The Magars, also spelled Mangar and Mongar, are ethnolinguistic groups to Western Nepal and Northeast India, representing 6.9% of Nepal's total population according to the 2021 Nepal census.[5]

Magars of Nepal
Magar girls in traditional dress
Total population
Regions with significant populations
   Nepal2,013,498 (6.9% of Nepal's population) (2021)[1]
 India278,000 (2006)[2]
Magar Dhut,[3] Nepali, Magar Kham, Magar Kaike
Hinduism 79.0%, Buddhism 18.0%, Christianity 2.2%, Prakriti 0.4%[4]

In nepal first home of the Magars was to the west of the Gandaki River and, roughly speaking, consisted of that portion of Nepal which lies between and around about Gulmi, Arghakhanchi, and Palpa.[6] This part of the country was divided into twelve districts known as Bahra Magarat (Confederation of Twelve Magar villages), which included the following regions of that period: Argha, Khanchi, Bhirkot, Dhor, Garhung, Ghiring, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Rising, Satung, and Pyung.[6] During the medieval period, the whole area from Palpa to Rukum Rolpa was called the Magarat, a place settled and inhabited by Magars.[7] Another confederation of eighteen Magar kingdoms, known as Athara Magarat, also existed and was originally inhabited by Kham Magars.

Origin edit

There are several mythical stories describing the origins of the Magars.[8]

The Magar of the Bahra Magarat east of the Kali Gandaki River are said to have originated in the land of Seem. Two brothers, Seem Magar and Chintoo Magar, fought, and one remained in Seem, while the other left, ending up in Kangwachen, southern Sikkim. The Bhutia people lived at the northern end of this region. Over time, the Magars became very powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. Sintoo Sati Sheng ruled in a very despotic manner, and the Bhutia conspired to assassinate him. Sheng's queen took revenge and poisoned 1,000 Bhutia people at a place now called Tong Song Fong, meaning "where a thousand were murdered". The Bhutia later drove the Magars out, forcing them to again migrate further south. As part of this migration, one group migrated to Simrongadh, one group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region, and another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given.

The origins of the Kaike Magars end up with the mystical tales told and retold by local people. According to one of these stories, the Kaike Magars were the sons of a woman who had fled from an unspecified village of Kalyal kingdom. She subsequently gave birth to her child, a son. The boy, when he grew up, captured an angel while she was bathing with her friends. As time went by, the son and his angel bride had three sons. These sons were the ancestors of the Buddha, Roka, and Gharti clans. The origin of the fourth major clan is different. One of the three sons was a shepherd who kept losing the same female goat every day, so one day he followed her when she wandered away from the rest of the herd. He discovered that she was giving her milk to a baby boy living in the hollow part of a bamboo tree. He brought the baby home. This boy grew up and became the ancestor of the Jhankri clan. The language was called "Kaike," meaning "language of the Gods."

History edit

Magar group, military tribe, Nepal
Magar man, military tribe, Nepal

The first written history about the Magar people dates as far back as 1100 CE.[9] The Magars are one of the oldest known tribes in Nepal. Their ancient homeland was known as Magwar Bisaya, later called Magarat.

Magarat bordered from Marsyangdi river to the Pyuthan area during that time.[10] The Magars prospered at such a level during that period that this part of the country was divided into twelve kingdoms/thams (Barah Magarant)[11]—each under its own ruler—the members of each supposedly being of common extraction in the male line. Some records show these twelve areas as being Arghak, Khachi, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Ghiring, Rising, Bhirkot, Payung, Garhung, Dhor and Satung.[6][12] Among them, the most powerful kings were those of Gulmi, Argha, Khachi.[6] Broadly speaking, the twelve Magarat consisted of present-day Argha, Khanchi, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Ghiring, Baldengadhi, Rudrapurgadhi, Deuchuli, Tanahang/Tanu-hyula (Tanahu), Kanhu, Ligligkot, Gorkhakot, (Bahakot), Targhakot (Takukot), and Makawanpur areas.[13] Similarly, Athara (eighteen) Magarat consisted of the following regions: Dhurkoi (Gulmi), Gharkoi (Arghakhachi), Paiya (Parbat), Sinkhang (Myagdi), Narikoi (Pyuthan), Balungbang (Pyuthan), Jangkoi (Rolpa), Rukumkoi (Rukum), Chhilikoi (Dang), Bhaba (Dailekh), Borekoi (Jajarkot), Tarakoi (Dolpa), Timarkoi (Jumla), Jural (Doti), Bunkot, Bahrakot, Lu Nanya (Dadeldhura) and Ru-pal (Dadeldhura).[6]

