Military of Mali
The military of the Republic of Mali consists of the Army (French: Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (French: Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali), and National Guard (French: Garde National du Mali). They number some 7,000 and are under the control of the Minister of Armed Forces and Veterans. The Library of Congress as of January 2005 stated that "[t]he military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization. Its organisation has suffered from the incorporation of Tuareg irregular forces into the regular military following a 1992 agreement between the government and Tuareg rebel forces."
|Armed and Security Forces of Mali|
Forces Armées et de Sécurité du Mali
Coat of Arms of Mali
|Founded||10 October 1960|
|Service branches||Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, and National Police (Sûreté Nationale)|
|President||Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta|
|Minister of Defence and Veterans||Tiéna Coulibaly|
|Chief of General Staff||General Mahamane Touré|
|Conscription||Compulsory military service|
|Active personnel||7,350 plus 4,800 paramilitary forces|
|Budget||$68 million ($5 million procurement) (FY03)|
|Percent of GDP||2% (FY01)|
|Ranks||Military ranks of Mali|
In 2009, the IISS Military Balance listed 7,350 soldiers in the Army, 400 in the Air Force, and 50 in the Navy. The Gendarmerie and local police forces (under the Ministry of Interior and Security) maintain internal security. The IISS listed paramilitary total force as 4,800 personnel: 1,800 in the Gendarmerie (8 companies), 2,000 in the Republican Guard, and 1,000 police officers. A few Malians receive military training in the United States, France, and Germany.
Military expenditures total about 13% of the national budget. Mali is an active contributor to peacekeeping forces in West and Central Africa; the Library of Congress said that in 2004 Mali was participating in United Nations operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC, 28 personnel including 27 observers), Liberia (UNMIL, 252 personnel, including 4 observers), and Sierra Leone (3 observers).
The Malian armed forces were initially formed by Malian conscript and volunteer veterans of the French Armed Forces. In the months preceding the formation of the Malian armed forces, the French Armed Forces withdrew from their bases in Mali. Among the last bases to be closed were those at Kati, on 8 June 1961, Tessalit (un base aérienne secondaire), on 8 July 1961, Gao (la base aérienne 163 de Gao), on 2 August 1961, and Air Base 162 at Bamako (la base aérienne 162 de Bamako), on 5 September 1961.
"On 1 October 1960, the Malian army was created and solemnly installed through a speech by Chief of Staff Captain Sekou Traore. On 12 October the same year the population of Bamako attended for the first time an army parade under the command of Captain Tiemoko Konate. Organizationally, says Sega Sissoko, is the only battalion of Ségou and includes units scattered across the territory. A memo from the Chief of Staff ordered a realignment of the battalion. Following on, a command and services detachment in Bamako was created, and the engineer company in Ségou, the first Saharan motorized company of Gao, the Saharan Motor Company of Kidal, the Arouane nomad group, nomadic group of Timetrine (in the commune of Timtaghène), the 1st Reconnaissance Company and Nioro 2nd Reconnaissance Company Tessalit. As of January 16, 1961, Mali's army totaled 1232 men."
In the sixties and seventies, Mali's army and air force relied primarily on the Soviet Union for materiel and training.
On 19 November 1968, a group of young Malian officers staged a bloodless coup and set up a 14-member military junta, with Lieutenant Moussa Traoré as president. The military leaders attempted to pursue economic reforms, but for several years faced debilitating internal political struggles and the disastrous Sahelian drought. A new constitution, approved in 1974, created a one-party state and was designed to move Mali toward civilian rule. The military leaders remained in power.
Single-party presidential and legislative elections were held in June 1979, and General Moussa Traoré received 99% of the votes. His efforts at consolidating the single-party government were challenged in 1980 by student-led anti-government demonstrations, which were brutally put down, and by three coup attempts. The Traore government ruled throughout the 1970s and 1980s. On 26 March 1991, after four days of intense anti-government rioting, a group of 17 military officers, led by current President Amadou Toumani Touré, arrested President Traoré and suspended the constitution. They formed a civilian-heavy provisional ruling body, and initiated a process that led to democratic elections.
