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The Marine Raider Regiment, formerly known as the Marine Special Operations Regiment (MSOR), is a special operations force of the United States Marine Corps, part of Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MARSOC). Renamed for its predecessor, the elite World War II Marine Raiders,[3][4] this unit is the principal combat component of MARSOC, which is the Marine Corps’ contribution to the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

Marine Raider Regiment
USMC MSOR logo.svg
Marine Raider Regiment patch
Active2006–present
Country United States of America
Branch United States Marine Corps
TypeSpecial Operations Force
Role
Size1,512 personnel authorized:[1]
  • 1,475 military personnel
  • 37 civilian personnel
Part ofUnited States Special Operations Command Insignia.svg United States Special Operations Command
Seal of Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC).svg United States Marine Corps Special Operations Command
Garrison/HQCamp Lejeune, North Carolina
Camp Pendleton, California
Nickname(s)Marine Raiders
Motto(s)"Always Faithful, Always Forward"
EngagementsWar on Terror
WebsiteMarine Raider Regiment Website
Commanders
Current
commander
Colonel Michael A. Brooks, Jr.
Insignia
Marine Special Operator Insignia qualification badge
US Marine Corps Special Operator Insignia.png

Contents

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

Today's Raiders can trace their roots back to their World War II predecessors the Marine Raiders. The Marine Raiders were elite units established by the United States Marine Corps to conduct special amphibious light infantry warfare, particularly in landing in rubber boats and operating behind the lines. "Edson's" Raiders of 1st Marine Raiders Battalion and "Carlson's" Raiders of 2nd Marine Raiders Battalion are said to be the first United States special operations forces to form and see combat in World War II.[5][6]

MCSOCOM Detachment OneEdit

Today's Marine Raiders first saw the light through a pilot program called The Marine Corps Special Operations Command Detachment One (MCSOCOM Detachment One or Det 1). In order to first assess the value of Marine special operations forces permanently detached to the United States Special Operations Command, a small unit of 86 men commanded by Col. Robert J. Coates, former commanding officer of 1st Force Reconnaissance Company, was activated on 19 June 2003 and had its headquarters at Camp Del Mar Boat Basin.[7] In 2006 it was disbanded and succeeded by the permanent Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MARSOC). Det One deployed to Iraq with Navy SEALs from Naval Special Warfare Group 1 in 2004, Marines from the detachment took part in the Second Battle of Fallujah.[8]

Marine Special Operations RegimentEdit

In February 2006, the Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MARSOC) was created at Camp Lejeune North Carolina. The 1st and 2nd Marine Special Operations Battalions were created along with the Marine Special Operations Advisor Group (MSOAG). The majority of the combat personnel assigned to the two battalions were drawn from the Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance community. In April 2009, the MSOAG has redesignated the Marine Special Operations Regiment which then built in a new level of command by making 1st and 2nd MSOB subordinate, and redesignated MSOAG's operational Marines the 3rd Marine Special Operations Battalion. Each battalion consists of four companies and each company consists of four fourteen-man Marine Special Operations Teams.[9]

 
An SH-60 Seahawk waits for a simulated Medical evacuation.

The base unit of the Raiders is the fourteen-man Marine Special Operations Team (MSOT). Each 14-man MSOT is organized into three elements: a Headquarters (HQ) and two identical Tactical Squads. The HQ element consists of a Special Operations Officer Team Leader (SOO/Captain), Team Chief (Master Sergeant CSO), Operations SNCO (Gunnery Sergeant CSO), and a communication SNCO. Each Tactical Element consists of an Element Leader (Staff Sergeant CSO), three Critical Skills Operators (Sergeant/Corporal CSOs), and a Navy Special Amphibious Reconnaissance Corpsman (SARC). The organization allows a Team to operate on its own if needed but maintains the ability to operate as part of a bigger unit such as an MSOC or SOTF, similar to Army Special Forces ODA/B.

The first deployment for Marine Raiders was in Afghanistan in 2007. This initial deployment was marked with controversy when elements from Fox Company, 2nd MSOB were involved in a shooting incident. The incident, that resulted in as many as 19 civilians killed, involved a complex ambush by insurgents that included a suicide VBIED and small arms fire. It was alleged that the MARSOC operators killed the civilians whilst attempting to suppress the enemy firing points. The Marines were relieved from their operational charter in the country and their commander removed from duty by an Army General from USSOCOM after claims were made that the Marines reacted inappropriately and caused excessive civilian casualties.[10][11] The Marines were later found by a military tribunal to be cleared of wrongdoing.[12] Shortly after a deal was struck to send 2nd MSOB to Helmand province in lieu of the eastern provinces; in late 2007, Golf Company 2nd MSOB was sent to Helmand Province in Support of NATO operations.

