter-Service-Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan. London, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849048637. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Manokha, I. (2008). "(§Ideology and the History of Human Rights Enforcement)" (google boosk). The Political Economy of Human Rights Enforcement: Moral and Intellectual Leadership in the Context of Global Hegemony (1st ed.). Springer. p. 300. ISBN 9780230583481. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- Jr, Karl DeRouen; Heo, Uk (10 May 2007). Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts Since World War II. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099191. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Abraham, Dr Saji (1 August 2015). China's Role in the Indian Ocean: Its Implications on India's National Security. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789384464714. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018.
- Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William Spencer (2013). Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. ISBN 9780415871914. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018.
- "No lessons learnt in forty years – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Major (Ret) A.H. Amin, The Pakistan Army from 1965 to 1971 Archived 7 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Defence Journal, November 2000
- Khan, Feroz (2012). "(The Secret Nuclear R&D Program)". Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistan atomic bomb (google books) (1st ed.). Stanford, CA, US: Stanford University Press. p. 400. ISBN 9780804784801. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Cloughley, Brian (2008). "(War and Terror)" (google books). War, Coups and Terror: Pakistan's Army in Years of Turmoil (2nd ed.). London, UK: Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 300. ISBN 9781602396982. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Jafri, Maqsood (2008). The Ideals of Bhutto (snippet view). Pakistan. p. 390.
- Alam, Dr Shah (2012). "§(Pakistan Army's Corps Commands)" (google books). Pakistan Army: Modernisation, Arms Procurement and Capacity Building (1st ed.). Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789381411797.
- "Country comparisons – commitments, force levels and economics". The Military Balance. 115 (1): 486. 10 February 2015. doi:10.1080/04597222.2015.996366. ISSN 1479-9022. S2CID 219625679.
- Farrokh, Kaveh (2011). "§(Pakistani Baluchistan)" (google books). Iran at War: 1500-1988. NY. US.: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 460. ISBN 9781780962405. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Coakley, John (2004). "§(Baloch Marginalism)" (google books). The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict. United States: Routledge. p. 290. ISBN 9781135764425. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "The Dhofar Rebellion". countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Rizvi, H. (2000). "(Civilian Interlude)" (google books). Military, State and Society in Pakistan (1st ed.). Penns. US.: Springer. p. 295. ISBN 9780230599048. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Bidanda M. Chengappa (1 January 2004). Pakistan: Islamisation Army And Foreign Policy. APH Publishing. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-81-7648-548-7. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Simon Dunstan (20 April 2003). The Yom Kippur War 1973 (2): The Sinai. Osprey Publishing. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-1-84176-221-0. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- P.R. Kumaraswamy (11 January 2013). Revisiting the Yom Kippur War. Routledge. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-1-136-32895-4. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Prouteau, Christian (1998). Mémoires d'Etat. Michel Lafon. p. 265 through 277 and 280.
- Ramsey, Syed (2017). "(§Soviet-Afghan War)". Pakistan and Islamic Militancy in South Asia. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789386367433. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Pike, John. "XII Corps". www.globalsecurity.org. Global Security. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "United Nations Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM, UNITAF, UNOSOM II)". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Usman, Shabbir. "High Mark and Zarb-e-Momin". PakDef Military Consortium (PMC) (an NGO). Archived from the original on 2 January 2016.
- Curtis, Mark (26 May 2011). Secret Affairs Britain's Collusion with Radical Islam (New updated ed.). London: Profile. ISBN 978-1-84765-301-7.