The Tuareg rebellion began in 1990 when Tuareg separatists attacked government buildings around Gao. The armed forces' reprisals led to a full-blown rebellion in which the absence of opportunities for Tuareg in the army was a major complaint. The conflict died down after Alpha Konaré formed a new government and made reparations in 1992. Also, Mali created a new self-governing region, the Kidal Region, and provided for greater Tuareg integration into Malian society. In 1994, Tuareg, reputed to have been trained and armed by Libya, attacked Gao, which again led to major Malian Army reprisals and to the creation of the Ghanda Koi Songhai militia to combat the Tuareg. Mali effectively fell into civil war.
As of June 2008, service commanders were Colonel Boubacar Togola (Armée de Terre), Colonel Waly Sissoko (Armée de l'Air), Lieutenant-Colonel Daouda Sogoba (Garde Nationale) et du Colonel Adama Dembélé (Gendarmerie Nationale).
The Malian army largely collapsed during the war against Tuareg separatists and Islamist rebels in early 2012. In a span of less than fourth months at the start of 2012, the Malian army was defeated by the rebels who seized more than 60% of the former Malian territory, taking all camps and position of the army, capturing and killing hundreds of Malian soldiers, while hundred others deserted or defected.
Following the rebel advance, a group of soldiers from the Kati camp near Bamako staged a coup on 22 March 2012 which overthrew Malian president Amadou Toumani Touré. After the junta seized power, they successfully repelled a counter coup on 30 April by loyalists from the red berets elite units.
The Malian military was rebuilt by French forces, and is now capable of conducting counter terrorism operations.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Tuareg Rebellion, the Malian Army has struggled to maintain its size, despite recent military aid from the United States. It is organised into two tank battalions (T-55, T-54  and T-34/85, tanks, including possibly a light armoured battalion of PT-76s  and Type 62 light tanks), four infantry battalions, one Special Forces battalion, one airborne battalion (possibly the 33rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, Djikoroni, in Bamako), two artillery battalions, one engineer battalion (34th), 2 AD artillery batteries, and one SAM battery. In 2014, 30 BM-21 Grads were delivered from Bulgaria. Croatia donated 4000 Zastava M70 rifles in 2013.
Manpower is provided by two-year selective conscription. Mali apparently has six military regions, according to Jane's World Armies. The 1st Military Region and 13th Combined Arms Regiment may be in Gao. The 3rd Military Region appears to be at Kati. The 4th Military Region is at Kayes  and the 5th Military Region is at Timbuktu.
The 512 Regiment was reported within the 5th Military Region in 2004. In 2010 Agence France-Presse reported that French training would be given to the 62nd Motorized Infantry Regiment of the 6th Military Region, based at Sévaré. The same story said that the regiment consisted of three Rapid Intervention Companies (CIR) and AFP said it was "considered the elite...of the Malian army."
The Army controls the small navy (approx. 130 sailors and 3 river patrol boats).
|List of Malian generals|
|Nº||Rank||Name||Corps of origin||Date of nomination|
|01||Général de Brigade||Abdoulaye SOUMARÉ (deceased)||Infantry||29 December 1960|
|02||Général d'Armée||Moussa Traoré||Infantry||1974/79|
|03||Général de Division||Amadou Baba DIARRA (deceased)||Armour||1981/84|
|04||Général de Division||Filifing SISSOKO (deceased)||Air Force||1982/84|
|05||Général de Division||Sékou LY (deceased)||Armour||1984/86|
|06||Général de Brigade||Bougary SANGARÉ (deceased)||Infantry||1985/89|
|07||Général de Brigade||Abdoulaye OUOLOGUEM (deceased)||Infantry||1985/89|
