Microchip implant (human)
A human microchip implant is typically an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being. This type of subdermal implant usually contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, law enforcement, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information.
- 1998 - The first experiments with a radio-frequency identification (RFID) implant were carried out in 1998 by the British scientist Kevin Warwick. His implant was used to open doors, switch on lights, and cause verbal output within a building. After nine days the implant was removed and has since been held in the Science Museum in London.
- 2004 - March 18, 2004 - Nokia, Philips (now under NXP Semiconductors) and Sony established the NFC Forum, a non-profit industry formed to advance the use of NFC wireless interaction in consumer electronics, mobile devices and PCs. Standards include the four distinct tag types that provide different communication speeds and capabilities covering flexibility, memory, security, data retention and write endurance. NFC Forum promotes implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between devices and services.
- 2005 - In early March 2005 hobbyist Amal Graafstra implanted a 125khz EM4102 bioglass-encased RFID transponder into his left hand. It was used with an access control system to gain entry to his office. Soon after in June 2005 he implanted a more advanced HITAG S 2048 low frequency transponder. In 2006 he authored the book RFID Toys, Graafstra uses his implants to access his home, open car doors, and to log on to his computer. With public interest growing, in 2013 he launched biohacking company Dangerous Things and crowdfunded the world's first implantable NFC transponder in 2014. He has also spoken at various events and promotional gigs including TEDx, and built a smartgun that only fires after reading his implant.
- 2009 - On 16 March 2009 British scientist Mark Gasson had a glass capsule RFID device surgically implanted into his left hand. In April 2010 Gasson's team demonstrated how a computer virus could wirelessly infect his implant and then be transmitted on to other systems. Gasson reasoned that with implanted technology the separation between man and machine can become theoretical because the technology can be perceived by the human as being a part of their body. Because of this development in our understanding of what constitutes our body and its boundaries he became credited as being the first human infected by a computer virus. He has no plans to remove his implant.
- 2014 - In June 2014, during the From Now Conference in Vancouver, Canada, event organizer and futurist Nikolas Badminton had an xNT chip implanted into his left hand on stage by noted biohacker Amal Graafstra.
- 2018 - VivoKey Technologies developed the first cryptographically-secure human implantable NFC transponders in 2018. The Spark is an AES128 bit capable ISO/IEC 15693 2mm by 12mm bioglass encased injectable device. The Flex One is an implantable contactless secure element, capable of running Java Card applets (software programs) including Bitcoin wallets, PGP, OATH OTP, U2F, WebAuthn, etc. It is encapsulated in a flat, flexible 7mm x 34mm x 0.4mm flat biopolymer shell. Applets can be deployed to the Flex One before or after implantation.
Several hobbyists, through to scientists and business personalities have placed RFID microchip implants into their hands or had them inserted by others.
- Mikey Sklar had a chip implanted into his left hand and filmed the procedure.
- Martijn Wismeijer, Dutch marketing manager for Bitcoin ATM manufacturer General Bytes, placed RFID chips in both of his hands to store his Bitcoin private keys and business card.
- Patric Lanhed sent a “bio-payment” of one euro worth of Bitcoin using a chip embedded in his hand.
- Marcel Varallo had an NXP chip coated in Bioglass 8625 inserted into his hand between his forefinger and thumb allowing him to open secure elevators and doors at work, print from secure printers, unlock his mobile phone and home, and store his digital business card for transfer to mobile phones enabled for NFC.
- Biohacker Hannes Sjöblad has been experimenting with near field communication (NFC) chip implants since 2015. During his talk at Echappée Voléé 2016 in Paris, Sjöblad disclosed that he has also implanted himself with a chip between his forefinger and thumb and uses it to unlock doors, make payments, unlock his phone, and essentially replacing anything that is put in one’s pockets. Additionally, Sjöblad has hosted several "implant parties," where interested individuals can also be implanted with the chip.
- Amal Graafstra CEO of Vivokey and Dangerous Things has gained prominency for being an inventor and business commercial distributor of subdermal RFID/NFC Implants on the world stage. Implanted in both hands with his companies implants, he aims to bring awareness to the growing implantation movement.