The Magars of the middle and western regions also played an important role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities (17th and early 18th centuries).[14] In the 16th century, Palpa ruler Mukunda Sen briefly invaded the Kathmandu valley. Dravya Shah captured Gorkhakot, the last Magarat area, from the Magar King, Mansingh Khadka Magar in BS 1616 Bhadra 25.[15] In the kingdoms of Gorkha and Musikot, the Magars even seem to have taken part in their own initial defeat, revealing both the weakness of their ethnic solidarity at that time and the presence of clan rivalries.[16] As mentioned in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal founded by Sir William Jones in 1784, the city of Gorkha was originally the residence of Chitoria (Chitorey) Rana Magars, and the city was built by them. To this day, large numbers of Chitoria/Chitorey Rana Magars are found in the Gorkha District.[6] Additionally, in the Manakamana Temple located in Gorkha, it is mandatory for a priest to be a Magar; specifically, the priest must be a descendant of Saint Lakhan Thapa Magar, who is described as a spiritual guide for Ram Shah, and he had a very close relationship with the queen, who was considered an incarnation of the Goddess.[16] Interestingly, the main priests of Kalika, the goddess protecting the kingdoms of Lamjung and Gorkha, were also Bohara Magars; it is striking to note how the Magars have been in charge of the religious functions linked to the very source of Thakuri power.[16]

The 18th-century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal announced and loved to call himself ' the King of Magarat' or 'the King of Magar country'.[16][17] According to Marie Lecomte-Tilouine, a senior researcher in Social Anthropology at the French National Center for Scientific Research, Prithvi Narayan Shah narrated in his autobiography about praying to a goddess whom he described as 'the daughter of Rana [Magar].[16] During the time of King Prithvi Narayan, Rana Magars were one of the six-member courtiers (Tharghar).[16] Prithvi Narayan Shah in his memories also recalls his Magar dada—the man who looked after him during his childhood.[16]

The Scottish contemporary writer, Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, contends in his journal that the Shah dynasty was derived from the Magar tribe. He argues that:

The family of Gorkha which now governs Nepal, although it pretends to come from Chittor, according to Sadhu Ram[a], a good authority, is, in reality, of the Magar tribe; and, at any rate, these people are now firmly attached to its interests, by having largely shared in the sweets of conquest; and by far the greatest part of the regular troops of that family is composed of this nation.

— An account of the Kingdom of Nepal[19]

He further contended on Shah family that:

The family pretends to be of the Pamar tribe; but it is alleged, as I have already explained, that this is a mere fable, and that, on the arrival of the colony from Chitaur, this family were Magars.

— An account of the Kingdom of Nepal[20]

Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed that Aramudi, an eighth-century ruler of the Kali Gandaki region, was a Magar King.[21][22][23][24] "Aramudi" derives from the word for 'river' in the Magar language.[25] 'Ari' – 'Source of Water' + 'Modi'– 'River' = 'Arimodi' or 'Aramudi', thus the literal meaning of Aramudi is a source of river. But due to the lack of historical evidence, there are some conflicting ideas among the historians.

Sen dynasty of Palpa were Magar Kings[26][16] as per the hand-written treatise 'Naradsmriti' [27] and history books written in Sikkim.[28] In a palm-leaf manuscript kept in the Kaiser Library, dated 1567 VS (1510), Mukunda Sen is described as a Magar king of Palpa who invaded the Kathmandu Valley in 1581 VS (1524).[16] Thus, in the 17th century, Malla kings of Kathmandu valley were united to fight back the invasion of Magars from Palpa.[29] One of Mukunda Sen's wives was also the daughter of the Magar King of Parkogha: Mahadevi Suvarnamala, and she had four sons: Manishya Sen, Imbarsen, Kuvar and Lohang Sen.[16] Similarly, Gajalaxman Singh, Magar King of Makvanpur, whose daughter Kantivati was married to Abhaya Sen (Magar King) of Palpa.[16][30] From her was born the great king of kings Bhattarajadeva.[16] Around 1700, the ruler of Baldeng (near present-day Butwal) was overthrown by Palpa and other chaubisi states, and he was supposedly a Magar king.[26]

Geographical distribution edit

At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, 1,887,733 people (7.1% of the population of Nepal) identified as Magar. The frequency of Magar people by province was as follows:

The frequency of Magar people was higher than national average in the following districts:[31]

Subdivisions edit

Magars are divided into the following seven tribes (clans) listed here in an alphabetical order: Ale, Budha/Budhathoki, Gharti, Pun, Rana, Roka, Thapa. These tribes all intermarry with each other, have the same customs, and are in every way equal as regards to social standing. Each tribe is subdivided into many sub-clans.[6][32]

Ale Magars

Arghali, Durungchung, Hiski, Hungchen, Limel, Pade, Rakhal, Suyal, Sirpali.