|08||Général de Brigade||Amara DANFAGA (deceased)||Infantry||1985/90|
|09||Général de Brigade||Sory Ibrahim SILLA (deceased)||Infantry||1987/90|
|10||Général de Brigade||Mamadou COULIBALY||Air Force||1987/91|
|11||Général d'Armée||Amadou Toumani TOURÉ||Infantry||20 January 1995|
|12||Général de Division||Bourama Siré TRAORÉ||Air Force||1997/99|
|13||Général de Division||Cheick O. DIARRA (deceased)||Air Force||1997/99|
|14||Général de Division||Kafougouna KONÉ||Infantry||1997/99|
|15||Général de Division||Tiécoura DOUMBIA||Artillery||1997/99|
|16||Général de Brigade||Mamadou DOUCOURÉ||Air Force||1997/99|
|17||Général de Brigade||Abdoul Karim DIOP||Engineers||1997/99|
|18||Général de Brigade||Siriman KEITA (deceased)||Infantry||1999/2000|
|19||Général de Brigade||Seydou TRAORÉ||Infantry||2005|
|20||Général de Brigade||Salif TRAORÉ||Air Force||2006|
|21||Général de Brigade||Sadio GASSAMA||Infantry||1 January 2007|
|22||Général de Brigade||Toumani SISSOKO||Infantry||1 January 2007|
|23||Général de Brigade||Pangassy SANGARÉ||Armour||1 January 2007|
|24||Général de Brigade||Tiefolo TOGOLA||Infantry||1 January 2007|
|25||Général de Brigade||Brahima COULIBALY||Artillery||1 January 2007|
|26||Général de Brigade||Lassana KONÉ||Armour||1 January 2007|
|27||Général de Division||Youssouf BAMBA||Air Force||1 January 2007|
|28||Général de Division||Souleymane SIDIBÉ||Gendarmerie||1 January 2007|
|29||Général de Brigade||Naïny TOURÉ||Gendarmerie||1 January 2007|
|30||Général de Division||Gabriel POUDIOUGOU||Infantry||12 June 2008|
|31||Général de Brigade||Mahamane TOURÉ||Infantry||1 October 2010|
|32||Général de Brigade||Mamadou DIALLO||Infantry||1 October 2010|
|33||Général de Brigade||Kalifa KEITA||Armour||1 October 2010|
|34||Général de Brigade||Bégrélé SIORO||Air Force||1 October 2010|
|35||Général de Brigade||Mamadou TOGOLA||Air Force||1 October 2010|
|36||Général de Brigade||Siaka SANGARÉ||Air Force||1 October 2010|
|37||Général de Brigade||Samballa DIALLO||Gendarmerie||1 October 2010|
|38||Général de Brigade||Sirakoro SANGARÉ||Engineers||1 October 2010|
|39||Général de Brigade||Djibril SANGARÉ||DCSSA||1 October 2010|
|40||Général de Brigade||Mohamed COULIBALY||DCSSA||1 October 2010|
|41||Général de Brigade||Kani DIABATÉ||DCSSA||1 October 2010|
|42||Général de Brigade||Minkoro KANÉ||Infantry||1 October 2010|
|43||Général de Brigade||Youssouf GOITA||Infantry||1 October 2010|
|44||Général de Brigade||Yakouba SIDIBÉ||Artillery||1 October 2010|
|45||Général de Brigade||Ismaïla CISSÉ||Artillery||1 October 2010|
|46||Général de Brigade||Lamine DIABIRA||Armour||1 October 2010|
|47||Général de Brigade||Cheick Fanta M. MAIGA||Administration||1 October 2010|
|48||Général de Brigade||Hamet SIDIBÉ||Air Force||1 October 2010|
|49||Général de Brigade||Hamidou SISSOKO||Gendarmerie||1 October 2010|
|50||Général de Brigade||Idrissa DJILLA||Engineers||1 October 2010|
|51||Général de Brigade||Sékou Hamed NIAMBÉlÉ||DTTA (transmission)||1 October 2010|
|52||Général de Brigade||Mady MACALOU||DCSSA||1 October 2010|
|53||Général de Brigade||Fanta KONIPO (décédé)||DCSSA||1 October 2010|
|54||Général de Brigade||Amadou Baba TOURÉ (décéssed)||Infantry||1 October 2010|
|55||Général de Brigade||Waly SISSOKO||Air Force||1 January 2012|
|56||Général de Brigade||Soumana KOUYATE||Air Force||1 January 2012|
|57||Général de Brigade||Mady Boubou KAMISSOKO||Gendarmerie||1 January 2012|
|58||Général de Brigade||Mamadou Lamine BALLO||Engineers||1 January 2012|
|59||Général de Brigade||Antoine Ibrahima NIENTAO||DCSSA||1 January 2012|
Sources: Mali Actu 17 February 2012: Liste des généraux du Mali sous ATT : À quoi servaient-ils ? Quel sera leur sort ? and Le Monde-Duniya du 12 avril 2012: Les Generaux du MALI
|Armored fighting vehicle|
|T-54/T-55||Soviet Union||Main battle tank||12|
|T-34||Soviet Union||Medium tank||30|