A list of popular uses for microchip implants are as follows;
Other uses either cosmetic or medical may also include;
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
RFID Implants of various NFC iso standards have been used as access cards ranging for car door entry to building access building access. Secure identity has also been used to encapsulate or impersonate a users identity via secure element or related technologies.
Researchers have examined microchip implants in humans in the medical field and they indicate that there are potential benefits and risks to incorporating the device in the medical field. For example, it could be beneficial for noncompliant patients but still poses great risks for potential misuse of the device.
In 2004, the VeriChip implanted device and reader were classified as Class II: General controls with special controls by the FDA; that year the FDA also published a draft guidance describing the special controls required to market such devices.
About the size of a grain of rice, the device was typically implanted between the shoulder and elbow area of an individual’s right arm. Once scanned at the proper frequency, the chip responded with a unique 16-digit number which could be then linked with information about the user held on a database for identity verification, medical records access and other uses. The insertion procedure was performed under local anesthetic in a physician's office.
Privacy advocates raised concerns regarding potential abuse of the chip, with some warning that adoption by governments as a compulsory identification program could lead to erosion of civil liberties, as well as identity theft if the device should be hacked. Another ethical dilemma posed by the technology, is that people with dementia could possibly benefit the most from an implanted device that contained their medical records, but issues of informed consent are the most difficult in precisely such people.
In June 2007, the American Medical Association declared that "implantable radio frequency identification (RFID) devices may help to identify patients, thereby improving the safety and efficiency of patient care, and may be used to enable secure access to patient clinical information", but in the same year, news reports linking similar devices to cancer caused in laboratory animals had a devastating impact on the company's stock price and sales.
In 2010, the company, by then called PositiveID, withdrew the product from the market due to poor sales.
In January 2012, PositiveID sold the chip assets to a company called VeriTeQ that was owned by Scott Silverman, the former CEO of Positive ID.
In 2016, JAMM Technologies acquired the chip assets from VeriTeQ; JAMM's business plan was to partner with companies selling implanted medical devices and use the RfID tags to monitor and identify the devices. JAMM Technologies is co-located in the same Plymouth, Minnesota building as Geissler Corporation with Randolph K. Geissler and Donald R. Brattain listed as its principals. The website also claims that Geissler was CEO of PositiveID Corporation, Destron Fearing Corporation, and Digital Angel Corporation.
In 2018, A Danish firm called BiChip released a new generation of microchip implant  that is intended to be readable from distance and connected to Internet. The company released an update for its microchip implant to associate it with the Ripple cryptocurrency to allow payments to be made using the implanted microchip.
Building access and securityEdit
In February 2006, CityWatcher, Inc. of Cincinnati, OH became the first company in the world to implant microchips into their employees as part of their building access control and security system. The workers needed the implants to access the company's secure video tape room, as documented in USA Today. The project was initiated and implemented by Six Sigma Security, Inc. The VeriChip Corporation had originally marketed the implant as a way to restrict access to secure facilities such as power plants.
A major drawback for such systems is the relative ease with which the 16-digit ID number contained in a chip implant can be obtained and cloned using a hand-held device, a problem that has been demonstrated publicly by security researcher Jonathan Westhues and documented in the May 2006 issue of Wired magazine, among other places.
Purpose and appealEdit
Patients that undergo NFC implants do so for a variety of reasons ranging from, Biomedical diagnostics, health reasons to gaining new senses, gain biological enhancement, to be part of existing growing movements, for workplace purposes, security, hobbyists and for scientific endeavour. Microchipped individuals can either voluntarily or involuntarily choose to be chipped based on medical or cosmetic reasons.
Infection has also been cited as a source of failure within RFID and related microchip implanted individuals. Either due to improper implantation techniques, implant rejections or corrosion of implant elements.
Concern has been raised and investigated independently by various journalists and bodies on the nature of safety of being implanted and their proximity to MRI machines. So far no common conclusive investigation has been done in the matter of each individual type of implant and it's risks involved near MRI's other than anecdotal reports ranging from no problems occurring with MRI machines, to requiring hand shielding before proximity, to outright denial of proximity due to danger.