Budhathoki / Budha Magars:

Gamal, Jugjali, Pahari, Thami, Arkali, Ulange, Karmani, Kosila, Gamal, Chini, Jiyali, Thami, Janjali, Darlasi, Deowal, Namjali, Pare, Pahare, Pojange, Barkabiri, Balkoti, Ramjali, Romkhami, Sinjali/Singjali, Jujali, Lamichhane, Khame, Doyal.

Gharti Magars:

Dagami, Galami, Kalikotey, Masrangi, Pahari or Panre, Phagami, Rangu, Rawal, Rajali, Sawangi, Sene, Surai, Sinjapati, Sijapati, Talaji, Tirukia, Wale, Thini, Bhujel.

Pun Magars:

Balali, khoroja, Birkali, Baijali, Burduja, Batha, Chochangi, Dut, Garbuja, Phungali, Purja, Sain, Sanangi, Sothi, Sutpahare, Ramjali, Tilija, Khame, Thane, Tirke, Sabangi, Pahare, Gaura, Phagami/Fagami, Paija, Armaja, Saureni, Sherpunja.

Rana Magars:

Aachhami, Aslami, Bangling, Chumi, Chitorey/Chitaurey, Gyangmi/Gyami, Kharka/Khadka, Kyapchaki/Kepchaki, Lungeli, Makkim, Maski, Marchu, Palli, Ruchal, Shrees, Surjabansi/Suryabangsi, Limel, Deuka, Jung, Fewali.

Roka Magars:

Jelbangi, Dununge, Ramjali, Bajhangi, Baijali.

Thapa Magars

To name a few – Āthaghare, Bagale, Bakabal, Bakheti, Baraghare, Birkatta, Kala, Kammu, Khapangi, Palunge, Puwar/Punwar, Sunari, Sāthighare, Sinjali/Singjali, Saplangi, Midun, Mugmi, Pulami, Darlami, Salami, Jarga, Dhenga, Taramu, Tarami, Tarangi, Byangnasi

Gaha Thapa consists of Bucha, Gora, khangaha/khanga.

Reshmi Thapa consists of Dangal.

Saru Thapa consists of Jhapurluk, Jhendi/Jhedi, Kala. Besides these, Gurbachan, Purbachhaney, Phounja, Chauhan, Pachabhaiya, Khamcha, Khandaluk, Ghale, Baral, Somai, Pithakote, Jhakote, Rakaskoti/Raskoti, Uchai, Samal.

In former days, any Thapa who had lost three generations of ancestors in battle became a Rana, but with the prefix of his Thapa clan. Thus, a Reshmi Thapa would become a Reshmi Rana.[6][33] An instance of this is to be found in the 5th Gurkhas, where a havildar, Lachman Thapa, and a naik, Shamsher Rana, descended from the two Thapa [Magars] brothers; but three generations of descendants from one of these brothers having been killed in the battle, Shamsher Rana's ancestors assumed the title of Rana while Lachman Thapa's ancestors not having been killed in battle for three generations remained a Thapa. From this custom many Rana sub clans are said to have sprung up, and this would lead one to believe that the Rana-Magar clan was looked up to amongst the Magars.[6]

The Rana clan of Magar tribes come from the same stock of Thapa, but when they were separated from their original group and lost for three generations, they settled in a place called lamjung and called themselves by the name of Rana which means chief in khas tradition and language. Thus, the inhabitants of Rana Magar became the lamjung village. The Matwala Khas are generally the progeny of a Khas of Western Nepal and karnali with a Magar woman of Western Nepal. If the woman happens to belong to the khas mixed Rana clan of the Magar tribe, progeny is then called a Bhat Rana.[6][33] The Matwala Khas doesn't wear the sacred thread. They eats pork and drinks alcohol, and in every way assimilates himself with the Magars. He invariably claims to be a matwali khas or pawai khas.[33]

Linguistically, the Magars are divided into three groups. Baraha Magaratis speak Dhut dialect, whereas Athara Magaratis speak Pang and Kaike dialects.