- Harper, Stephen (2017). "(§The Bosnian War Goes East)" (google books). Screening Bosnia: Geopolitics, Gender and Nationalism in Film and Television Images of the 1992–95 War (1st ed.). NY U.S.: Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-62356-707-1. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia (UNOROFOR)". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Azam, Rai Muhammad Saleh (2000). "When Mountains Move – The Story of Chagai: The Road to Chagai". The Nation. The Nation and Pakistan Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Pervez, Sohail (9 May 2016). "Same Page (but) of Different Books? | Pakistan Today". pakistantoday.com.pk. Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Gun-battle flares up along LoC". asianstudies.github.io (5/21). New Delhi, India: Dawn Wire Service. Dawn Newspapers. 22 May 1999. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Pandey, Dr Hemant Kumar Pandey; Singh, Manish Raj (2017). "(§Pakistan)" (google books). India's Major military and Rescue Operations (1st ed.). New Delhi, Ind.: Horizon Books ( A Division of Ignited Minds Edutech P Ltd). p. 270. ISBN 9789386369390. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Editorial: Kargil: A blessing in disguise?" Archived 16 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Times, 19 July 2004, Pakistan
- Husain, Irfan (14 August 1999). "The Cost of Kargil". DAWN.COM. Islamabad: Dawn Newspaper. Dawn Newspaper. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "1st Northern Light Infantry Regiment (Victors)". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (2014). NOTHING BUT! (googlebooks). Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482817874. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- Jan, Abid Ullah (2005). "The Height of Collective Helplessness". The Musharraf factor : leading Pakistan to inevitable demise (Trade paperback ed.). Ottawa: Pragmatic Publishing. ISBN 9780973368710. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- Masood, Salman (1 August 2009). "Musharraf Decree in '07 Was Illegal, Court Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "'Pak played key role in Lanka's victory over Tamil Tigers' - Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Mir, Amir (2008). Out, Out Jackboot! (google books). Lahore, Punjab, Pak.: Outlook Publishing. p. 100. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Army Order of Battle - Corps". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Huge search for trapped Pakistani soldiers". Al Jazeera. 7 April 2012. Archived from the original on 9 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Sabin Agha, Peter Oborne (31 December 2016). "Pakistan is winning its war on terror". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- Karim, Umer. "Why Pakistan has troops in Saudi Arabia – and what it means for the Middle East". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "UN Mission in Democrative Republic of Congo (MONUC)". 26 September 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Ranking of Military and Police Contributions to UN Operations" (PDF). UN Peacekeeping. United Nations. 31 August 2015. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "Leadership and Command of Pakistan Army" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- The Article 243(2) Archived 11 March 2012 at WebCite in Chapter 2: The Armed Forces in Part XII: Miscellaneous of the Constitution of Pakistan
- Iftikhar A. Khan. "Kayani shakes up army command" Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Dawn (Pakistan), 30 September 2008
- "Ranks and insignia". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Ranks and insignia. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- USA, IBP (2009). "§Army)" (google books). Pakistan Intelligence, Security Activities and Operations Handbook (5th ed.). New York, U.S>: Lulu.com. p. 230. ISBN 9781438737218. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Blood, Peter R. (1996). "(§National Security)" (google books). Pakistan: A Country Study. Bloomington, US: DIANE Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 9780788136313. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Infrastructures Development". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Cadets Training". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Pakistan Military Academy - Cadets Training. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Khan, Adeel (2005). "(§The military rule)". Politics of Identity: Ethnic Nationalism and the State in Pakistan. SAGE. ISBN 9780761933038. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Roy, Kaushik (2015). Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781317321279.
- Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2008). "(§Zia. Bhutto, and PPP)". The History of Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313341373. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Cite error: The named reference
referencewas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Pakistan Army Archived 23 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Globalsecurity.org.
- Punjab’s dominance in Army being reduced: ISPR -DAWN – Top Stories; 14 September 2007 Archived 28 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Archives.dawn.com (14 September 2007).
- Webdesk, staff (15 September 2018). "Women in Pakistani Military: A story of feminine valour in pictures | Pakistan Today". Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Samra Amir (23 August 2014). "Flashback: Pakistan Women's National Guard". Tribune Pakistan.
- "Pak Army will continue to support govt in the national interest: Gen Bajwa". geo.tv. 10 October 2020.
- Newspaper, From the (22 October 2011). "Women soldiers and their dress". DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspaper. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Dr Shahida becomes first woman general". Dawn. 18 June 2002. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Women in Combat". Indian Defence Review. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Army: First female paratroopers make history". The Express Tribune. 14 July 2013. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "First Pakistani women paratroopers make history". dawn.com. 14 July 2013.
- "Army gets first woman three-star general". dawn.com. 1 July 2020.
- "An ode to minorities in Pakistan's armed forces". geo.tv. Geo News. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Dev, Kapil (23 June 2015). "Where should a Pakistani Hindu go?". DAWN.COM. Islamabad, Pakistan: Dawn Newspaper. Dawn Newspaper. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Pak army recruits first Hindu cadet - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Sikh and Hindu officers usher in a new era in Pakistani Army". SikhNet. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- U.S. Government Printing Office, USGPO (1971). Area Handbook for Pakistan (snippet view). U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 1000. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Pakistan Army Order of Battle – Corps Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Globalsecurity.org (20 May 2009).
- Army Air Defence Command Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Globalsecurity.org.
- History. Army Air Defence Archived 10 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Pakistanarmy.gov.pk.
- Army Aviation Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Globalsecurity.org.
- Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Army Strategic Forces Command (ASFC) Archived 19 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Global Security.
- Claws research team, CRT (1 August 2011). "Strategic Reserves of Pakistan" (PDF). www.claws.in. Claws research team. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Infantry". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Army ISPR. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Frontier Force Regiment". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Regiments of Pakistan Army". Independent Pakistan. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- Infantry Branch of Pakistan Army. For a description of the modern army, see: global context.