Electronics-based implants contain little material that can corrode. Magnetic implants, however, often contain a substantial amount of metallic elements by volume, and iron a common implant element is easily corroded by common elements such as oxygen and water. Implant corrosion occurs when these elements become trapped inside during the encapsulation process, which can cause slow corrosive effect, or the encapsulation fails and allows corrosive elements to come into contact with the magnet. Catastrophic encapsulation failures are usually obvious, resulting in tenderness, discoloration of the skin, and a slight inflammatory response. Small failures however can take much longer to become obvious, resulting in a slow degradation of field strength without many external signs that something is slowly going wrong with the magnet.
Criticisms and concernsEdit
In a self-published report, anti-RFID advocate Katherine Albrecht, who refers to RFID devices as "spy chips", cites veterinary and toxicological studies carried out from 1996 to 2006 which found lab rodents injected with microchips as an incidental part of unrelated experiments and dogs implanted with identification microchips sometimes developed cancerous tumors at the injection site (subcutaneous sarcomas) as evidence of a human implantation risk. However, the link between foreign-body tumorigenesis in lab animals and implantation in humans has been publicly refuted as erroneous and misleading and the report's author has been criticized over the use of "provocative" language "not based in scientific fact". Notably, none of the studies cited specifically set out to investigate the cancer risk of implanted microchips and so none of the studies had a control group of animals that did not get implanted. While the issue is considered worthy of further investigation, one of the studies cited cautioned "Blind leaps from the detection of tumors to the prediction of human health risk should be avoided".
Stolen identity, privacy security risksEdit
The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) of the American Medical Association published a report in 2007 alleging that RFID implanted chips may compromise privacy because even though no information can be stored in an RFID transponder, they allege that there is no assurance that the information contained in the chip can be properly protected.[dead link]
Stolen identity and privacy has been a major concern with Microchip implants being cloned for various nefarious reasons in a process known as Wireless identity theft. Incidents of forced removal of animal implants have been documented, the concern lies in whether this same practice will be used to attack implanted microchipped patients also. Due to low adoption of microchip implants incidents of these physical attacks are rare. Nefarious RFID reprogramming of unprotected or unencrypted microchip tags are also a major security risk consideration.
Risk to human freedom and autonomyEdit
Some have expressed concerns that technology could be abused. Invasive technology has the potential to be used by governments to create an 'Orwellian' dystopia. In such a world, self-determination, the ability to think freely, and all personal autonomy would be completely lost; human beings would be essentially digital slaves to governments, corporations, or networks that owned the microchipping technology. Examples of privacy concerns in involuntary patients would be involuntarily tagging sex offenders with RFID implants to track their location to provide updates on their whereabouts to authorities, these privacy concerns have been subject of ongoing debate in forced implantation.
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Following Wisconsin and North Dakota, California issued Senate Bill 362 in 2007, which makes it illegal to force a person to have a microchip implanted, and provide for an assessment of civil penalties against violators of the bill.
On April 5, 2010, the Georgia Senate passed Senate Bill 235 that prohibits forced microchip implants in humans and that would make it a misdemeanor for anyone to require them, including employers. The bill would allow voluntary microchip implants, as long as they are performed by a physician and regulated by the Georgia Composite Medical Board. The state's House of Representatives did not take up the measure.
Potential future applicationsEdit
In 2017, Mike Miller, chief executive of the World Olympians Association, was widely reported as suggesting the use of such implants in athletes in an attempt to reduce problems in sports due to recreational drug use.
Theoretically, a GPS-enabled chip could one day make it possible for individuals to be physically located by latitude, longitude, altitude, and velocity. Such implantable GPS devices are not technically feasible at this time. However, if widely deployed at some future point, implantable GPS devices could conceivably allow authorities to locate missing persons and/or fugitives and those who fled from a crime scene. Critics contend, however, that the technology could lead to political repression as governments could use implants to track and persecute human rights activists, labor activists, civil dissidents, and political opponents; criminals and domestic abusers could use them to stalk and harass their victims; and child abusers could use them to locate and abduct children.