Magar Dhut speakers: Rana, Ale, Thapa

Magar Kham speakers: Budhathoki, Pun, Roka, Gharti

Magar Kaike speakers: Tarali Magar of Dolpa; Budha, Gharti, Roka/Rokaya, Kayat, Jhakri all Magar clans residing in Dolpa and Karnali districts.

Language and script edit

Of the 1,887,733 Magar population in Nepal, about 788,530 speak Magar language as their mother tongue while the rest speak Nepali as their mother tongue. The western inhabitants of Nepal did not speak the language in the past.[citation needed] But recently, almost everyone has started learning the language.[citation needed] The Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family.

The Magar language, Magar Kura, is spoken in two major dialects and a number of sub dialects reflecting the geographic distribution of the group. The Western Magars of Rapti Zone speak Magar Kham language. In Dolpa District, Magars speak Magar Kaike language. Magar Dhut language speakers are all Magar clans residing in Twelve Magarat. Similarly Magar Kham language speakers are all Magar clans from Eighteen Magarat. Magar Kaike language speakers are all Magar clans in Karnali zone.

Magar Akkha or scripts are used in Sikkim as a Magar language script. Many scholars including MS Thapa have been in forefront to implement the Akkha script to write Magar language in Nepal. New generations have been learning it. Akkha script is said to be closely associated with Brahmi script.

Religion edit

Magars follow Buddhism and Hinduism. The original religions or beliefs of Magar people are Shamanism, Animism, Ancestor worship and northern Nepal's Magar follow Shamanism.

Magars of Western Nepal have been practicing shamanism during their kul pooja.

Magars are the main priests of the famous Manakamana Temple in Gorkha District, Budha Subba Temple in Dharan and Alamdevi temple (Nepal's former Shah Kings' mother Goddess or family deity) in Syangja District. In Manakamana Temple, specially, the priest must be a descendant of Saint Lakhan Thapa Magar, who is described as a spiritual guide for Ram Shah, and he had a very close relationship with the queen, who was considered an incarnation of the Goddess Durga Bhawani, an incarnation of Parvati.[16] Similarly, Bhirkot, Gahraukot, Khilung, Nuwakot, Satahukot, Sarankot, Dhor, Lamjung, Gorkha Kalika, Salyankot Dhading also have Magar priests from Saru, Baral, Saru, Saru, Pulami, Chumi, Darlami, DudhrRana, Bhusal/Maski, Saru/Rana Magar clan respectively.[34]

The main priests of Kalika, the goddess protecting the kingdoms of Lamjung and Gorkha, were also Bohara Magars. Magars have been in charge of the religious functions linked to the very source of Thakuri power.[16]

Most Magars also follow a form of Tibetan Buddhism, with priests known as Lama Guru, forming the religious hierarchy. Buddhism is an important part of the culture even in the southern districts, where the Magars have developed a syncretic form of religion that combines earlier shamanistic and Buddhist rituals with Hindu traditions.

Animists and shamanism form part of the local belief system; their dhami (the faith healer or a kind of shaman) is called Dangar and their jhankri (another kind of faith healer or shaman) was the traditional spiritual and social leader of the Magars.[35] Magars have an informal cultural institution, called Bhujel, who performs religious activities, organizes social and agriculture-related festivities, brings about reforms in traditions and customs, strengthens social and production system, manages resources, settles cases and disputes and systematizes activities for recreation and social solidarity.[36]

Two Magar children wearing jewelry and items of traditional dress.

Dress and ornaments edit

Men wear kachhad or wrap-on-loincloth, a bhangra, a bhoto or a shirt of vest, and the usual Nepali topi. Women wear the phariya or lunghi, chaubandhi cholo or a closed blouse and the heavy patuka or waistband, and the mujetro or shawl-like garment on the head.

The ornaments are the madwari on the ears, bulaki on the nose and the phuli on the left nostril, the silver coin necklace"[haari]" and the pote (yellow and Green beads) with the tilhari gold cylinder, [jantar], [dhungri], [naugedi], [phul], kuntha, and also raiya in the hand. Magar males do not wear many ornaments, but some are seen to have silver earrings, hanging from their earlobes, called "gokkul". The magar girls wear the amulet or locket necklace, and women of the lower hills and the high-altitude ones wear these made of silver with muga stones embedded in them and kantha. The bangles of silver and glass are also worn on their hands along with the sirbandhi, sirphuli and chandra on their heads. These are large pieces of gold beaten in elongated and circular shapes.