 
A Marine Raider with 1st MSOB, assigned to Special Operations Task Force-West waits in ambush for insurgents during a joint patrol with Afghan Commandos in Helmand Province,[13] 15 April 2012.

In September 2009 the 1st MSOB returned to Afghanistan, this time in command of a joint special operations task force in the northwest of the country.[14][15] On 10 November 2009, a Marine from 1st MSOB was awarded a Bronze Star with "V" device for his actions during a battle in Farah province. When the remote weapon on his vehicle was destroyed, he climbed on top to man its MK19 grenade launcher, according to his medal citation. As enemy rounds whipped by, Price stayed put—holding his position for four hours and killing "numerous" insurgents in the process.[16]

Following General Petraeus's take over of command in Afghanistan in 2010, in support of the ALP/VSO programme (Afghan Local Police/Village Stability Operations), SOF in Afghanistan were task-organised into battalion level SOTF (Special Operations Task Forces), each with a geographic area of responsibility; for MARSOC, this was western Afghanistan and Helmand Province. In March 2012, Marine Raiders suffered several casualties to Green on Blue attacks. On 29 July 2012, a patrol of Afghan Army Commandos was ambushed by insurgents from a number of buildings in Badghis Province, three Afghans were wounded by small arms fire, Gunnery Sergeants Jonathan Gifford of 2nd MSOB and Daniel Price of 1st MSOB raced forward on an ATV to retrieve the wounded under direct fire from the enemy. After evacuating the wounded to an emergency HLZ (Helicopter Landing Zone) from where they were safely medevaced, they returned to the firefight and assaulted the enemy positions in a fierce close-quarter battle. Whilst throwing grenades down the chimney of an insurgent-occupied building, they were struck and killed by PKM fire, for his actions that day Price was awarded the Silver Star.[17][16]

The Marine Raiders were deployed supporting the Global War on Terrorism in December 2013 alongside the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) where they conducted various special operations missions, ranging from direct action, reconnaissance and other mission sets.

Marine Raider RegimentEdit

In 2014, it was announced that the Marine Special Operations Regiment and its subordinate units would be renamed Marine Raiders.[18] However, due to administrative delays the renaming did not become official until 19 June 2015.

A Raider from the 3rd Marine Raider Battalion was awarded the Silver Star for his actions during the terrorist attack, on Radisson Blu hotel in Bamako, Mali in November 2015. The Raider led a team that rescued nearly 150 people being held hostage by members of AQIM[19]

Marine Corps Times reported that during Operation Inherent Resolve, Marine Raiders participated in the campaign to liberate Mosul in Iraq from ISIL. On October 20, 2016, after receiving small arms fire, a team of Raiders from the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion decided to occupy a point between two enemy controlled villages, later they were attacked by roughly 25 militants and an armored vehicle-borne improvised explosive device. A raider Staff Sergeant engaged and suppressed the dismounted enemy force with a sniper rifle, then exposed himself to enemy fire by climbing atop a vehicle to acquire an FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile and eventually destroyed the explosive-laden armored vehicle. For his actions during the engagement, the raider was awarded the Silver Star.[20] On 30 December 2016, a Marine from the 2nd Raider Battalion was wounded as a result of enemy action in Iraq.[21]

Marine Corps Times reported that during 2017, Raiders assisted in liberating Marawi in Philippines from ISIS-P militants.[2]

In February 2019, Marine Corps Times reported that since the formation of MARSOC 13 years before, it had conducted 300 operational deployments across 13 countries, awarded more than 300 valor awards, and that 43 Raiders, including two multipurpose canines, had been killed in training and combat operations.[22]

MissionEdit

 
Marine Raiders of 1st Marine Raider Battalion are lifted from the ground by a CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter during Special Purpose Insertion/Extraction rigging at Camp Margarita, Camp Pendleton.