Another suggested application for a tracking implant, discussed in 2008 by the legislature of Indonesia's Irian Jaya would be to monitor the activities of persons infected with HIV, aimed at reducing their chances of infecting other people. The microchipping section was not, however, included in the final version of the provincial HIV/AIDS Handling bylaw passed by the legislature in December 2008. With current technology, this would not be workable anyway, since there is no implantable device on the market with GPS tracking capability.
Since modern payment methods rely upon RFID/NFC, it is thought that implantable microchips, if they were to ever become popular in use, would form a part of the cashless society. Verichip implants have already been used in nightclubs such as the Baja club for such a purpose, allowing patrons to purchase drinks with their implantable microchip.
Market share of implanted individuals may possibly move on to more safer applications of wearable electronics and hardware such as Wearable computer.
In popular cultureEdit
The general public are most familiar with microchips in the context of tracking their pets. In the U.S., some Christians make a link between the PositiveID and the Biblical Mark of the Beast, prophesied to be a future requirement for buying and selling, and a key element of the Book of Revelation. Gary Wohlscheid, president of These Last Days Ministries, has argued that "Out of all the technologies with potential to be the mark of the beast, VeriChip has got the best possibility right now". "Arkangel", an episode of the fictional drama series Black Mirror, considered the potential for helicopter parenting of an imagined more advanced microchip.
- "Is human chip implant wave of the future?". CNN. January 13, 1999. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- "Professor has world's first silicon chip implant". independent.co.uk. 26 August 1998.
- "Professor Cyborg". Wired. 1998-08-25.
- "BBC News - Sci/Tech - Technology gets under the skin". news.bbc.co.uk.
- Sanchez-Klein, Jana. "CNN - Cyberfuturist plants chip in arm to test human-computer interaction - August 28, 1998". edition.cnn.com.
- Hamblen, Matt (2012-12-19). "A short history of NFC". Computerworld. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- "Amal Graafstra - Technologist, Author & Double RFID Implantee". amal.net. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "RFID Toys Forum". Dangerous Things Forum. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "Dangerous Things". Dangerous Things. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "The xNT implantable NFC chip". Indiegogo. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- bpg (2017-03-09), PRMT | Ghost In the Shell, retrieved 2017-05-26
- TEDx Talks (2013-10-17), Biohacking - the forefront of a new kind of human evolution: Amal Graafstra at TEDxSFU, retrieved 2017-05-26
- Motherboard (2017-03-23), Who Killed the Smart Gun?, retrieved 2017-05-26
- Gasson, M. N. (2010). "Human Enhancement: Could you become infected with a computer virus?" (PDF). 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society. pp. 61–68. doi:10.1109/ISTAS.2010.5514651. ISBN 978-1-4244-7777-7. S2CID 3098538.
- "Could you become infected with a Computer Virus". www.personal.reading.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
- Gray, John (2014-06-10). "I Watched A guy Get a Chip Implanted in his Hand and It Was Pretty Cool". Vice. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
- Futurist Nikolas Badminton gets implanted with a microchip, retrieved 2020-05-18
- "VivoKey.com". VivoKey Technologies Inc.
- "Elon Musk unveils pig with chip in its brain". BBC News. 2020-08-29. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
- The Good Life Lab (2006-05-12), RFID Implant - Fox News - Mikey Sklar, retrieved 2019-07-24
- "Jondo the Mandroid is RFID enabled". Archived from the original on 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
- Clark, Liat (November 11, 2014). "Hand-implanted NFC chips open this man's bitcoin wallet". Wired UK. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- Pearson, Jordan (October 30, 2015). "This Guy Implanted His Bitcoin Wallet and Made a Payment With His Hand". Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- "Heraldsun.com.au - Subscribe to the Herald Sun for exclusive stories". www.heraldsun.com.au.
- "Au pays des espèces en voie de disparition". lesechos.fr. 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
- Wakefield, Jane (2014-12-10). "The rise of the Swedish cyborgs - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
- Thompson, Cadie (2015-07-30). "This man sells a kit that will turn anyone into a 'cyborg'". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
- Shaik, Idrish; Chilukuri; Tejaswi (2018-03-03). "Door Access Security System Using NFC Technology" (PDF). International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 5: 5 – via (IRJET).