Festivals edit

Maghe Sankranti is considered to be one of the most important annual festivals of the indigenous Magar community. In fact, Maghe Sankranti is the government declared national festival of the Magar community as well as the Tharu community (2009 AD). It is celebrated on the first day of Magh (tenth month of the Nepali calendar, in mid-January), a time that marks the transition from winter to spring. According to the Magar terminology, Maghe Sakranti commemorates the end of udheli (literally 'down'), which is a period that lasts for six months starting from mid-July, and the initiation of ubheli ('up'), the period lasting for another six months starting from the mid-January. The down and up periods probably correspond to the annual cycle of herding livestock up and down from high pastures, a historically important economic activity of the Magars. The occasion is celebrated with a host of gatherings and special invitations to chelibetis, one's daughters and other female members of the family. Traditional Magar songs and dances are also performed. One of the most prominent food items prepared on this day (or any other celebratory occasion) is known as batuk (commonly known as 'bara'). It is considered to be a traditional food of the Magar people. Shaped like western doughnuts, it is made from black lentils that have been soaked for over twenty-four hours and are grounded to form a thick paste. It is then mixed with salt, pepper and turmeric and fried in oil. A perfect round shape is formed with the help of the palm, and a small distinct hole is made in the center.

Other major festivals of the Magar community are Bhume Puja, Chandi Purnima, Baisakhe Purnima, Mangsir Purnima, Jestha Purnima. Bhume Puja (worshipping the nature) is immensely celebrated in the Athara Magarat regions (Confederation of eighteen Magar Kingdoms), especially in Rukum, Rolpa and Pyuthan districts.

Magar people celebrates major festival like "Chhaigo" as Lhosar which is considered as the New Year for Magar community according to the Naagchi Sambat. Magar people also observe festivals like Chaiti, Rungma, Keja, Yacha etc. These festivals are based on the Tibetan Buddhism and the Bon culture.

Folk songs and dances edit

Magars have contributed phenomenally in Nepali folk songs and dances. Both men and women take part in folk songs and dances.

One of the most well-known Magar folk-dances is the Maruni dance during Tihar festival.[citation needed] In this dance, the main dancer wears a woman's dress, has someone to mimic her dance and one person to beat a Madal or Rani Madal. This dance is believed to be of divine origin and is directly linked with mythology. The role of the person beating the Madal is considered to be the most important, and even the one who mimics the main dancer is actually considered to be the protectors of the dancer. He wears a mask, entertains the crowd by his own gestures etc. The wearing of the dress by the dance is given a ritualistic position, as the dancer's dress, are elaborately laid along with flowers, rice etc. on a brass plate or a winnower. The dance begins with the worship of Madal, the dress, and other ornaments to be used by the dancer, followed by obeisance to all gods and goddesses like Saraswati, Ram, Sita. The dance ends with blessings to the family that has offered alms to the dancing group and brings the end to the dance ritualistically.

Another is Kauda, also known as Chudkha or Kanraha. Chudkha is a folk musical performance indigenous to the hilly regions of Nepal. Kauda was originated in the Magar community of Rising Ranipokhari, Tanahun. According to historians, it was originally called Kandraha dance. Although associated with its distinctive costume, musical instruments and prosody, some have expressed concern that Kaura is losing its authenticity due to perversions introduced by commercialization and external influence, while others have been more optimistic deeming the changes a natural part of the cultural evolution and increasing popularity.[37]

The other major dances and songs originated from Magar community are Ghatu (Originated from the Gurung), Jhorra, Yanimaya, Sunimaya, Salaijo, Rung, Hurra , Bon Lama Nach and many more.

