A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal (connective tissue) origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancellous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues are, by definition, considered sarcomas. This is in contrast to a malignant tumor originating from epithelial cells, which are termed carcinoma. Human sarcomas are quite rare. Common malignancies, such as breast, colon, and lung cancer, are almost always carcinoma. The term is from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh".
|Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image of a sarcoma|
(ICD-O codes are provided, where available, along with the relevant edition.)
- Askin's tumor (8803/3)
- Sarcoma botryoides
- Chondrosarcoma (9220/3–9240/3)
- Ewing's (9260/3)—primitive neuroectodermal tumor (9473/3)
- Malignant hemangioendothelioma (9130/3)
- Malignant schwannoma (9560/3–9561/3)
- Osteosarcoma (9180/3–9190/3)
- Soft tissue sarcomas, including:
- Alveolar soft part sarcoma (9581/3)
- Angiosarcoma (9120/3)
- Cystosarcoma phyllodes
- Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) (8832/3–8833/3)
- Desmoid tumor (8821/1–8822/1)
- Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (8806/3)
- Epithelioid sarcoma (8804/3)
- Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (9220/3)
- Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (9180/3)
- Fibrosarcoma (8810/3)
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
- Hemangiopericytoma (9150) (also known as "solitary fibrous tumor", only a subset of these tumors is classified as malignant.)
- Hemangiosarcoma (9120/3) (more commonly referred to as "angiosarcoma")
- Kaposi's sarcoma (9140/3)
- Leiomyosarcoma (8890/3–8896/3)
- Liposarcoma (8850/3–8858/3)
- Lymphangiosarcoma (9170–9175)
- Lymphosarcoma (not considered to be sarcomas)
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (8830/3) (this is an obsolete term that is no longer recognized by the World Health Organization. Many of these tumors would currently be classified as "undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma".)
- Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
- Neurofibrosarcoma (9540/3)
- Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (8835/3)
- Rhabdomyosarcoma (8900–8920)
- Synovial sarcoma (9040/3–9043/3)
- Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously referred to as malignant fibrous histiocytoma)
Surgery is important in the treatment of most sarcomas. Limb-sparing surgery, as opposed to amputation, can now be used to save the limbs of patients in at least 90% of extremity tumor cases. Additional treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, may be administered before and/or after surgery. Chemotherapy significantly improves the prognosis for many sarcoma patients, especially those with bone sarcomas. Treatment can be a long and arduous process, lasting about a year for many patients.
- Liposarcoma treatment consists of surgical resection, with chemotherapy not being used outside of the investigative setting. Adjuvant radiotherapy may also be used after surgical excision for liposarcoma.
- Rhabdomyosarcoma is treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. The majority of rhabdomyosarcoma patients have a 50–85% survival rate.
- Osteosarcoma is a tumor of the bone that is treated with surgical resection of as much of the cancer as possible, often along with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is a second alternative although not as successful.
Sarcomas are given a number of different names based on the type of tissue that they most closely resemble. For example, osteosarcoma resembles bone, chondrosarcoma resembles cartilage, liposarcoma resembles fat, and leiomyosarcoma resembles smooth muscle.
In addition to being named based on the tissue of origin, sarcomas are also assigned a grade (low, intermediate, or high) based on the presence and frequency of certain cellular and subcellular characteristics associated with malignant biological behavior. Low-grade sarcomas are usually treated surgically, although sometimes radiation therapy or chemotherapy are used. Intermediate- and high-grade sarcomas are more frequently treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. Since high-grade tumors are more likely to undergo metastasis (invasion and spread to locoregional and distant sites), they are treated more aggressively. The recognition that many sarcomas are sensitive to chemotherapy has dramatically improved the survival of patients. For example, in the era before chemotherapy, long-term survival for patients with localized osteosarcoma was only about 20%, but now has risen to 60–70%.
Sarcomas affect people of all ages. Around 50% of bone sarcomas and 20% of soft-tissue sarcomas are diagnosed in people under the age of 35. Some sarcomas, such as leiomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), are more common in adults than in children. Most high-grade bone sarcomas, including Ewing's sarcoma and osteosarcoma, are much more common in children and young adults.
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