- "Bio-hacker who implanted Opal Card into hand fined for not using valid ticket". www.abc.net.au. 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- "This Guy Just Implanted a Payments Chip in His Hand, Literally [VIDEO]". bankinnovation.net. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- "Implantable credit card RFID chips: convenient, but creepy". CreditCards.com. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie (2016). "Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications". BioMed Research International. 2016: 1743472. doi:10.1155/2016/1743472. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 4914739. PMID 27376079.
- Smith, Richard M. “Tough Sell Ahead for the VeriChip Implant ID System.”Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Computer Bytes Man. 27 Dec. 2001. 16 Oct. 2007
- "KO33440: Designation of VeriChip as Class II with special controls" (PDF). FDA. October 12, 2004.
- "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implantable Radiofrequency Transponder System for Patient Identification and Health Information" (PDF). FDA. December 10, 2004.
- "Verichip Consumer FAQ". Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Halamka, J; Juels, A; Stubblefield, A; Westhues, J (2006). "The security implications of VeriChip cloning". Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 13 (6): 601–7. doi:10.1197/jamia.M2143. PMC 1656959. PMID 16929037.
- "Human-implantable RFID chips: Some ethical and privacy concerns". Healthcare IT News. 30 July 2007.
- Westra, BL (March 2009). "Radio frequency identification". The American Journal of Nursing. 109 (3): 34–6. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000346925.67498.a4. PMID 19240491.
- Mordini, E; Ottolini, C (2007). "Body identification, biometrics and medicine: ethical and social considerations" (PDF). Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità. 43 (1): 51–60. PMID 17536154.
- "American Medical Association CEJA Report 5-A-07".
- Lewan, Todd (September 8, 2007). "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumours". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
- Edwards, Jim. "Down With the Chip: PositiveID Axes Its Scary Medical Records". bNET. July 15, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2017
- "VeriTeQ Acquisition Corporation Acquires Implantable, FDA-Cleared VeriChip Technology and Health Link Personal Health Record from PositiveID Corporation". VeriTeQ via BusinessWire. January 17, 2012.
- Geissler, Randy (April 4, 2016). "JAMM Technologies Acquires the Veriteq RFID Technology Platform and Enters into Supply Agreement with Establishment Labs". JAMM via PRWeb.
- "Don Brattain, OSU SPEARS SCHOOL TRIBUTES: 100 FOR 100". Oklahoma State University. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "Tyler Technologies, Inc., Tyler Investor Community, Directors, Donald R. Brattain, Independent Director". Tyler Technologies, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "Geissler Corporation - Management". Geissler Corporation. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- Denmark, BEZH (2019). "Bichip Patent in Denmark". dkpto.
- Hamill, Jasper (January 2018). "Would you store Ripple and Bitcoin in microchip?". Metro.
- Lewan, Todd. USA Today. July 2007. "Microchips in humans spark privacy debate.".
- Westhues, Jonathan. "Demo: Cloning a VeriChip." Demo: Cloning a VeriChip.
- Newitz, Annalee (May 2006). "The RFID Hacking Underground". Wired. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- http://www.baja.nl/vipform.aspx Archived 2009-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Mearian, Lucas (February 6, 2015). "Office complex implants RFID chips in employees' hands". Computerworld. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- Robertson, Adi (2017-07-21). "I hacked my body for a future that never came". The Verge. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- Gillan, Fraser (2019-10-06). "The transhumanists 'upgrading' their bodies". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- Schiffmann, Alain & Clauss, Martin & Honigmann, Philipp. (2020). Biohackers and Self-Made Problems: Infection of an Implanted RFID/NFC Chip: A Case Report. JBJS Case Connector. 10. e0399-e0399. 10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00399.
- Robertson, Adi (2017-07-21). "I hacked my body for a future that never came". The Verge. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
- Eliaz, Noam (2019-01-28). "Corrosion of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review". Materials. 12 (3): 407. doi:10.3390/ma12030407. ISSN 1996-1944. PMC 6384782. PMID 30696087.