General Abhiman Singh Rana Magar

Occupations edit

Kaji Biraj Thapa Magar, 1st Army Chief of Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha

Agriculture and the military are the primary sources of income. Magars constitute the largest number of Gurkha soldiers outside Nepal.[38][39] Sarbajit Rana Magar became the head of government during the regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi.[40] Biraj Thapa Magar winner of limbuwan, General Abhiman Singh Rana Magar and Sarbajit Rana Magar headed the Nepal army. Biraj Thapa Magar was the very first army chief in Nepal Army's history.[41]

Dor Bahadur Bista's observation of Magar's occupation during the 1960s was:

Some of the northernmost Magars have become quite prosperous by engaging in long-range trading that takes them from near the northern border to the Terai, and even beyond to Darjeeling and Calcutta. Were it not for their role in the Gurkha regiments of the Indian and British armies, their self-sufficiency might be endangered.[42]

Toni Hagen, who did his field research in Nepal during the 1950s, observed:

Magars possess considerable skill as craftsmen: they are the bridge builders and blacksmiths among the Nepalese, and the primitive mining is largely in their hands. On the lower courses of the Bheri & Karnali rivers, a great number of Magars annually migrate to the Terai & there manufacture bamboo panniers, baskets, and mats for sale in the bazaars along the borders. In their most northerly settlement, on the other hand, the important trading centre of Tarakot on the Barbung river, they have largely adopted their way of life, their clothes, and their religion to that of the Tibetans; like the latter, they also live by the salt trade. As regard race, the Magars have almond-shaped eyes or even open eyes, whereas Mongoloid eyes are very rare.[43]

Military service edit

Lakhan Thapa Magar

A number of Magars have distinguished themselves in military service under Nepali, British and Indian military. During Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16), the Magar Unit/Paltan of Nepali Army, Purano Gorakh Battalion,[44] valiantly fought the Battle of Nalapani. Brigadier General Sher Jung Thapa received Mahavir Chakra and Lieutenant Colonel Dhan Singh Thapa won Paramvir Chakra, the highest gallantry award, while serving Indian Army. Similarly, Dipprasad Pun, a Nepalese Sergeant of the Royal Gurkha Rifles (British Army), was the first Nepali winner of the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross in Afghanistan in 2010. In the two world wars, a total of five Victoria Cross (out of 13 VCs awarded to Gurkhas) were awarded to the Magars:[45]

  • First World War:
    • Rifleman Kulbir Thapa was the first Gurkha to win VC in recognition of his valor and bravery. He was from Gulmi, Bharse. He served in 2/3 Gurkha Regiment (GR). He received VC in France in 1915.
    • Rifleman Karanbahadur Rana, Gulmi was from 2/3 GR. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for valour on 10 Apr 1917 at El Kafr in Palestine.
  • Second World War:

Politics edit

Magars since the formation of Nepali state had been in a very influential role in the Nepali government until the Kot Massacre. During the time of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and thereafter, Magars were one of the six courtiers of Kings. Nepali military historian Brigadier General (retired) Dr Prem Singh Basnyat also confirm the high government positions held by the Magars notably Biraj Thapa, Kaji Bandhu Rana,[47] Sarbajeet Rana and Abhiman Singh Rana. During the Rana Dynasty, Magars almost had nil representation in any government positions, which can be considered the darkest time.

Under the leadership of minister Giri Prasad Burathoki, a first ever Magar Convention was held in Bharse of Gulmi District, one of the 12 Magarats in 1957. The objective of the conference was to sensitize the Magars to come forward in the national spectrum.[48] Later Magar political and social organisations included Nepal Langhali Pariwar (1972), Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sang, and Langhali Pariwar Sangh.

Nepal Magar Association is an un-biased and non-profit organization of Magar indigenous people. It is a common representative organization of all the Magar indigenous people of Nepal and is committed to the preservation and promotion of Magar language and culture; the upliftment of the social-economic and the overall educational condition of the Magar people.[49]

Notable Magars edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ As per Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, Sadhu Ram Upadhyaya was a Brahmin belonging to the family of hereditary Purohits (royal priests) of Kingdom of Palpa.[18]