Marine Raiders' mission is to provide tailored military combat skills and special operations capability to accomplish special operations missions assigned by the Commander, U.S. Special Operations Command (CDRUSSOCOM) and/or Geographic Combatant Commanders (GCCs) via the Theater Special Operations Command.[23] Marines and Sailors of MARSOC also train, advise and assist friendly host nation forces – including naval and maritime military and paramilitary forces – to enable them to support their governments' internal security and stability, to counter subversion and to reduce the risk of violence from internal and external threats. Raider's deployments are coordinated by MARSOC, through USSOCOM, in accordance with engagement priorities for Overseas Contingency Operations.[24]

Insertion/extraction techniquesEdit

 
Marine Raiders fire their M4A1 carbines during CQB drills on the range.
 
Marine Raiders with the 1st Marine Special Operations Battalion fast-rope from a CH-47 helicopter during Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) training with the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment near Camp Pendleton, Calif. MARSOC Marines train extensively in VBSS and gas/oil platform raiding

TrainingEdit

ScreeningEdit

Selection of the right personnel begins with a rigorous screening process designed to identify the right Marines for the right billet within MARSOC. Operational billets are open to men and women. Marines who want to serve as Marine Raiders must first attend Assessment and Selection (A&S). All Marines are screened to ensure that the Marines joining MARSOC meet the established prerequisites for duty within the command. The screening takes place in three stages: record screening, physical screening, and a psychological and medical evaluation.

Assessment and selection[25]Edit

Once a Marine is qualified through the MARSOC Recruiter's screening process, he or she will be assigned to the Assessment and Selection (A&S) Program. A&S is mentally and physically challenging. The program is conducted three times a year at an undisclosed location following the three-week Assessment and Selection Preparatory and Orientation Course.

Phase 1Edit

The three-week A&S Phase 1 course serves as the precursor to the roughly three-week Assessment and Selection Course (A&S), and the nine-month Individual Training Course (ITC), with the purpose of preparing MARSOC Critical Skills Operator candidates for the challenges of A&S.

Aside from the physical training, which includes running, swimming and hiking, the course incorporates a mix of classroom instruction and practical application of basic Marine Corps knowledge and MARSOC and Special Operations Forces fundamentals.

A&S Phase 1 completion does not guarantee selection.

Phase 2Edit

 
A sergeant with a Marine Special Operations Team urges Afghan National Army Commandos to move together during a drill at a rifle range outside their compound in Herat, Afghanistan 6 Nov. Members of the 9th Commando Kandak alongside their Marine counterparts conducted a familiarisation fire in order to sharpen their weapons accuracy and safety skills.

A&S is a mentally and physically challenging evaluation that enables MARSOC to identify Marines that have attributes compatible with special operations missions and the MARSOC way of life. A&S is highly competitive. The program is conducted three times a year at an undisclosed location following the three-week Assessment and Selection Preparatory and Orientation Course.

Individual Training Course[24][25]Edit

The Individual Training Course is a physically and mentally challenging nine-month course designed to produce Critical Skills Operators who can operate across the spectrum of special operations in small teams under spartan conditions. ITC uses a building block approach; the training rigor will systematically increase to mimic the complexity and stresses of combat. During ITC students are under constant observation from the instructor cadre as well as their peers. ITC is broken down into four training phases:

Phase 1Edit

Phase 1 trains and evaluates students in the basic skill sets required of all Marine Raiders. Physical fitness, swimming and hand-to-hand combat are stressed in a PT program designed around endurance, functional fitness and amphibious training. This physical training program will continue throughout the course and has been designed to prepare the student for the unique demands of special operations. Field skills including: navigation; patrolling; Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE); and Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC). Mission planning, fire support training, and extensive communications round out the first phase.

Phase 2Edit

Phase 2 builds upon phase 1, the next phase teaches mission planning, fire support training, small boat operations and scout swimming, demolitions, photography and information collection/reporting and crew-served weapons. A 9-day exercise, "Operation Raider Spirit", is run to evaluate the candidates in patrolling and combat operations. Following on from this, students are taught Special Reconnaissance skills on a 3-week course. The end of phase 2 is an exercise, "Operation Stingray Fury", which tests the ITC students in urban and rural reconnaissance.

Phase 3Edit

Phase 3 focuses on close quarters combat (CQB) operations, phase 3 of the ITC trains the student to high degrees of proficiency in rifle and pistol marksmanship (Combat Marksmanship), CQB Tactics, Techniques and Procedures, demolitions and urban combat skill sets employed by a frontline Marine Special Operations Team (MSOT). Phase 3, which lasts 5 weeks, culminates in a series of simulated raids against urban and rural targets in an exercise named "Operation Guile Strike".