- http://www.antichips.com/cancer/ Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine Microchip-Induced Tumors in Laboratory Rodents and Dogs: A Review of the Literature 1990–2006
- Lewan, Todd (September 8, 2007), "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumours", The Washington Post, retrieved 2010-06-08
- RFID Journal. "VeriChip Defends the Safety of Implanted RFID Tags". rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- uownow (2011-03-23), IEEE ISTAS 2010 @ UOW - Dr Katherine Albrecht, retrieved 2019-07-24
- Blanchard, K. T.; Barthel, C.; French, J. E.; Holden, H. E.; Moretz, R.; Pack, F. D.; Tennant, R. W.; Stoll, R. E. (1999). "Transponder-Induced Sarcoma in the Heterozygous p53+/- Mouse". Toxicologic Pathology. 27 (5): 519–27. doi:10.1177/019262339902700505. PMID 10528631.
- "Lewan, Todd. The Associated Press, September 8, 2007. "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumors"". washingtonpost.com.
- "Studies Linking Microchips and Cancer". Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
- CEJA of the American Medical Association, CEJA Report 5-A-07, Radio Frequency ID Devices in Humans, presented by Robert M. Sade, MD, Chair. 2007
- "Dognappers hacked microchip out of dog and stole her puppies". Metro. 2020-07-19. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- The Guardian, , Remote-controlled contraceptive microchip could launch. 2014
- HuffPost, , Towards The Orwellian Era of a Microchipped Workforce. 2017
- The Times, , Microchipping workers takes us back to 1984. 2018
- IOT News, , Could microchip implants presage George Orwell's chilling novel '1984'?. 2014
- "Indonesia wants child sex offenders to be tracked with RFID microchips". International Business Times UK. 2016-06-01. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- California Bans Forced RFID Tagging of Humans, Government Technology website, October 17, 2007
- Tim Talley. "Bill bans involuntary microchip implants". 2008.
- "Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Privacy Laws". 2015.
- "Georgia SB 235 - Ban on Required Human Microchip Implantation - Key Vote - The Voter's Self Defense System - Vote Smart". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Virginia delegates pass bill banning chip implants as ‘mark of the beast’, The Raw Story, By Daniel Tencer, Wednesday, February 10, 2010 retrieved April 23, 2010
- HB 1142-2009-10 to study requiring the use of implanted RFID in certain felons.
- "Will microchips be used in athletes to prevent doping?".
- "Indonesia's Papua plans to tag AIDS sufferers", Mon Nov 24, 2008.
- Jason Tedjasukmana (Nov 26, 2008), "Papua Proposal: A Microchip to Track the HIV-Positive", Time
- Government Of Indonesian Province Rejects Plan To Implant Microchips In Some HIV-Positive People Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine, 2008-12-08
- "Cashless Society" Archived 2016-03-18 at the Wayback Machine This is a dead link.
- Streitfield, David (9 May 2002). "First Humans to Receive ID Chips; Technology: Device injected under the skin will provide identification and medical information". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
- Gilbert, Alorie (16 February 2005). "Is RFID the mark of the beast?". CNET News. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
- Albrecht, Katherine; McIntyre, Liz (2006-01-31). The Spychips Threat: Why Christians Should Resist RFID and Electronic Surveillance. Nelson Current. ISBN 1-59555-021-6.
- Baard, Mark (2006-06-06). "RFID: Sign of the (End) Times?". Wired. Wired.com. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- Scheeres, Julia (6 February 2002). "They Want Their ID Chips Now". Wired News. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
- Gillan, Fraser (2019-10-06). "The transhumanists 'upgrading' their bodies". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
- Haag, Stephen; Cummings, Maeve; McCubbrey, Donald (2004). Management Information Systems for the Information Age (4th ed.). New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-281947-2.
- Graafstra, Amal (2004). RFID Toys: 11 Cool Projects for Home, Office and Entertainment (4th ed.). New York City, New York: (ExtremeTech) Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. ISBN 0-471-77196-1.