|Type 63||People's Republic of China||Light tank||18|
|PT-76||Soviet Union||Light tank||20|
|BTR-60||Soviet Union||Amphibious APC||54||BTR-60PB variant|
|BTR-70||Soviet Union||Armoured personnel carrier||9|
|BTR-152||Soviet Union||Armoured personnel carrier||10|
|BTR-40||Soviet Union||Armoured personnel carrier||30|
|Fahd||Egypt||Armoured personnel carrier||5|
|ACMAT Bastion||France||Armoured personnel carrier||5|
|RG-31 Nyala||South Africa||MRAP||5|
|BRDM-2||Soviet Union||Scout car||64|
|Storm 4x4 APC||Qatar||Scout car||24 ||Donated by Quatar|
|D-44||Soviet Union||Anti-armor gun||6|
|M1944 BS-3||Soviet Union||Anti-armor gun||6|
|M43 120mm||Soviet Union||Heavy mortar||30|
|BM-21 Grad||Soviet Union||Multiple rocket launcher||32||modernized by Bulgaria.|
The Malian armed forces have at least two significant training establishments:
- Joint Military School at Koulikoro (fr:École militaire interarmes de Koulikoro)
- Alioune Blondin Beye Peacekeeping Training School at Bamako (fr:École de maintien de la paix Alioune Blondin Beye de Bamako)
The Alioune Bloundin Beye school is the tactical-level component of a trio of three ECOWAS peacekeeping training schools: the Alioune Bloundin Beye school (EMPABB), the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana (operational level), and the Nigerian National Defence College (strategic level). The school has trained over 6900 students since its opening and is currently supported financially and technically by seven countries and as well as the ECOWAS.
The Mali Air Force (Armée de l'air du Mali) was founded in 1961 with French supplied military aid. This included MH.1521 Broussard utility monoplane followed by two C-47 transports until Soviet aid starting in 1962 with four Antonov AN-2 Colt biplane transports and four Mi-4 light helicopters.
In the mid-1960s the Soviets delivered five MIG-17F fighters and a single MIG 15UTI fighter trainer to equip a squadron based at Bamako–Sénou initially with Soviet pilots. Two Ilyushin Il-14 transports and a Mil Mi-8 helicopter were delivered in 1971 followed by two Antonov An-24 transports.
In 1974, 12 MiG-21Bis were obtained from the Soviet Union, with a pair of two-seat MiG-21UMs to follow a couple of years later. These initial Fishbeds served alongside the four remaining MiG-17Fs and saw combat on two occasions during the Agacher Strip War in 1974 against Upper Volta, and again in 1985 when the same country, was renamed Burkina Faso. In 2005, another three MiG-21MFs were delivered from the Czech Republic, reinforcing the surviving jets. By 2010, the Fishbeds were only flown on ceremonial occasions. By January 2012, only one MiG-21MF and one MiG-21UM remained operational, until they were grounded for lack of spare parts, ammunition, and pilots a few month later. In January 2013 the Nigerian Air Force sent a technical team to Bamako–Sénou International, with the aim of refurbishing the MiG-21s, but the project was abandoned. Other jets withdrawn from service were six Aero L-29 Delfíns, which were used for training.
|Basler BT-67||United States||transport / utility||1||modified DC-3 with P&W PT6A Turboprop engines|
|Mil Mi-24||Russia||attack||Mi-24/35||5||2 on order|
|Eurocopter AS332||France||transport||2||formerly from Bristow Helicopters|
|Humbert Tétras||France||trainer / observation||14|
|A-29 Super Tucano||Brazil||COIN / attack||4|
|SIAI-Marchetti SF.260||Italy||basic trainer||1|
- DISCOURS DE AMADOU TOUMANI TOURE, PRESIDENT DE LA REPUBLIQUE, : CINQUANTENAIRE DU 20 JANVIER Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Speech by Amadou Toumani Touré, President of the Republic Demi-Centennial of 20 January), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2011. The President of Mali's Demi-Centennial Army Day speech, with a detailed history of the formation of the Malian Armed Forces and withdrawal of French forces.