Phase 4Edit

In the final phase, students will receive instruction on irregular warfare operations. The course culminates with "Operation Derna Bridge". Derna Bridge will require the student to use all of the skills mastered throughout the course while training, advising and operating with a Partner Nation/Irregular force. Newly graduated Marine Raiders will be assigned to one of the three Marine Raider Battalions.

Language trainingEdit

All Marine Raiders are required to undergo continual language training. However, based on ability, certain Marines will be selected for follow-on language training in an Advanced Linguistics Course.

Advanced trainingEdit

 
Camp Lejeune, NC – Marine Raiders freefall during a High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) training exercise at an airfield in North Carolina, 8 July 2013.

The training of Marine Raiders does not end with ITC. Marines will continue training at their assigned battalion for another 18 months. In addition, the MSOS offers advanced-level courses in a number of subject areas: special reconnaissance, Close Quarters Battle, sniper, breaching, and weapons employment. MSOS and advanced training courses:

  • Advanced Linguist Course (ALC)
  • MARSOF Advanced Sniper Course (MASC)
  • MARSOF Close Quarters Battle Level II (MCQBL2)
  • Marine Technical Surveillance Course (MTSC)
  • MARSOF Dynamic Entry Level II Course (MDEL2)
  • Tactical Acquisition Exploitation (SR level II)
  • Hostile Forces Tagging Tracking Location (HFTTL)
  • Helicopter Rope Suspension Training (HRST)
  • Advanced EOD
  • Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC)
  • Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operator
  • Advanced mountain warfare
  • Advanced Driving Skills
  • Survive, Evade, Resist and Escape (SERE)

Marine Raiders also attend U.S. Army Airborne School and the USMC Combatant Diver Course.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Government Accountability Office. "GAO Congressional report, Special Operations Forces: Opportunities Exist to Improve Transparency of Funding and Assess and Potential to Lesson Some Deployments". gao.gov. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Leading over 800 enemy kills to guiding elite forces: These Marines were honored for combat ops". Marine Corps Times. 7 May 2018.
  3. ^ Seck, Hope. "MARSOC units to get Raider name after 10-month delay". Marine Corps Times. Marine Corps Times.
  4. ^ Seck, Hope. "MARSOC units renamed for the Marine Raiders". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  5. ^ "Marine Raiders of WWII". MARSOC Recruiting. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  6. ^ "U.S. Marine Raiders in World War II | Photos | Defense Media Network". Defense Media Network. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  7. ^ Piedmont, Lieutenant Colonel John P. (2010). "Det One: U.S. Marine Corps US Special Operations Command Detachment, 2003-2006" (PDF). www.marines.mil.
  8. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1-4728-0790-8, p.178
  9. ^ Jeff McKaughan. "CORPS ENABLER: Defining Marine Corps Special Operations Capabilities". Special Operations Technology. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.
  10. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1-4728-0790-8, p.165
  11. ^ Gidget Fuentes. "Army general kicks Marines out of Afghanistan". Air Force Times.
  12. ^ Andrew deGrandpere. "Task Force Violent". Military Times.
  13. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1-4728-0790-8, p.313
  14. ^ Trista Talton. "MarSOC battalion to take joint command". Marine Corps Times.
  15. ^ Jeanette Steele. "Pendleton Marines take on training role". San Diego Union-Tribune.
  16. ^ a b "Marine Gunnery Sgt. Daniel J. Price".
  17. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 1472807901 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.161–162, p.166–167
  18. ^ "MARSOC units renamed for the Marine Raiders | Marine Corps Times". marinecorpstimes.com. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  19. ^ "Marine Raider receives Silver Star for actions during terror attack in Mali". Marine Corps Times. 28 April 2018.
  20. ^ "A Marine Raider was awarded a Silver Star for taking out an armored-vehicle IED with a Javelin". Marine Corps Times. 12 February 2019.
  21. ^ "More U.S. troops are being wounded in Iraq and Syria, the Pentagon quietly acknowledges". Military Times. 5 January 2017.
  22. ^ "MARSOC's tab after 13 years: 43 deaths, more than 300 valor awards, and 300 operational deployments". Marine Corps Times. 22 February 2019.
  23. ^ "MARSOC Command Pamphlet" (PDF). marsoc.com. July 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  24. ^ a b Couch, Dick (2015). Always Faithful, Always Forward: The Forging of a Special Operations Marine. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 9780425268605.
  25. ^ a b "Prerequisites and Phases". MARSOC Recruiting. Retrieved 6 March 2017.

External linksEdit