- Bennett, R. M. (2011). "§(Pakistan Army Special Forces)" (google books). Elite Forces. Random House. ISBN 9780753547649. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- "Special Service Group | Pakistan Army | Pakistan SSG | Pakistan Special Forces | Discover Military". Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Army Rangers". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Rajain, Arpit (2005). "(§Pakistan)" (google books). Nuclear Deterrence in Southern Asia: China, India and Pakistan. New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications India. p. 497. ISBN 9788132103257.
- General Mirza Aslam Beg. 50 Years of Pakistan Army: A Journey into Professionalism, Pakistan Observer, 21 August 1997.
- "EXERCISE ZARB E MOMIN 1989". Army ISPR. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Beg, M. A/ (1 July 1999). "Deterrence, Defence and Development". www.defencejournal.com. Islamabad: Defense Journal. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Singh, RSN (18 February 2011). "Pakistan's Offensive-Defence Strategy". www.indiandefencereview.com/. New Delhi, India: Indian Defence Review. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- By Our Correspondent (3 January 2013). "New doctrine". Express Tribune, 2013. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Army opens war games 'Azm-i-Nau IV'". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013.
- Abdullahi, Najad (16 February 2008). "Pakistani army's '$20bn' business". aljazeera.com. aljazeera. aljazeera. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Siddiqa, Ayesha (2007) Military Inc. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-547495-4
- "The Fascist Army". Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Mazhar Aziz (2008). Military control in Pakistan: the parallel state. Milton Park, Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK: Taylor and Francis-e-Library. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-415-43743-1.
- "Disaster / Relief Operations". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Miscellaneous National Tasks". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Pakistan: Logistic support needed to transport urgent tsunami relief - Indonesia". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Introduction of training in the Pakistan Army". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Training Philosophy of Pakistan Army". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Command and Staff College". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Pakistan Military Academy - Cadets Training". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Ahrari, Ehsan (2001). Jihadi Groups, Nuclear Pakistan, and the New Great Game. New York, U.S.: DIANE Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 9781428911352. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Ali, Idress; Stewart, Phil (10 August 2018). "Exclusive: As Trump cracks down on Pakistan, U.S. cuts military..." Reuters. Reuters. Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "National Defence University". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. National Defence University. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Aqil Shah, The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan (Harvard University Press, 2014), pp. 8–9 Shah, Aqil (April 2014). The Army and Democracy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674728936. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "National Defence University Visit to NUST". www.nust.edu.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Duthel, Heinz (2014). Global Secret and Intelligence Services II: Hidden Systems that deliver Unforgettable Customer Service. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 9783738607789. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Pakistan - Personnel and Training". www.country-data.com. 1994. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Corps of Engineers". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Zajda, Joseph; Tsyrlina-Spady, Tatyana; Lovorn, Michael (2016). "(§War Heroes)" (google books). Globalisation and Historiography of National Leaders: Symbolic Representations in School Textbooks. Springer. ISBN 9789402409758. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Naseem, M. (2010). Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Springer. ISBN 9780230117914. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Nishan-i-Haider". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- BBC: Pakistan pilots get bravery award Archived 8 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News (15 June 2007).
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2016). Pakistan at the Crossroads: Domestic Dynamics and External Pressures. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231540254.
- "Pakistan Army Wins Gold Medal @ International Cambrian Patrols Exercise – Page 3 – Iran Defense Forum". Irandefence.net. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Times of Pakistan (23 October 2010). "When going gets tough, tough get going | Times of Pakistan". Timesofpakistan.pk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Shabbir, Usman (1 June 2003). "Pakistan Arms Industry". www.pakdef.org. « PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Small, Andrew (2014). The China-Pakistan Axis: Asia's New Geopolitics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190257576. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Syed, Baqir Sajjad (28 April 2018). "Budget 2018-19: Rs1.1 trillion proposed for defence". DAWN.COM. Islamabad: Dawn Newspaper. Dawn Newspaper. Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Arif, Khalid Mahmud (2001). Khaki Shadows: Pakistan 1947-1997. Oxford University Press. p. 452. ISBN 9780195793963.
- "Pakistan - Camopedia". camopedia.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Siachen Glacier | Travel with Hassaan". Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- John Pike. "Army Qualification Badges". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- John Pike. "Army Rank". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- John Pike. "Army Awards & Decorations". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "Sports". Pakistan Army. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Basketball team named for 11th South Asian Games Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, www.nation.com.pk. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections (4th ed. 2014).
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (3 February 2010). Hackett, James (ed.). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-557-3.
- Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. RoseDog Books. ISBN 9780805995947.
- Major Nasir Uddin (2005). Juddhey Juddhey Swadhinata. Agami Prokashoni. ISBN 984-401-455-7. (A Bengali-language book about the history of Pakistan Army)
- Paul Staniland, Adnan Naseemullah & Ahsan Butt (2020) "Pakistan’s military elite." Journal of Strategic Studies, 43:1, 74-103
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pakistan Army.|