- 49EME ANNIVERSAIRE DU 20 JANVIER Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Discours de Amadou Toumani TOURE, Président de la République,(49th Anniversary of 20 January, speech by Amadou Toumani Touré, President of the Republic of Mali), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2010. The President of Mali on the History of the Malian Armed forces.
- Fete de l'armee: Beintot un demi siecle. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine S. Konate. L’Essor n°16365, 2009-01-19. Reprinted on primature.gov.ml.
- Financial Times, World Desk Reference Mali Defense
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. United States Federal Government. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Library of Congress, Country Profile, January 2005
- IISS Military Balance 2009 p.310
- Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States, Lynne Rienner, 2005, p.277
- État-major général des armées : Le colonel Gabriel Poudiougou promu Général de brigade. L'Indépendant, 12/06/2008
- Dixon, Robyn; Labous, Jane (4 April 2012). "Gains of Mali's Tuareg rebels appear permanent, analysts say". Los Angeles Times.
- Pflanz, Mike (1 May 2012). "Mali counter-coup fails". The Daily Telegraph.
- Mandrake. "Esoteric Armour". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- Mandrake. "Esoteric Armour". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- May include 35ème régiment blindé in the vicinity of Kati – http://www.malikounda.com/nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle=10935
- United States European Command, 1/10 Special Forces Group Supports Pan Sahel Initiative, 2004
- http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php. Retrieved 24 June 2015. Missing or empty
- Drazen. "Croatia delivers donated infantry weapons to Mali – Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- State Department, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/34329.pdf
- Ennaharonline.com, French troops for anti-terrorist training in Mali, 13 April 2010.
- "Saharan states to open joint military headquarters". BBC. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.. See also http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/231198 – 09ALGIERS0048, on Tamanrassat committee
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- "Disgruntled Mali troops fire weapons, kidnap officer". Fox News. 2015-03-25. Retrieved 2018-11-02.[better source needed]
- "Malian army regains central town from militants". presstv.ir. 2016-09-03. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- "Mali Military". defenceweb.co.za. 2013-08-08. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 2015-06-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents. Africana Publishing Company, 1998, Volume 23 p. B90.
- Tom_Antonov (2018-12-26). "Malian army receives 24 'Storm' Light APCs from #Qatar as part of international efforts to boost the country's military capacity against terrorist groups (and transported by 3 #QAF C-17 aircrafts).[sic]". twitter.com. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
- de Cherisey, Erwan (9 January 2019). "Mali receives Storm armoured vehicles donated by Quatar". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. 56 (2): 17.
- "Mali Fact Files". Institute for Security Studies Africa. 2001. Archived from the original on 27 November 2006. Retrieved 2014-12-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- http://www.ambafrance-gh.org/spip.php?article115. Retrieved September 2011
- http://www.empbamako.org/ Retrieved February 2015
- World Aircraft Information Files. Brightstar Publishing, London. Files 337, Sheet 04.
- Sands, Glenn (February 2018). "Mali's Air Force". Air Forces Monthly (359): 84–86.
- Hoyle, Craig (June 15, 2015). "T"PARIS: Mali to boost defences with Super Tucano"". Flightglobal. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "World Air Forces 2018". Flightglobal Insight. 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- 'Insurgency, disarmament, and insecurity in Northern Mali 1990–2004,' in Nicolas Florquin and Eric G. Berman (eds.) Armed and Aimless Armed Groups, Guns, and Human Security in the ECOWAS Region, Small Arms Survey, ISBN 2-8288-0063-6, May 2005
- Mahamadou Nimaga, 'Mali', in Alan Bryden, Boubacar N'Diaye, 'Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa: Realities and Opportunities,' DCAF/Lit Verlag, 2011.
- Jared Rudacille, "Security Sector Reform's Utility in Conflict Prevention," Monograph written as part of a degree requirement at the US School of Advanced Military Studies, November 2013. (Includes case study of US aid to security sector reform in Mali, 2004–2012.)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of Mali.|
- Soldiers training during the Northern Mali conflict
- http://www.jamana.org/lesechos/articles/2005/septembre/ec1_actu15_0905.html – two new Malian generals, total eight
- https://web.archive.org/web/20101224193445/http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2009/12/09BAMAKO815.html – "Closing ceremony of JCET training for Malian army"