References edit

  1. ^ National Statistics Office (2021). National Population and Housing Census 2021, Caste/Ethnicity Report. Government of Nepal (Report).
  2. ^ "Magar, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  3. ^ "The Eastern Magar of Nepal". Archived from the original on 2007-03-18. Retrieved 2007-09-12. Note: In Nepal 788,530 are Magar speakers.
  4. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics (2014). Population monograph of Nepal (PDF) (Report). Vol. II. Government of Nepal.
  5. ^ National Statistics Office (2021). National Population and Housing Census 2021, Caste/Ethnicity Report. Government of Nepal (Report).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Bishop's College Press. 1895.
  7. ^ Vaidya, Tulasī Rāma; Mānandhara, Triratna; Joshi, Shankar Lal (1993). Social history of Nepal. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-8170417996.
  8. ^ Dharam Vir (1988). Education and Polity in Nepal: An Asian Experiment. Northern Book Centre. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-8185119397.
  9. ^ Eden Vansittart. 1993 (reprint). The Gurkhas. New Delhi:Anmol Publications. p. 21.
  10. ^ Pant and Sharma, The Two Earliest Copperplate Inscriptions from Nepal. p. 6
  11. ^ Northey, W. Brook & C. J. Morris. 1927. The Gurkhas Their Manners, Customs and Country. Delhi : Cosmo Publications. (122–125)
  12. ^ Brian Hodgson and Captain T Smith also give this information. Eden Vansittart. 1993 reprint. The Gurkhas. p. 84.
  13. ^ Devkota, Yadav.2076 BS. Itihas: Bahra Magaratmaa Shahi Katak.
  14. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. People of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. p. 62.
  15. ^ Devkota, Yadav. 2076/05/28 BS. ibid.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lecomte-Tilouine, Marie. "The Enigmatic Pig: On Magar Participation in the State Rituals of Nepal, pp. 81–120 in M. Lecomte-Tilouine: Hindu Kingship, Ethnic Revival and Maoist Rebellion in Nepal. Delhi: Oxford University Press, "Collected Essays", 2009, 294 p." Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ Beine, Dave (2013-08-25). "An Investigative Look at Healthcare Beliefs and Practices During the Sen Dynasty". Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 6: 61–74. doi:10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8479.
  18. ^ Hamilton 1819, p. 4.
  19. ^ Hamilton 1819, p. 26.
  20. ^ Hamilton 1819, p. 240.
  21. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajyako Aitihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: T.U.
  22. ^ Dr Swami Prapannacharya. (1994–95) Ancient Kirant History. Varanasi: Kirateshwar Prakashan. p. 518.
  23. ^ Hark Gurung, Iman Singh Chemjong, B.K. Rana, Prof. Raja Ram Subedi, Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi etc. support the conclusion of Aramudi being the king of Kali Gandaki Region.
  24. ^ Mahesh Chaudhary. 2007. "Nepalko Terai tatha Yeska Bhumiputraharu". p. 9
  25. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. Op. cit.
  26. ^ a b Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521804707.
  27. ^ Devkota. ibid.
  28. ^ Pradhan, Kumar. Ek Prahar. p. 6
  29. ^ Devkota. ibid.
  30. ^ Ghimire, Bishnu Prasad. Palpa Rajyako Itihas. Part 2. p. 15
  31. ^ 2011 Nepal Census, District Level Detail Report
  32. ^ Chemjong, Imanshing (2014-04-15). Kirat History and Culture. Amar Nembang.
  33. ^ a b c Singh, Nagendra Kr (1997). Nepal: Refugee to Ruler : a Militant Race of Nepal. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-8170248477.
  34. ^ Devkota, ibid.
  35. ^ 1996:66
  36. ^ . 1996. "Bheja as a Cultural Strategic Cultural Convention. Community Resource Management in the Barha Maagarat." Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 5, Tribhuvan University.
  37. ^ Ghartimagar, Manoj. "Kaura losing authenticity with time". My City. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  38. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. People of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. p. 664.
  39. ^ Eden Vansittart. 1993 (Reprint). The Gurkhas. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. p. 67.
  40. ^ Rishikesh Shaha. 1975. p. 32.
  41. ^ Army Chiefs' Historical Record. Army Museum. Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  42. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. p. 64.
  43. ^ Tony Hagen. 1970. Nepal the Kingdom in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. p. 84.
  44. ^ Pant, Mahesh Raj (1978). "The Battle of Nalapani" Regmi Research Series. Kathmandu. 10 (11, 12): 167–70, 187–94. ISSN 0034-348X.
  45. ^ Y.M. Bammi. 2009. Gorkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors. p. 93.
  46. ^ Pradeep Thapa Magar. 2000. Veer Haruka pani Veer Mahaveer. p. 9.
  47. ^ "'एकीकरणपछि लिम्बूहरूलाई फकाउन गोर्खाली भारदारले मीत लगाए'".
  48. ^ B. K. Rana – Sanchhipta Magar Itihas 2003 – p. 82
  49. ^ "Nepal Magar Association – ichcap online community". Archived from the original on 2020-02-04. Retrieved 2020-02-04.

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